258 relations: A. C. Grayling, Air commodore, Air Force Association, Air Force Historical Research Agency, Air officer commanding, Air raid shelter, Air University (United States Air Force), Airspace, Albert Speer, Albertstadt, Aleksei Antonov, Alexander McKee (author), Ammunition, Angela Merkel, Anthony Trollope, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-Germans (political current), Antifaschistische Aktion, Antony Beevor, Archibald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso, Area bombardment, Armageddon in Retrospect, Associated Press, Auschwitz concentration camp, Avro Lancaster, Axis powers, Ballistic missile, Battle of the Bulge, Böhlen, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Blockbuster bomb, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Bohumil Hrabal, Bombing of Guernica, Bombing of Hamburg in World War II, Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II, Bombing of Tokyo, Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945), Bonn, Brabag, Bundeswehr, Bundeswehr Military History Museum, Carl Zeiss AG, Cause célèbre, Central Council of Jews in Germany, Central European Time, Central Uplands, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, Chemical warfare, ..., Chemnitz, Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom), Chiefs of Staff Committee, Classification yard, Classified information, Closely Watched Trains, Cold War, Colin McKay Grierson, Cologne, Consecration, Coventry, Coventry Blitz, Coventry Cathedral, Czechoslovakia, Das Reich (newspaper), David Irving, De Havilland Mosquito, Defence of the Reich, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Welle, Differential (mechanical device), Division (military), Donald Bloxham, Donald L. Miller, Douglas Evill, Dresden, Dresden (2006 film), Dresden Airport, Dresden Frauenkirche, Dresden Hauptbahnhof, Eastern Front (World War II), Eighth Air Force, Eric Markusen, Essen, European theatre of World War II, Explosive material, Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close, Far-right politics, Field gun, Firestorm, Flamethrower, Fourth Geneva Convention, Frederick Taylor (historian), Freeman Dyson, Friedrichstadt (Dresden), Gas mask, Günter Grass, Gear, Geneva Conventions, George Marshall, George Roy Hill, Gerhard Schröder, German Army (Wehrmacht), German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe, German reunification, Gestapo, Grand Tour, Gregory Stanton, Großer Garten, H-Net, H2X, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hamburg, Handley Page Halifax, Hanover, Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, Heavy bomber, Hermann Göring, Holocaust denial, Horst Köhler, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Incendiary device, Interdiction, International humanitarian law, International Review of the Red Cross, Iron Maiden, Jörg Friedrich (author), Jürgen W. Gansel, Jonathan Safran Foer, Joseph Goebbels, Joseph Stalin, Junkers, Just war theory, Kammhuber Line, Kristallnacht, Kurt Vonnegut, Labour Party (UK), Law of war, Leipzig, Leo Kuper, List of jet aircraft of World War II, List of Royal Air Force groups, Luftwaffe, Magdeburg, Magnesium, Manchester, Martin Luther, Mass murder, Materiel, Max Hastings, Meissen, Member of parliament, Messerschmitt, Messerschmitt Bf 110, Military logistics, Military necessity, Most (Most District), Munich, National Democratic Party of Germany, Nazi Germany, Nazism, New Synagogue, Dresden, No. 1 Group RAF, No. 3 Group RAF, No. 5 Group RAF, No. 6 Group RCAF, No. 8 Group RAF, No. 83 Squadron RAF, Norman Bottomley, North American P-51 Mustang, Nuremberg, Oberkommando des Heeres, Oder, Office of Public Sector Information, Oil campaign of World War II, Operation Bodenplatte, Ostragehege, Otto von Bismarck, Palm Sunday (book), Pathfinder (RAF), Paul Spiegel, PBS, Phrase, Pirna, Plzeň, Pointblank directive, Porcelain, Prague, Prima facie, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Prisoner of war, RAF Bomber Command, Red Army, Refugee, Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Richard Stokes, Riga Ghetto, Robert Ley, Rolling Stone, Royal Air Force, Saxony, Sönke Neitzel, Secretary of State for Air, Semper Synagogue, Semperoper, Sidney Osborne Bufton, Siege of Dresden, Silesia, Silesian Offensives, Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, Slaughterhouse-Five, Slaughterhouse-Five (film), Slogan, Small arms, Somme (river), Star of David, Stockholm, Strafing, Strategic bombing, Strategic bombing during World War II, Submarine pen, Summer Time in Europe, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Target indicator, Taschenbergpalais, The Blitz, The Daily Telegraph, The Destruction of Dresden, The Final Cut (album), The Guardian, The Hero's Return, The New York Times, The Sunday Telegraph, Theresienstadt concentration camp, Thunderclap plan, Time (magazine), Tram, Ultra, United Kingdom, United States, United States Air Force, United States Army Air Forces, Victor Klemperer, Vienna, VIII Fighter Command, War crime, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War II), Wing commander (rank), Winston Churchill, Wrocław, Yalta, Yalta Conference, Zwinger (Dresden), 1945 Bombing of Prague, 2010 Dresden anti-fascist blockade, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41. 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Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
Air commodore (abbreviated as Air Cdre in the RAF, IAF and PAF; AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior general rank of the air-officer which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
The Air Force Association (AFA) is an independent, 501(c)(3) non-profit, professional military and aerospace education association that promotes American aerospace power.
