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Abaújvár is a village in northeastern Hungary, next to the Slovak border.
Abdank is a Polish coat of arms.
Adalbert of Pomerania (Adalbert or Albert von Pommern, Wojciech I) (born before 1124; died 1162) was the first bishop of the 12th century Pomeranian bishopric, with its see in Wolin (also Jumne, Julin).
Adalbert of Prague (Adalbertus / Wojciech Sławnikowic); 95623 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch (Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but the authorship has not confirmed. St. Adalbert (or St.
Adam Galos (22 July 1924 – 11 April 2013) was a Polish historian and professor at University of Wrocław.
Adelaide of Hungary (– 27 January 1062) was the only daughter of King Andrew I of Hungary of the Árpád dynasty and Anastasia of Kiev.
Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.
Not to be confused with Agnes of Brandenburg Agnes of Babenberg (Agnes von Babenberg, Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.
Agnes of Poland (Agnieszka Bolesławówna, Агнешка Болеславовна; b. 1137 - d. aft. 1182), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by marriage Princess of Pereyaslavl and Volynia and Grand Princess of Kiev since 1168.
Aleksander Lesser (13 May 1814 – 13 March 1884) was a Polish painter, illustrator, sketch artist, art critic, and amateur researcher of antiquities who was of Jewish descent.
Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located south of Leipzig, west of Dresden and east of Erfurt.
Anastasia of Kiev (1023 – 1074/1096) was Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew the White.
Andrew I the White or the Catholic (I.; c. 1015 – Zirc, before 6 December 1060) was King of Hungary from 1046 to 1060.
Antiques restoration is restoring an antique or work of art to a like-new condition, or preserving an antique or work of art against further deterioration as in conservation.
The Archbishop of Kraków is the head of the archdiocese of Kraków.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
The Árpáds or Arpads (Árpádok, Arpadovići, translit, Arpádovci, Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301.
Łabędź (Polish for "Swan") is a Polish coat of arms.
Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca; Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca; לונטשיץ) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland.
The Łeba, a river in Middle Pomerania (Poland), originates near the village of Borzestowo west of Kartuzy, passes through Łebsko Lake and empties into the Baltic Sea.
The Łowczy ("Master of the Hunt") was a Polish royal court officer from the 13th century with responsibility for organizing hunts and guarding royal forests against poachers.
Łysa Góra (Bald Mountain; also known as Łysiec or Święty Krzyż) is a well-known hill in Świętokrzyskie Mountains, Poland.
Żarnowiec (Ifflandsrode) is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Dopiewo, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Žatec (Saaz) is a historic town in Louny District, Ústí nad Labem Region, in the Czech Republic.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was allegedly fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland.
Béla the Blind (Vak Béla; Bela Slijepi; Belo Slepý; 1109 – 13 February 1141) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1131.
Białogard (Belgard; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Biôłogard) is a town in Middle Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 24,399 inhabitants (2004).
The Bishopric of Cammin (also Kammin, Kamień Pomorski) was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, and a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) area from 1248 to 1650.
Bořivoj II (also Borivoj or Borivoi) (c. 1064 – 2 February 1124) was the Duke of Bohemia from 25 December 1100 until May 1107 and from December 1117 until 16 August 1120.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bolesław II the Generous, also known as the Bold and the Cruel (Bolesław II Szczodry; Śmiały; Okrutny; c. 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082), was Duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076 and third King of Poland from 1076 to 1079.
Bolesław IV the Curly (ca. 1125 – 5 January 1173) of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.
Boris (Borisz; 1114 1154), also known as Boris Kalamanos (Βορίσης Καλαμάνος, Борис Коломанович) was a claimant to the Hungarian throne in the middle of the.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age (including the Vendel era in Sweden).
Bratislava Castle (Bratislavský hrad,, Pressburger Schloss, Pozsonyi Vár) is the main castle of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.
Bretislav I (Břetislav I.; 1002/1005–10 January 1055), known as the "Bohemian Achilles", of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1035 until his death.
