132 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Adipocyte, Anemia, Aplastic anemia, Appendicular skeleton, Aquaporin, Axial skeleton, Band cell, Basophil, Beta cell, Biopsy, Blood cell, Blood vessel, Bone, Bone marrow (food), Bone marrow examination, Cancer, Cell potency, Cellular compartment, Cellular differentiation, Chemotherapy, Chondrocyte, Circulatory system, Colony-stimulating factor, CT scan, Devonian, Endothelial stem cell, Endothelium, Eosinophil, Epiphysis, Erythropoiesis, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Eusthenopteron, Femur, Fibroblast, General anaesthesia, Gift of Life Marrow Registry, Glycophorin, Granulocyte, Haematopoiesis, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hemoglobin, HIV, Humerus, Hyperplasia, Iliac crest, Immune system, In vitro, In vivo, ..., Inflammatory bowel disease, Intravenous therapy, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Leukemia, Lizard, Local anesthesia, Long bone, Lymph, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Management of HIV/AIDS, Marrow adipose tissue, Mast cell, Medullary cavity, Megakaryocyte, Membrane protein, Mesenchymal stem cell, Metamyelocyte, Milan, Monash University, Monocyte, Multiple myeloma, Myeloblast, Myelocyte, Myelofibrosis, Myeloid leukemia, Myeloid tissue, Myelopoiesis, Myocyte, National Marrow Donor Program, Nature Publishing Group, Nervous system, Neutrophil, Nucleated red blood cell, Ossobuco, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Outpatient surgery, Pancytopenia, Pelvis, Peripheral venous catheter, Plasma cell, Platelet, Polycythemia, Precursor (chemistry), Proerythroblast, Progenitor cell, Promyelocyte, Radiation therapy, Radiography, Red blood cell, Reference range, Reticular cell, Reticular connective tissue, Rib cage, Sarcopterygii, Scapula, Sinusoid (blood vessel), Skull, Spin–lattice relaxation, Stem cell, Sternum, Stromal cell, Tetrapod, Thalassemia, Thymus, Tibia, Tissue (biology), Tuberculosis, Umbilical cord, Uppsala University, Valve, Venipuncture, Venous blood, Vertebra, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, White blood cell, X-ray microtomography. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones that support the appendages.
Aquaporins, also called water channels, are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells.
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.
A band cell (also called band neutrophil, band form or stab cell) is a cell undergoing granulopoiesis, derived from a metamyelocyte, and leading to a mature granulocyte.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The bone marrow of animals is widely used by humans as food.
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chondrocytes (from Greek χόνδρος, chondros.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins that bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells, thereby activating intracellular signaling pathways that can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells. For red blood cell formation, see erythropoietin).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).
Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
Eusthenopteron is a genus of prehistoric sarcopterygian (often called lobe-finned fishes) which has attained an iconic status from its close relationships to tetrapods.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
The Gift of Life Marrow Registry is a public bone marrow and blood stem cell registry headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida.
A glycophorin is a sialoglycoprotein of the membrane of a red blood cell.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
The crest of the ilium (or iliac crest) is the superior border of the wing of ilium and the superolateral margin of the greater pelvis.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), also known as bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, skeletal unweighting, anti-diabetes therapies). The marrow adipocytes originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among other cell types. Thus, it is thought that MAT results from preferential MSC differentiation into the adipocyte, rather than osteoblast, lineage in the setting of osteoporosis. Since MAT is increased in the setting of obesity and is suppressed by endurance exercise, or vibration, it is likely that MAT physiology- in the setting of mechanical input/exercise- approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain excess energy, indicating a clear evolutionary advantage during times of scarcity. WAT is also the source of adipokines and inflammatory markers which have both positive (e.g., adiponectin) and negative effects on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints. Visceral abdominal fat (VAT) is a distinct type of WAT that is "proportionally associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity", regenerates cortisol, and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) as by a group of proteins that help BAT’s thermogenic role. MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat storage by larger expression of bone transcription factors", and likely indicates a different fat phenotype. Recently, MAT was noted to "produce a greater proportion of adiponectin - an adipokine associated with improved metabolism - than WAT", suggesting an endocrine function for this depot, akin, but different, from that of WAT.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
The medullary cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity.
A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting.
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).
A metamyelocyte is a cell undergoing granulopoiesis, derived from a myelocyte, and leading to a band cell.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
The myeloblast is a unipotent stem cell, which will differentiate into one of the effectors of the granulocyte series.
A myelocyte is a young cell of the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow (can be found in circulating blood when caused by certain diseases).
Myelofibrosis, also known as osteomyelofibrosis, is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer.
Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue.
Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell lineage, or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these senses the terms are usually used synonymously, as for example with chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia.
In hematology, myelopoiesis in the broadest sense of the term is the production of bone marrow and of all cells that arise from it, namely, all blood cells.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1986 and based in Minneapolis, Minnesota that operates the Be The Match Registry of volunteer hematopoietic cell donors and umbilical cord blood units in the United States.
Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
With the exception of mammals, all vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin-containing cells in their blood and all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus.
Ossobuco (Milanese) is a Milanese speciality of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth.
Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, osteo- and βλαστάνω, blastanō "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
Outpatient surgery, also known as ambulatory surgery, day surgery, day case surgery, or same-day surgery, is surgery that does not require an overnight hospital stay.
Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
In medicine, a peripheral venous catheter (PVC), peripheral venous line or peripheral venous access catheter is a catheter (small, flexible tube) placed into a peripheral vein for intravenous therapy such as medication fluids.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
A proerythroblast (or rubriblast, or pronormoblast) is the earliest of four stages in development of the normoblast.
A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.
A promyelocyte (or progranulocyte) is a granulocyte precursor, developing from the myeloblast and developing into the myelocyte.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons (for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen).
A reticular cell is a type of fibroblast that synthesizes collagen alpha-1(III) and uses it to produce reticular fibers.
Reticular connective tissue is a type of connective tissue with a network of reticular fibers, made of type III collagen (reticulum.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Spin–lattice relaxation is the mechanism by which the component of the magnetization vector along the direction of the static magnetic field reaches thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings (the "lattice") in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
In placental mammals, the umbilical cord (also called the navel string, birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
In medicine, venipuncture or venepuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or for blood sampling of venous blood.
Venous blood is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium of the heart.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center is an academic medical center located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object.
Bone Marrow, Bone marrow barrier, Bone marrow cells, Bone marrow diseases, Bone marrow donation, Bone marrow fat cell, Bone marrow stroma, Bone marrow stromal cells, Hematopoietic microenvironment, Medulla ossea, Medulla ossium flava, Medulla ossium rubra, Myeloic tissue, Myeloid to erythroid ratio, Myeloid/erythroid ratio, Red bone marrow, Red marrow, Stroma of bone marrow, Yellow bone marrow, Yellow marrow.