The Air Force Historical Research Agency is the repository for United States Air Force historical documents.
Air officer commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment which typically comprises a large, organized collection of air force assets.
Air raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air.
The Air University (AU), headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, is a key component of the Air Education and Training Command (AETC), and is the U.S. Air Force's center for professional military education (PME).
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
The Albertstadt is a neighborhood of Dresden, Germany.
Aleksei Innokentievich Antonov (Алексе́й Инноке́нтьевич Анто́нов) (9 September 1896 – 16 June 1962) was a General of the Soviet Army, awarded the Order of Victory for his efforts in World War II.
Alexander Paul Charrier McKee OBE (25 July 1918 – 22 July 1992) was a British journalist, military historian, and diver who published nearly thirty books.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Anthony Trollope (24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist of the Victorian era.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-German (Antideutsch) is the generic name applied to a variety of theoretical and political tendencies within the radical left mainly in Germany and Austria.
Antifaschistische Aktion, abbreviated as Antifa, is an anti-fascist network in Germany.
Sir Antony James Beevor, (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian.
Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso, (22 October 1890 – 15 June 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair, Bt, between 1912 and 1952, and often as Archie Sinclair, was a British politician and leader of the Liberal Party.
In military aviation, area bombardment (or area bombing) is a type of aerial bombardment that targeted indiscriminately at a large area, such as a city block or an entire city.
Armageddon in Retrospect is a collection of short stories and essays about war and peace written by Kurt Vonnegut.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
Böhlen is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, south of Leipzig.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
A blockbuster bomb or cookie was any of several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF).
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC).
Bohumil Hrabal (28 March 1914 – 3 February 1997) was a Czech writer, often cited as one of the best Czech writers of the 20th century.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
The allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians.
During the latter stages of World War II, Pforzheim, a town in southwestern Germany, was bombed a number of times.
The often refers to a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II.
On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brabag was a German firm, planned in 1933 and operating from 1934 until 1945, that distilled synthetic aviation fuel, diesel fuel, gasoline, lubricants, and paraffin wax from lignite.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Bundeswehr Military History Museum (Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr (MHMBw)) is the military museum of the German Armed Forces, the Bundeswehr, and one of the major military history museums in Germany.
Carl Zeiss, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.
A cause célèbre (famous case; plural causes célèbres) is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate.
The Central Council of Jews in Germany (German name: Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland) is a federation of German Jews.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central UplandsDickinson (1964), p.18 ff.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, (21 May 1893 – 22 April 1971) was a senior Royal Air Force officer.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board.
The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
A classification yard (American and Canadian English) or marshalling yard (British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English) is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Closely Watched Trains (Ostře sledované vlaky) is a 1966 Czechoslovak film directed by Jiří Menzel and is one of the best-known products of the Czechoslovak New Wave.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Air Commodore Colin McKay Grierson CBE (16 June 1906–1991) was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force during and after World War II.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The Coventry blitz (blitz: from the German word Blitzkrieg meaning "lightning war") was a series of bombing raids that took place on the English city of Coventry.
The Cathedral Church of St Michael, commonly known as Coventry Cathedral, is the seat of the Bishop of Coventry and the Diocese of Coventry, in Coventry, West Midlands, England.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Das Reich (German: The Reich) was a weekly newspaper founded by Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany, in May 1940.
David John Cawdell Irving (born 24 March 1938) is an English author and Holocaust denier who has written on the military and political history of World War II, with a focus on Nazi Germany.
The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito is a British twin-engine shoulder-winged multi-role combat aircraft.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Deputy Chief of the Air Staff (DCAS) was a senior appointment in the Royal Air Force.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Donald Bloxham is a Professor of Modern History, specialising in genocide, war crimes and other mass atrocities studies.