Bretislaus II (c. 1060 – 22 December 1100) was the Duke of Bohemia from 14 September 1092 until his death.
Brzeg is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pęczniew, within Poddębice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Ex commisso nobis, more commonly known as the Bull of Gniezno, was a papal bull issued on July 7, 1136 by Pope Innocent II.
A bulla (from Latin ''bulla'', "bubble, blob", plural bullae) is an inscribed clay or soft metal (such as lead or tin) or bitumen or wax token used in commercial and legal documentation as a form of identification and for tamper-proofing whatever is attached to it (or, in the historical form, contained in it).
Bytom Odrzański (Beuthen an der Oder) is a town on the Oder river in western Poland, in Nowa Sól County of Lubusz Voivodeship.
The calends or kalends (kalendae) is the first day of every month in the Roman calendar.
Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.
Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
Casimir II the Just (Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy; 1138 – 5 May 1194) was a Lesser Polish Duke at Wiślica during 1166–1173, and at Sandomierz after 1173.
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128 (Duchy of Pomerania), and in 1168 by Absalon (Principality of Rügen).
Circipania (Circipanien, Zirzipanien) was a medieval territory in what is now northeastern Germany.
A club (also known as a cudgel, baton, truncheon, cosh, nightstick, beating stick, or bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times.
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of helmet, a piece of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat.
Cosmas of Prague (Kosmas Pražský; Cosmas Decanus; – October 21, 1125) was a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia.
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
A curia is an official body that governs a particular Church in Roman Catholicism.
Czarnków (Scharnikau, before 1939: Czarnikau) is a town in Poland in Czarnków-Trzcianka County in Greater Poland Voivodeship, previously in Piła Voivodeship (1975-1998).
Cześnik was a court office in Poland and Lithuania until the end of the 13th century.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czermno is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Tyszowce, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.
Dagome iudex is one of the earliest historical documents relating to Poland.
Demmin is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dobroniega Ludgarda of Poland (b. before 1136, d. around 1160 or later) was a Polish princess, Margravine of Lusatia by marriage to Theodoric I, Margrave of Lusatia.
The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical Polish province established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
The Duchy of Masovia was a medieval duchy formed when the Polish Kingdom of the Piasts fragmented in 1138.
The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).
The Duchy of Sandomierz (Latin: Ducatus Sandomirensis, Polish: Księstwo sandomierskie) was one of the territories created during the period of the fragmentation of Poland (early 12th century).
The Duchy of Silesia (Księstwo śląskie, Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland.
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka (Glatzer Neiße, Kladská Nisa), is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km (21st longest) and a basin area of 4,570 km² (3,742 in Poland).
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
Elizabeth of Hungary (Erzsébet magyar hercegnő, Elżbieta węgierska; – 21 July 1154), was a Hungarian princess member of the House of Árpád and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland.
Emnilda (Emnilda słowiańska; – 1017), was a Slavic princess and Duchess of the Polans from 992 by her marriage with the Piast ruler Bolesław I the Brave.
Eric II the Memorable (Erik II Emune) (– 18 September 1137) was king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Ezzo (– 21 March 1034), sometimes called Ehrenfried, a member of the Ezzonid dynasty, was Count Palatine of Lotharingia from 1015 until his death.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Gallus Anonymus (Polonized variant: Gall Anonim) is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles), composed in Latin about 1115.
Gartz is a town in the Uckermark district in Brandenburg, Germany.
A gastald (Latin gastaldus or castaldus, Italian gastaldo or guastaldo) was a Lombard official in charge of some portion of the royal demesne (a gastaldate, gastaldia or castaldia) with civil, martial, and judicial powers.
Géza II (II.; Gejza II; Gejza II; 113031 May 1162) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162.
Gützkow is a town in the District of Vorpommern-Greifswald in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Głębokie is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kiszkowo, within Gniezno County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
For the medieval duchy, see Pomeranian duchies and dukes Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie) or Eastern Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Wschodnie; Kashubian: Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô) is a geographical region in northern Poland covering the eastern part of Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Gerard Labuda (Gerard Labùda; 28 December 1916 – 1 October 2010) was a Polish historian whose main fields of interest were the Middle Ages and the Western Slavs.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gilles de Paris (died ca. 1139–1142) was a Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum from 1123 until 1139.
