149 relations: Abraham Acton, Aden, Afridi Redshirt Rebellion, Indian North West Frontier 1930–31., Airborne forces, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Battle of Albuera, Battle of Arnhem, Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos, Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Cambrai (1918), Battle of Colenso, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of France, Battle of Imphal, Battle of Inkerman, Battle of Langemarck (1917), Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay, Battle of Nivelle, Battle of Orthez, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of Spion Kop, Battle of St. Lucia, Battle of the Alma, Battle of the Lys (1918), Battle of the Nive, Battle of the Pyrenees, Battle of the Somme, Battle of Vitoria, Battle of Vittorio Veneto, Brigadier (United Kingdom), British Army, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), British Indian Army, British Raj, British Somaliland, Bruce Hamilton (British Army officer), Burma Campaign, Burma Campaign 1944–45, Cap badge, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Carlisle Castle, Carlisle, Cumbria, Catterick Garrison, Ceylon in World War II, Charles Spackman, Childers Reforms, Chindits, ..., County Mayo, Cumberland, Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, Dunkirk evacuation, Edward John Mott, Ewen Sinclair-Maclagan, Fifth Battle of Ypres, First Battle of Ypres, Free Territory of Trieste, Gallipoli Campaign, Glider infantry, Historic counties of England, Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale, Infantry, Irish War of Independence, Italian Front (World War I), James Alexander Smith, James Forbes-Robertson, King's Own Royal Border Regiment, King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster), King's Regiment, Kolkata, Lancashire Fusiliers, Line infantry, London, Macedonian Front, Mandatory Palestine, Militia (United Kingdom), Mountain warfare, National Army Museum, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Operation Compass, Operation Ladbroke, Operation Market Garden, Operation Sea Lion, Orde Wingate, Palestine (region), Peninsular War, Philip James Shears, Private (rank), Queen's Lancashire Regiment, Rawalpindi, Reconnaissance Corps, Regiment, Relief of Ladysmith, Richard Kelly (British Army officer), Royal Hampshire Regiment, Royal Scots Fusiliers, Second Battle of the Somme (1918), Second Battle of Ypres, Second Boer War, Sergeant, Siege of Havana, Siege of Lucknow, Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55), Siege of Tobruk, Standing army, Strand Road drill hall, Carlisle, Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907, Territorial Force, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The Times, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Tianjin, Victoria Cross, Volunteer Force, Waziristan, Waziristan campaign (1919–1920), Western Front (World War I), Westmorland, Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry, Workington, World War I, World War II, 100th Indian Infantry Brigade, 110th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps, 125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade, 126th (East Lancashire) Brigade, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1957 Defence White Paper, 1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom), 1st Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom), 20th Infantry Division (India), 213th Brigade (United Kingdom), 225th Brigade (United Kingdom), 23rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 25th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 31st Brigade (United Kingdom), 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot, 36th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division, 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division, 42nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 45th Brigade (United Kingdom), 4th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot, 70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 80th Infantry (Reserve) Division (United Kingdom). Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Acton VC (17 December 1893 – 16 May 1915) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
This was a military campaign conducted by British and Indian armies against Afridi tribesmen in the North West Frontier region of the Indian Empire, now in Pakistan.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
The Battle of Albuera (16 May 1811) was a battle during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos took place on 28 October 1811 during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Cambrai, 1918 (also known as the Second Battle of Cambrai) was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of the First World War.
The Battle of Colenso was the third and final battle fought during the Black Week of the Second Boer War.
The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944.
The Battle of Inkerman was fought during the Crimean War on 5 November 1854 between the allied armies of Britain, France and Ottoman Empire against the Imperial Russian Army.
The Battle of Langemarck (16–18 August 1917) was the second Anglo-French general attack of the Third Battle of Ypres, during the First World War.
The concurrent Battle of Meiktila and Battle of Mandalay were decisive engagements near the end of the Burma Campaign.