Donald L. Miller (born 1944) is a biographer and historian.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Douglas Claude Strathern Evill, (8 October 1892 – 22 March 1971) was an Australian-born Royal Naval Air Service pilot and squadron commander during the First World War.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Dresden is a 2006 German television film directed by Roland Suso Richter.
Dresden Airport is the international airport in Dresden, the capital of the German Free State of Saxony.
The Dresden Frauenkirche (Dresdner Frauenkirche,, Church of Our Lady) is a Lutheran church in Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.
Dresden Hauptbahnhof (“main station”, abbreviated Dresden Hbf) is the largest passenger station in the Saxon capital of Dresden.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).
Eric Markusen (8 October 1946 – 29 January 2007) (M.S.W., University of Washington, Ph.D., University of Minnesota) was Professor of Sociology and Social Work at Southwest Minnesota State University in Marshall, Minnesota, USA, and Research Director of the Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Copenhagen.
Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close is a 2005 novel by Jonathan Safran Foer.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
A field gun is a field artillery piece.
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system.
A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Frederick Taylor (born 28 December 1947 at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire) is a British novelist and historian specialising in modern German history.
Freeman John Dyson (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.
Friedrichstadt is a neighborhood in central Dresden, Germany.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
Günter Wilhelm Grass (16 October 1927 – 13 April 2015) was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature.
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George Roy Hill (December 20, 1921 – December 23, 2002) was an American film director.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe ahead of the Red Army advance in World War II was delayed until the last moment.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
Gregory H. Stanton is the Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention at the George Mason University in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
The Großer Garten (English: Great Garden) is a baroque style park in central Dresden.
H-Net ("Humanities & Social Sciences Online") is an interdisciplinary forum for scholars in the humanities and social sciences.
H2X, officially known as the AN/APS-15, was an American ground scanning radar system used for blind bombing during World War II.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Handley Page Halifax was a Royal Air Force (RAF) four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, (21 June 1887 – 17 December 1965), nicknamed Pug, was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat, remembered primarily for his role as Winston Churchill's chief military assistant during the Second World War and his service as the first Secretary General of NATO from 1952 to 1957.
Heavy bombers are bomber aircraft capable of delivering the largest payload of air-to-ground weaponry (usually bombs) and longest range of their era.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
Horst Köhler (born 22 February 1943) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Interdiction is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The International Review of the Red Cross is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band formed in Leyton, East London, in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris.
Jörg Friedrich (sometimes spelt Joerg or Jorg in English) (born 17 August 1944 in Kitzbühel) is a German author and historian.
Jürgen W. Gansel, (born July 6, 1974) is a German politician.
Jonathan Safran Foer (born February 21, 1977) is an American novelist.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
The Kammhuber Line was the Allied name given to the German night air defense system established in July 1940 by Colonel Josef Kammhuber.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leo Kuper (20 November 1908 – 23 May 1994) was a South African sociologist specialising in the study of genocide.
World War II was the first war in which jet aircraft participated in combat with examples being used on both sides of the conflict during the latter stages of the war.
This is a list of Royal Air Force groups.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.
Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Messerschmitt AG was a German aircraft manufacturing corporation (AG) named after its chief designer Willy Messerschmitt and known primarily for its World War II fighter aircraft, in particular the Bf 109 and Me 262.
--> The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often known non-officially as the Me 110, was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer—German for "Destroyer") and fighter-bomber (Jagdbomber or Jabo) developed in Nazi Germany in the 1930s and used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict.
Most (Brüx; Pons) is the capital city of the Most District, situated between the Central Bohemian Uplands and the Ore Mountains, approximately northwest of Prague along the Bílina River and southwest of Ústí nad Labem.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The New Synagogue is a synagogue in Dresden, Germany.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Norman Howard Bottomley, (18 September 1891 – 13 August 1970) was the Yorkshire-born successor to Arthur 'Bomber' Harris as Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command in 1945.
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
The Allied oil campaign of World War II was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products.
Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Ostragehege is a multi-use sports venue in Dresden, Germany.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Palm Sunday is a 1981 collection of short stories, speeches, essays, letters, and other previously unpublished works by author Kurt Vonnegut Jr.
The Pathfinders were target-marking squadrons in RAF Bomber Command during World War II.