Gmina Pęczniew is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Poddębice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
The Royal Gniezno Cathedral (The Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert, Bazylika Archikatedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Marii Panny i św.) is a Brick Gothic cathedral located in the historical city of Gniezno that served as the coronation place for several Polish monarchs and as the seat of Polish church officials continuously for nearly 1000 years.
A golden bull or chrysobull was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors.
Gopło is a lake in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-central Poland, near the city of Gniezno.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Grand Prince of Kiev (sometimes Grand Duke of Kiev) was the title of the Kievan prince and the ruler of Kievan Rus' from the 10th to 13th centuries.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Gryfice (Kashubian: Grëfice), formerly known as Greifenberg,".
The grzywna (from Polish) was a measure of weight, mainly for silver, commonly used throughout medieval central and eastern Europe, particularly in the Kingdom of Poland and Kingdom of Bohemia (hřivna).
The Gwda (Küddow) is a river in Poland, a tributary of the Noteć.
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry of Sandomierz (Henryk Sandomierski) (ca. 1131 – 18 October 1166) was a Duke of Sandomierz since 1138 (titulary) or 1146 (formally) until his death.
Henry of Schweinfurt (de Suinvorde; – 18 September 1017) was the Margrave of the Nordgau from 994 until 1004.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henryk Łowmiański (August 22, 1898 near Ukmergė - September 4, 1984 in Poznań) was a Polish historian of the medieval period.
Heymo was a medieval Bishop of Wrocław, Poland from 1120-1126.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Griffins or House of Pomerania (Greifen; Gryfici), also known as House of Greifen, was a dynasty of dukes ruling the Duchy of Pomerania from the 12th century until 1637.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, also known as Irene, Anna and St.
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, "dress" from vestis "robe"), is the formal installation of an incumbent.
An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on, invoke, to give") may take the form of.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jerzy Kłoczowski (29 December 1924, Bogdany, Poland – 2 December 2017) was a Polish historian, professor at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, and former member of the Polish Senate.
Jerzy Topolski (1928–1998) was a Polish historian.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judith of Bohemia (c. 1056/58 – 25 December 1086), also known as Judith Přemyslid, was a Bohemian princess of the Přemyslid dynasty, and Duchess of Poland by marriage.
Judith of Poland (Judyta Bolesławówna, Judit lengyel hercegnő, Judith von Polen; b. 1130/35 – died 8 July 1171/75), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by marriage Margravine of Brandenburg.
Judith of Schweinfurt (Jitka ze Schweinfurtu; before 1003 – 2 August 1058) was Duchess consort of Bohemia from 1034 until 1055, by her marriage with the Přemyslid duke Bretislav I.Herwig Wolfram, Conrad II, 990-1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms, transl.
Judith of Swabia (Sváb Judit, Judyta Szwabska; Summer 1054 – 14 March ca. 1105?), a member of the Salian dynasty, was the youngest daughter of Emperor Henry III from his second marriage with Agnes of Poitou.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Kamień Pomorski (Cammin or Kammin; Kamién) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of north-western Poland, on the Baltic coast.
Kłodkowo (formerly German Klätkow) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Trzebiatów, within Gryfice County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.
Kłodzko (Kladsko; Glatz; Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia.
The Kessinians, also known as Kessini, Chizzini, Kcynianie and Chyżanie, were a medieval West Slavic tribe in what is now northeastern Germany.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Koźle (Cosel) is a district of Kędzierzyn-Koźle (since 1975), Poland and is at the junction of the Kłodnica and Oder rivers, km southeast of Opole.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kruszwica (Kruschwitz) is a town in central Poland and is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Kungälv is a city and the seat of Kungälv Municipality in Västra Götaland County, Sweden.