The Battle of Nivelle (10 November 1813) took place in front of the River Nivelle near the end of the Peninsular War (1808–1814).
The Battle of Orthez (27 February 1814) saw the Anglo-Portuguese Army under Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington attack an Imperial French army led by Marshal Nicolas Soult in southern France.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of Spion Kop (Slag bij Spionkop.; Slag van Spioenkop) was fought about west-south-west of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop(1) along the Tugela River, Natal in South Africa from 23–24 January 1900.
The Battle of St.
The Battle of the Alma was a battle in the Crimean War between an allied expeditionary force made up of French, British and Turkish forces and Russian forces defending the Crimean Peninsula on 20September 1854.
The Battle of the Lys, also known as the Lys Offensive, the Fourth Battle of Ypres, the Fourth Battle of Flanders and Operation Georgette (Batalha de La Lys and 3ème Bataille des Flandres), was part of the 1918 German offensive in Flanders during World War I, also known as the Spring Offensive.
The Battles of the Nive (9–13 December 1813) were fought towards the end of the Peninsular War.
The Battle of the Pyrenees was a large-scale offensive launched on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult from the Pyrénées region on Emperor Napoleon’s order, in the hope of relieving French garrisons under siege at Pamplona and San Sebastián.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
At the Battle of Vitoria (21 June 1813) a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later.
Brigadier (Brig) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
General Sir Bruce Meade Hamilton, (7 December 1857 – 6 July 1936) was a British Army General during the Second Boer War and World War I.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.
A cap badge, also known as head badge or hat badge, is a badge worn on uniform headgear and distinguishes the wearer's nationality and/or organisation.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Carlisle Castle is situated in Carlisle, in the English county of Cumbria, near the ruins of Hadrian's Wall.
Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.
Catterick Garrison is a major garrison and town south of Richmond in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
After the outbreak of the Second World War, in the British Crown Colony of Ceylon (modern-day Sri Lanka), the government of Sir Don Baron Jayatilaka assured the British king and his majesty's government of its continued support.
Charles Edward Spackman VC, MM (11 January 1891 – 7 May 1969) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Childers Reforms of 1881 reorganised the infantry regiments of the British Army.
The Chindits, known officially as the Long Range Penetration Groups, were special operations units of the British and Indian armies, which saw action in 1943–1944, during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment (King's, Lancashire and Border) (LANCS) is an infantry regiment of the line within the British Army.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
Edward John Mott VC DCM (4 July 1893 – 20 October 1967) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Major General Ewen George Sinclair-Maclagan, (24 December 1868 – 24 November 1948) was an officer in the British Army who fought in British India and the Second Boer War.
The Fifth Battle of Ypres, also called the Advance of Flanders and the Battle of the Peaks of Flanders (Bataille des Crêtes de Flandres) is an informal name used to identify a series of battles in northern France and southern Belgium from late September through October 1918.
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste, Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; Slobodni Teritorij Trsta) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Glider infantry (also referred to as airlanding infantry esp. in British usage) was a type of airborne infantry in which soldiers and their equipment were inserted into enemy-controlled territory via military glider rather than parachute.
The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others.
Hugh Cecil Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale, (25 January 1857–13 April 1944) was an English nobleman and sportsman.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
James Alexander Smith VC (5 January 1881 – 21 May 1968) was born in Workington, Cumberland and was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Colonel James Forbes-Robertson (7 July 1884 – 5 August 1955) was a British Army officer and a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The King's Own Royal Border Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1959 until 2006, and was part of the King's Division.
The King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army.
The King's Regiment, officially abbreviated as KINGS, was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the King's Division.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Lancashire Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that saw distinguished service through many centuries and wars, including the Second Boer War both World War I and World War II, and had many different titles throughout its 280 years of existence.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Militia of the United Kingdom were the military reserve forces of the United Kingdom after the Union in 1801 of the former Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland.
Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.