Paul Spiegel (31 December 1937, in Warendorf, Germany – 30 April 2006, in Düsseldorf, Germany) was leader of the Central Council of Jews in Germany (Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland) and the main spokesman of the German Jews.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
Pirna (Pěrno) is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, capital of the administrative district Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge.
Plzeň, also called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic.
The Pointblank directive authorised the initiation of Operation Pointblank, the code name for the primary portion of the Allied Combined Bomber Offensive intended to cripple or destroy the German aircraft fighter strength, thus drawing it away from frontline operations and ensuring it would not be an obstacle to the invasion of Northwest Europe.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, (Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick; born 9 October 1935) is a member of the British royal family.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.
Major Richard Rapier Stokes, (27 January 1897 – 3 August 1957) was a British soldier and Labour politician who served briefly as Lord Privy Seal in 1951.
The Riga Ghetto was a small area in Maskavas Forštate, a neighborhood of Riga, Latvia, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II.
Robert Ley (15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945) was a German politician during the Nazi era who headed the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Sönke Neitzel (born June 26, 1968) is a German historian who has written extensively about the Second World War.
The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet-level British position.
The Semper Synagogue, also known as the Dresden Synagogue, designed by Gottfried Semper and built from 1838 to 1840, was dedicated on 8 May 1840.
The Semperoper is the opera house of the Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden (Saxon State Opera) and the concert hall of the Staatskapelle Dresden (Saxon State Orchestra).
Air Vice Marshal Sidney Osborne Bufton, (12 January 1908 – 29 March 1993) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force during the middle part of the 20th century.
The Siege of Dresden took place in July 1760 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War) when a Prussian force led by Frederick the Great unsuccessfully besieged the city of Dresden in Saxony.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
The Silesian Offensives were two separate offensives conducted in February and March 1945 by the Soviet Red Army against the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front in World War II during the push to Berlin.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet, (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War.
Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death (1969) is a science fiction-infused anti-war novel by Kurt Vonnegut about the World War II experiences and journeys through time of Billy Pilgrim, from his time as an American soldier and chaplain's assistant, to postwar and early years.
Slaughterhouse-Five is a 1972 science fiction film film based on Kurt Vonnegut's novel of the same name about a writer who tells a story in random order of how he was a soldier in World War II and was abducted by aliens.
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The Star of David (✡), known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David (Hebrew rtl; Biblical Hebrew Māḡēn Dāwīḏ, Tiberian, Modern Hebrew, Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish Mogein Dovid or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strafing is the military practice of attacking ground targets from low-flying aircraft using aircraft-mounted automatic weapons Less commonly, the term can be used—by extension—to describe high-speed firing runs by any land or naval craft (e.g. fast boats) using smaller-caliber weapons and targeting stationary or slow-moving targets.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
A submarine pen (U-Boot-Bunker in German) is a type of submarine base that acts as a bunker to protect submarines from air attack.
European Summer Time is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries, not including Iceland, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Turkey and Russia — in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, in order to make the most efficient use of seasonal daylight.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.
Target Indicators, also known as target markers or TI's for short, were flares used by the RAF's Bomber Command during World War II.
Taschenbergpalais is a grand hotel in Dresden, Germany.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Destruction of Dresden is a 1963 book by David Irving, in which Irving describes the February 1945 Allied bombing of Dresden in World War II.
The Final Cut is the twelfth studio album by the English progressive rock band Pink Floyd, released on 21 March 1983 by Harvest Records in the United Kingdom and on 2 April by Columbia Records in the United States.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
"The Hero's Return" is a song by Pink Floyd from their 1983 album, The Final Cut.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.
Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
In August 1944 plans were drawn for an operation code named Thunderclap, but it was shelved and never implemented.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
Victor Klemperer (9 October 188111 February 1960) was a Romance languages scholar who also became known as a diarist.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The VIII Fighter Command was a United States Army Air Forces unit of command above the Wings and below the numbered air force.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Wing commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF, and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly sometimes W/C in all services) is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The Zwinger (Dresdner Zwinger) is a palace in the German city of Dresden, built in Baroque style and designed by court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann.
The Bombing of Prague occurred towards the end of World War II on February 14, 1945, when the US Army Air Forces carried out an air raid over Prague.
The 2010 Dresden anti-fascist blockade, organized by the umbrella group Dresden Without Nazis (Dresden nazifrei), an anti-fascist alliance of several German organizations, was a counter-demonstration against a planned march of neo-Nazis in Dresden on February 13, 2010.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
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