Kurów is a village in south-eastern Poland, located in the historic province of Lesser Poland, between Puławy and Lublin, on the Kurówka River.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Kyra T. Inachin (19 May 1968 – 10 January 2012) was a German historian.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lebus (Lubusz) is a historic town in the Märkisch-Oderland District of Brandenburg, Germany.
Saint Leopold III (Luitpold, 1073 – 15 November 1136), known as Leopold the Good, was the Margrave of Austria from 1095 to his death in 1136.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Lubiń (Lubin) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzywiń, within Kościan County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lubusz Land (Ziemia Lubuska, Lubusz; Land Lebus) is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Magnus I (Magnus Nilsson; Magnus NielsenBricka, Carl Frederik, Dansk Biografisk Lexikon, vol. XI, 1897, pp.45.) (born about 1106, died 4 June 1134 in the Battle of Fotevik), was a Danish duke who ruled Gothenland in southern Sweden from the 1120s to c. 1132.
Malusha Malkovna (Old Ruthenian: Малушa.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Marcin Bielski (or Wolski; 1495 – 18 December 1575) was a Polish soldier, historian, chronicler, renaissance satirical poet, writer and translator.
Marcin Kromer (Latin: Martinus Cromerus; 11 November 1512 – 23 March 1589) was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), a Polish cartographer, diplomat and historian in the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Maria Dobroniega of Kiev (b. aft. 1012 – d. 13 December 1087), was a Kievian Rus princess of the Rurikid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Poland.
Marian Plezia (b. 1917 in Kraków, d. 1996) was a Polish historian.
Martin or Martin of Gniezno (died after 1112) was a medieval prelate based in Principality of Poland.
The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.
Matilda of Germany or Matilde of Saxony (Summer 979 - November 1025, Echtz) was the third daughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Empress Theophanu.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
In medieval and early modern Germany, the Münzmeister ("mint master", the Latin term is monetarius) was the director or administrator of a mint, a moneyer with responsibility for the minting of coins, or specie.
The (from Slavic "little sea") is a lake in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, northern Germany.
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx.
Michał Awdaniec (c. late 11th century - early 12th century) was a chancellor to king Bolesław III Wrymouth of the Kingdom of Poland around the years 1112-1113.
Miecznik was a court office in Poland.
Mieszko Bolesławowic (c. 1069–1089) was the only son of Bolesław II the Bold, King of Poland.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Mieszko II Lambert (c. 990 – 10/11 May 1034) was King of Poland from 1025–1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death.
Mieszko III the Old (Mieszko III Stary) (c. 1126/27 – 13 March 1202), of the royal Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1138 and High Duke of Poland, with interruptions, from 1173 until his death.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Mstislav II Izyaslavich (Мстислав Ізяславич; Мстислав Изяславич) (died 19 August 1170) was the Kniaz' (Prince) of Pereyaslav, Volodymyr-Volynsky and Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Prince) of Kiev (1167–1169, 1170).
Murom (p; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River.
Nakło nad Notecią (Nakel) is a town in northern Poland on the river Noteć (Netze) with 23,687 inhabitants (2007).
Niekładź (formerly German Neklatz) is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Gryfice, within Gryfice County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northwestern Poland.
Niels (Nicolaus, Engish exonym Nicholas; – 25 June 1134) was the King of Denmark from 1104 to 1134.
Niemcza (Nimptsch) is a town in Dzierżoniów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Saint Norbert of Xanten (c. 1080 – 6 June 1134) (Xanten-Magdeburg), also known as Norbert Gennep, was a bishop of the Catholic Church, founder of the Premonstratensian order of canons regular, and is venerated as a saint.
The Northern March or North March (Nordmark) was created out of the division of the vast Marca Geronis in 965.
Noteć is a river in central Poland with a length of (7th longest) and a basin area of.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
Oldřich (Odalricus, Udalrichus, Odalric, Udalrich; – 9 November 1034), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1012 to 1033 and briefly again in 1034.