The National Army Museum is the British Army's central museum.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Ladbroke was a glider landing by British airborne troops during the Second World War near Syracuse, Sicily, that began on 9 July 1943 as part of Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Orde Charles Wingate & Two Bars (26 February 1903 – 24 March 1944) was a senior British Army officer, known for his creation of the Chindit deep-penetration missions in Japanese-held territory during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Major-General Philip James Shears CB (1887 – 1972) was a senior officer in the British Army.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
The Queen's Lancashire Regiment (30th, 40th, 47th, 59th, 81st and 82nd Regiments of Foot) (QLR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the King's Division.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Reconnaissance Corps, or simply Recce Corps, was a corps of the British Army, formed during the Second World War whose units provided the mobile spearhead of infantry divisions.
A regiment is a military unit.
When the Second Boer War broke out on 11 October 1899, the Boers had a numeric superiority within Southern Africa.
Lieutenant-General Sir Richard Denis Kelly KCB (9 March 1815 – 1897) was a British Army officer who became General Officer Commanding Eastern District.
The Hampshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot and the 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot.
The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1678 until 1959 when it was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow Regiment) to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) which was later itself merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) to form a new large regiment, the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought during the First World War on the Western Front from late August to early September, in the basin of the River Somme.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
The Siege of Havana was a military action from March to August 1762, as part of the Seven Years' War.
The Siege of Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ की घेराबंदी) was the prolonged defence of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from September 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The Strand Road drill hall is a former military installation in Carlisle, Cumbria.
The Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 (7 Edw. 7, c.9) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed the auxiliary forces of the British Army by transferring existing Volunteer and Yeomanry units into a new Territorial Force (TF); and disbanding the Militia to form a new Special Reserve of the Regular Army.
The Territorial Force was a part-time volunteer organisation, created in 1908 to help meet the military needs of the United Kingdom (UK) without resorting to conscription.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement throughout the British Empire in 1859.
Waziristan (Pashto and وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Waziristan campaign 1919–1920 was a military campaign conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland;R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England.
The Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry was a Yeomanry Cavalry Regiment of the British Army that was formed in 1819.
Workington is an historic industrial town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Derwent on the west coast of Cumbria, England.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 100th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 110th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps (Border Regiment) (110 RAC) was an armoured regiment of the British Army's Royal Armoured Corps raised during the Second World War.
The 125th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the British Army that saw active service during both the First and Second World Wars.
The 126th (East Lancashire) Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army during the First World War and the Second World War.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1957 White Paper on Defence (Cmnd. 124) was a British white paper setting forth the perceived future of the British military.
The 1st Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 1st Airlanding Brigade was an airborne infantry brigade of the British Army during the Second World War and the only glider infantry formation assigned to the 1st Airborne Division, serving alongside the 1st and 4th Parachute Brigades.
The 20th Indian Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Indian Army during World War II, formed in India, and took part in the Burma Campaign during World War II.
The 213th Brigade was a Home Defence and training formation of the British Army during both the First and Second World Wars.
The 225th Brigade was a Home Defence formation of the British Army in World War I and World War II.
The 23rd Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in both World War I, mainly on the Western Front, and World War II.
The 25th Infantry Brigade was a war-formed infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service during both World War I and World War II.
The 2nd Infantry Division was a Regular Army infantry division of the British Army, with a long history.
The 31st Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the British Army in both World War I and World War II.
The 34th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1702.
The 36th Indian Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 38th (Welsh) Division (initially the 43rd Division, later the 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division and then the 38th Infantry (Reserve) Division) of the British Army was active during both the First and Second World Wars.
The 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army.
The 42nd Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army raised during the Second World War.
The 45th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in both the First and Second World Wars with 15th (Scottish) Division.
The 4th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that served in both First and Second World Wars.
The 55th Regiment of Foot was a British Army infantry regiment, raised in 1755.
The 70th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The 80th Infantry (Reserve) Division was an infantry division of the British Army formed at the beginning of 1943, during the Second World War.