The opole (vicinia) is a historical unit of administration in Poland.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Ostrów Tumski (Polish pronunciation:, meaning "Cathedral Island"; German Dom Insel) is an island between two branches of the river Warta in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Oswald Marian Balzer (1858–1933) was a Polish historian of law and statehood, one of the most renowned Polish historians of his times.
Otto I (c. 1128 – July 8, 1184) was the second Margrave of Brandenburg, from 1170 until his death.
Otto II the Black (Ota II.; – 18 February 1126), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, ruled as a Moravian prince in Olomouc from 1107 and in Brno from 1123 until his death.
Saint Otto of Bamberg (Otto von Bamberg, Otton z Bambergu; 1060 or 1061 – 30 June 1139) was Bishop of Bamberg and a missionary who, as papal legate, converted much of medieval Pomerania to Christianity.
A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paweł Jasienica was the pen name of Leon Lech Beynar (10 November 1909 – 19 August 1970), a Polish historian, journalist, essayist and soldier.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
Płock Cathedral, or the Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Masovia, in Płock, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Poland, an example of Romanesque architecture.
Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Перея́слав-Хмельни́цький, translit. Pereyáslav-Khmel′nýts′kyi; also referred to as Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy) is an ancient city in the Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine, located on the confluence of Alta and Trubizh rivers some south of the nation's capital Kiev.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 333 kilometres (8th longest) and a basin area of 9,258 km2 (all in Poland).
Herb ŁabędźPiotr Włostowic (1080 – 1153), also known as Peter Wlast or Włost) was a Polish noble, castellan of Wrocław, and a ruler (możnowładca) of part of Silesia. From 1117 he was voivode (palatyn) of the king of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth. Part of the Łabędzie family, and son of Włostowic, he is likely to have been related to older princes of Silesia. His lands included the territories near Mount Ślęża and Piasek Island near Wrocław. The Dunin clan of noble families claims descent from him. His most famous deed is the capture of Volodar (Wołodar) of Peremyshl (Przemyśl). Later he married Maria, a daughter of Sviatopolk II of Kiev. For this marriage and his adventure in Rus', he was ordered by the Church to reconcile. He was ordered to construct seventy churches. Włostowic, a loyal subject of Bolesław III, had much more negative relations with Bolesław's son, Władysław II the Exile, and especially his wife, Agnes of Babenberg, who considered Włostowic a traitor. In 1146, Włostowic was captured by Władysław, blinded and muted. This mutilation of the popular Włostowic was one of the reasons for a civil war between Władysław and his brothers, as the blinded Włostowic went to Rus', which had so far supported Władysław, and convinced them to break their alliance. Eventually Władysław lost the war and went into exile in 1146. Włostowic regained his position and estates, but his disability and worsening health prevented him from taking further active part in politics, and he died in 1153.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Plötzkau is a municipality in the district of Salzlandkreis, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Pomeranians (Pomoranen; Pòmòrzónie; Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia).
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
Pospolite ruszenie (lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", motio belli, the French term levée en masse is also used) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The Poznań Society of Friends of Learning (Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, PTPN) is a learned society in Poznań, Poland, established in 1857, of scholars and scientists in all branches of learning.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Álmos (Slovak, Almoš; 1070 or 1075, – 1 September 1127 or possibly in 1129) was a Hungarian prince, the son of King Géza I of Hungary and brother of King Coloman.
The Prince of Novgorod (Князь новгородский, knyaz novgorodskii) was the chief executive of Novgorod the Great.
The Princes of Polotsk ruled the Principality of Polotsk within the realm of Kievan Rus or within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the mid ninth century to 1307.
The Prince of Turov was the kniaz, the ruler or sub-ruler, of the Rus' Principality of Turov, a lordship based on the city of Turov, now Turaŭ in Homiel Voblast, Belarus.
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person".
The Principality of Peremyshl was a medieval petty principality centred on Peremyshl (now Przemyśl, Poland) in the Cherven lands ("Red Rus'").
The Principality of Rügen (Fürstentum Rügen) was a Danish principality consisting of the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 1168 until 1325.
Principality of Terebovlia (Теребовлянське князівство) was a Kievan Rus principality established as an appanage principality ca 1084 and was given to Vasylko Rostyslavych (his brothers, Volodar Rostislavich and Rurik Rostislavich, ruled Peremyshl (Przemyśl) and Zvenyhorod respectively).
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
A provost is a senior official in a number of Christian churches.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Puławy is a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province of northern Lesser Poland, located at the confluence of the Wisła and Kurówka rivers.
Pyrzyce (Pyritz, Kashubian: Përzëca), is a town in Pomerania, north-western Poland, with 13,331 inhabitants (2007).
Quedlinburg is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
The Rani or Rujani (Ranen, Rujanen) were a West Slavic tribe based on the island of Rugia (Rügen) and the southwestern mainland across the Strelasund in what is today northeastern Germany.
Ratibor I (Racibor) (1124 – 1156) of the House of Pomerania (Griffins) was Duke of Pomerania.
Rügen (also lat. Rugia; Ruegen) is Germany's largest island by area.
Richeza of Berg (Richenza z Bergu; – 27 September 1125) was Duchess of Bohemia from 1111 to 1117 and again from 1120 until 1125, by her marriage with the Přemyslid duke Vladislav I. She was the daughter of the Swabian count Henry I of Berg (d. 1116) and his wife Adelheid of Mochental (d. 1127), a daughter of the Bavarian margrave Diepold II of Vohburg.
Richeza of Lotharingia (also called Richenza, Rixa, Ryksa; born about 995/1000 – 21 March 1063) was a German noblewoman by birth, a member of the Ezzonen dynasty.
Richeza of Poland (Ryksa Bolesławówna, Rikissa Burislevsdotter; 12 April 1116 – after 25 December 1156), a member of the House of Piast, was queen of Sweden and princess of Minsk through her three marriages.
The Archdiocese of Gniezno (Archidioecesis Gnesnensis, Archidiecezja Gnieźnieńska) is the oldest Latin Catholic archdiocese in Poland, located in the city of Gniezno.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Włocławek Vladislavien(sis), until the 20th century known as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kujawy, is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno in western Poland.
Roman Grodecki (21 April 1889 in Rzeszów – 17 April 1964 in Kraków) was a Polish economic historian, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and a member of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Roskilde, located west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saint Giles (Aegidius; Gilles; 650 AD – 710), also known as Giles the Hermit, was a Greek, Christian, hermit saint from Athens, whose legend is centered in Provence and Septimania.
Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.
Saint-Gilles or Saint-Gilles-du-Gard is a commune in the Gard department in southern France.
The Sajó (Hungarian) or Slaná (Slovak) is a river in Slovakia and Hungary.
Salomea of Berg (Salome von Berg, Salomea z Bergu; – 27 July 1144) was a German noblewoman and, by marriage with Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1115, High Duchess of Poland until her husband's death in 1138.
Samuel Orgelbrand (1810–1868) was one of the most prominent Polish-Jewish printers, booksellers, and publishers of the 19th century.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
Sanok (in full the Royal Free City of Sanok - Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok, Cянік Sianik, Sanocum, סאניק, Sonik) is a town in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland with 38,397 inhabitants, as of June 2016.
Santok (Zantoch) is a village in Gorzów County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Słupsk (Stolp; also known by several alternative names) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, with a population of 98,757.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province (Dzielnica senioralna), Duchy of Kraków (Księstwo krakowskie), Duchy of Cracow, Principality of Cracow, Principality of Kraków, was the superior among the five provinces established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
Sieciech (AD 11th century – after AD 1100) was a medieval Polish magnate and statesman.
Sieciechów is a village in Kozienice County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Sierpc (Sichelberg) is a town in Poland, in the north-west part of the Masovian Voivodeship, about 125 km northwest of Warsaw.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Skarbimir of the Clan Awdaniec (died before 1132) was a Medieval Polish magnate, tutor, advisor and count palatine of Polish monarch Bolesław III Wrymouth.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone, clay, or lead "sling-bullet".
Soběslav I (also "Sobeslaus"; c.1075 – 14 February 1140) was Duke of Bohemia from 1125 until his death.
Sochaczew is a city in central Poland, with 38,300 inhabitants (2004).
Solomon, also Salomon (Salamon; 1053 – 1087) was King of Hungary from 1063.
Somogyvár (Šemudvar) is a village in Somogy County, Hungary.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Spycimierz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Uniejów, within Poddębice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.
Stanisław Kętrzyński (10 September 1878 in Lwów, Austrian Empire – 26 May 1950 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish historian and diplomat.
Stargard (Stargard in Pommern; Stôrgard) is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017 (2005).
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
Stephen II (II István; Stjepan II; Štefan II; 1101 – early 1131), King of Hungary and Croatia, ruled from 1116 until 1131.
Stolnik was a court office in Poland and Russia, responsible for serving the royal table, then an honorary court title and a district office.
Svatopluk the Lion (Svatopluk Olomoucký; died 21 September 1109) was Duke of Bohemia from 1107 until his assassination in 1109.
Sverker I or Sverker the Elder (Old Swedish: Swærkir konongær gambli), murdered 25 December 1156, was King of Sweden from about 1132 till his death.
Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich (1050 – April 16, 1113) was supreme ruler of the Kievan Rus for 20 years, from 1093 to 1113.
Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson) (c. 942 – 26 March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav was a Grand prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swietopelk I (also referred to as Swantopolk I), (born around 1080, died before 1148) sometimes called "Swietopelk of Nakło" (Polish: Świętopełk Nakielski) to distinguish him from other rulers of the same name, was one of the first known Dukes of Pomerania; in the years 1109/13 to 1121 he ruled over Pomerelia.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár ("white castle") (located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country; regional capital of Central Transdanubia; and the centre of Fejér county and Székesfehérvár District. The area is an important rail and road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence. Székesfehérvár, a royal residence (székhely), as capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, held a central role in the Middle Ages. As required by the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Significant trade routes led to the Balkans and Italy, and to Buda and Vienna. Historically the city has come under Turkish, German and Russian control and the city is known by translations of "white castle" in these languages: (Stuhlweißenburg; Столни Београд; İstolni Belgrad).
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Tadeusz Manteuffel or Tadeusz Manteuffel-Szoege (1902–1970) was a Polish historian, specializing in the medieval history of Europe.
The last will and testament of the Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, established rules for governance of the Polish kingdom by his four surviving sons after his death.
Theodoric I (Dietrich von Landsberg; – 9 February 1185), a member of the House of Wettin, was Margrave of Lusatia from 1156 until his death.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
Tomasz Jasiński (born 1951) is a Polish historian, dean of the History Department at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań.
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Trzemeszno (Tremessen) is a town in central Poland belonging to the group of the oldest settlements in the region.
Tyniec is a historic village in Poland on the Vistula river, since 1973 a part of the city of Kraków (currently in the district of Dębniki).
Ujście (Usch) is a town in Piła County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 8,134 inhabitants (2011).
Usedom (Usedom, Uznam) is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland.
Usedom (also Stadt Usedom or Usedom Town) is a town on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Vasylko Rostyslavych, Vasilko Rostislavich was a Rus' prince and member of the Rurik dynasty.
Vazul, or also Vászoly, (before 997–1031 or 1032) was a member of the House of Árpád, a grandson of Taksony, Grand Prince of the Hungarians.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Veche (вече, wiec, віче, веча, вѣштє) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries.
Viacheslava of Novgorod (Вячеслава новгородская, Wierzchosława Nowogrodzka; b. ca. 1125 – d. 15 March by 1162?), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the House of Rurik and by marriage Duchess of Masovia and Kuyavia and High Duchess of Poland since 1146.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vladimir II Monomakh (Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Мономахъ, Volodimer Monomakh; Christian name: Vasiliy, or Basileios) (1053 – 19 May 1125) reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vladislaus I (Vladislav) (c. 1065 – 12 April 1125) was Duke of Bohemia from 1109 to 1117 and from 1120 until his death.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Volodar Rostyslavych, Volodar Rostislavich (died 1124) was Prince of Zvenyhorod (1085–92) and Peremyshl' (1092–97).
Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Володимир-Волинський, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Влади́мир-Волы́нский, לודמיר, Lodomeria) is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine.
Volodymyrko Volodarovych (Volodymyrko Volodarevych, Володимирко Володарович) (* 1104 - † 1152) - Galician prince (from 1141, according to others according to -1144), son of Volodar Rostyslavych.
Vratislaus (or Wratislaus) II (Vratislav II.) (d. 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt, was the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085, his royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that did not establish a hereditary monarchy.
Vsevolod II Olgovich (Cyrillic: Всеволод II Ольгович) (died August 1, 1146) was the Prince (Knyaz) of Chernigov (1127–1139) and Grand Prince (Velikiy Knyaz) of Kiev (1139–1146), son of Oleg Svyatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov.
Vsevolod Mstislavich (Всеволод Мстиславич), the patron saint of the city of Pskov, ruled as Prince of Novgorod in 1117–32, Prince of Pereslavl (1132) and Prince of Pskov in 1137–38.
The names Varini (Tacitus), Varinnae (Pliny the Elder), Ούίρουνοι or Viruni (Ptolemy), Varni or Οὐάρνων (Procopius), Wærne/Werne (Widsith) and Warnii (Lex Thuringorum) probably refer to a little-known Germanic tribe.
Wartislaw I (Warcisław I) (around 1091 – died August 9, 1135) was the first historical ruler of the Duchy of Pomerania and the founder of the Griffin dynasty.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
Władysław Czapliński (3 October 1905 in Tuchów – 17 August 1981 in Wrocław) was a Polish historian, a professor of the University of Wrocław, author of many popular books about Polish history.
Władysław I Herman (1044 – 4 June 1102) was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.
Vladislaus II the Exile (Władysław II Wygnaniec) (1105 – 30 May 1159) was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146.
The Wda is a river in Poland.
Wenceslaus II (1137 – after 1192) was the son of Soběslav I and brother of Soběslav II.
Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.
Wiślica is a town in Busko County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
Wieleń (Filehne) is a town in Czarnków-Trzcianka County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland.
Blessed Wincenty Kadłubek (1150 – 8 March 1223) was a Polish Roman Catholic prelate and professed Cistercian who served as the Bishop of Kraków from 1208 until his resignation in 1218.
Wolgast is a town in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Wyszogród (Hohenburg an der Weichsel) is a town in Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, in Płock County, by the Vistula River.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Zbigniew (also known as Zbygniew; ca. 1073 – 8 July 1113?M. Spórna, P. Wierzbicki: Słownik władców Polski i pretendentów do tronu polskiego, p. 501; B. Snoch: Protoplasta książąt śląskich, Katowice, 1985, p. 13,.), was a Prince of Poland (in Greater Poland, Kuyavia and Masovia) during 1102-1107.
Zbyslava of Kiev (Сбыслава Святополковна, Zbysława kijowska; 1085/90 – c. 1114), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the Rurikid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Poland.
Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy „Znak” is one of the largest Polish book publishing companies.
Zwiefalten is a municipality in the district of Reutlingen, located halfway between Stuttgart and Lake Constance.
Boleslaus III Wrymouth, Boleslaus III of Poland, Boleslaus III the Wrymouth, Boleslaus III, Duke of Poland, Boleslaus Wrymouth, Boleslaw III, Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Boleslaw III Wrymouth, Boleslaw III of Poland, Boleslaw III the Wrymouth, Boleslaw Krzywousty, Boleslaw Wrymouth, Boleslaw the Wrymouth, Bolesław III, Bolesław III Krzywousty, Bolesław III the Wrymouth, Bolesław Krzywousty, Bolesław Wrymouth, Krzywousty.