300 relations: A. M. Azahari, Abu Sayyaf, Age of Discovery, Alfred Dent, Alpine tundra, Amazon rainforest, American Trading Company of Borneo, Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Antipodes, Archaeology, Asia, Balambangan Island, Balikpapan, Bandar Seri Begawan, Banjar people, Banjarbaru, Banjarmasin, Barito River, Bat, Battle of Singapore, Battle off Mukah, Batu Lintang camp, Beeswax, Belait District, Bidayuh, Bintulu, Bolkiah, Bontang, Bornean clouded leopard, Bornean orangutan, Bornean rhinoceros, Borneo campaign (1945), Borneo elephant, Borneo lowland rain forest, Borneo montane rain forests, Borneo peat swamp forests, British Malaya, Brunei, Brunei People's Party, Brunei revolt, Brunei-Muara District, Bruneian Empire, Bruneian Malay people, California Polytechnic State University, Cambodia, Camphor, Cannibalism, Capture of Malacca (1511), Castilian War, Celebes Sea, ..., Central Kalimantan, Cession, City, Cobbold Commission, Colony of Singapore, Conurbation, Crane (bird), Cross border attacks in Sabah, Crown Colony of North Borneo, Crown Colony of Sarawak, Dayak fruit bat, Dayak people, Deer Cave, Demographics of India, Demonym, Developed country, Dipterocarpaceae, Dragon's blood, East India Company, East Kalimantan, East Malaysia, Ecoregion, Ecotourism, Edible bird's nest, El Niño, Endemism, Ethnic hatred, Federal Territories (Malaysia), Federation of Malaya, Ferdinand Marcos, Flag of Indonesia, Flowering plant, Folk costume, Folk instrument, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto, Gomantong Caves, Greater Indonesia, Greater Sunda Islands, Guano, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf of Thailand, Gunung Mulu National Park, Gustav Overbeck, Habitat, Han Chinese, Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin, Haze, Headhunting, Heart of Borneo, Helmeted hornbill, Hikayat Banjar, Hindu, History of China, Hook-billed bulbul, Hornbill ivory, Hose's palm civet, Iban people, Ice age, Identity document, Indochina, Indonesia, Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Iranun people, Islam, Jabidah massacre, James Brooke, Java, Java Sea, Javanese people, Jesselton revolt, Johor, Joseph William Torrey, Junk (ship), Kadazan-Dusun, Kalimantan, Kapit Division, Kapuas River, Karimata Strait, Karst, Kayan people (Borneo), Keningau, Kerangas forest, Kimanis, Kinabatangan River, Kingdom of Sarawak, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Kutai, Kutai basin, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lakawood, Lesser Sunda Islands, Liana, Liquefied natural gas, List of bats of Borneo, List of divided islands, List of islands by area, List of islands of Indonesia, List of islands of Malaysia, List of Sultans of Brunei, Logging, London, Los Angeles Times, Lumber, Lun Bawang, Madrid, Madrid Protocol of 1885, Madurese people, Mahakam River, Mainland China, Majapahit, Makassar Strait, Malay Peninsula, Malay race, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Malaysia Agreement, Maphilindo, Maritime Southeast Asia, Megabat, Mindanao, Ming dynasty, Mining, Miri, Malaysia, Mohammad Hatta, Mohammad Yamin, Moro conflict, Mount Kinabalu, Mpu Prapanca, Murut people, Mustapha Harun, Nagarakretagama, National Chengchi University, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, National Library of Indonesia, National Revolutionary Army, Native Indonesians, Natural History Publications (Borneo), Natural rubber, New Guinea, New York City, New Zealand, North Borneo Chartered Company, North Borneo Federation, North Kalimantan, Northern Hemisphere, Omar Ali Saifuddin II, Opium, Orang Ulu, Overseas Chinese, Oxford University Press, Pacific Historical Review, Palangka Raya, Pallava script, Palm oil, Penan people, Petroleum, Philippines, Piracy, Piracy in the Sulu Sea, Pontianak incidents, Pontianak, Indonesia, Prisoner of war, Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Project Canterbury, Project IC, Protectorate, Provinces of Indonesia, Rainforest, Rajang River, Rattan, Republic of China (1912–1949), Resident (title), Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros hornbill, Routledge, Rungus people, Sabah, Sabah State Railway, Sama-Bajau, Samarinda, Sambas riots, Sampit conflict, Sandakan, Sandakan camp, Sandakan Death Marches, Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst, Sanskrit, Sarawak, Satellite imagery, Second Australian Imperial Force, Second Sino-Japanese War, Sharif ul-Hāshim of Sulu, Sibu, Singkawang, South China Sea, South Kalimantan, Southeast Asia, Southern Hemisphere, Stamford Raffles, States and federal territories of Malaysia, Stone wall, Sukarno, Sulawesi, Sultanate of Sambas, Sultanate of Sulu, Sulu Sea, Sumatra, Sunda Shelf mangroves, Surrender of Japan, Tanjung Selor, Tanjungpura Kingdom, Tarakan, North Kalimantan, Tawau, Temburong District, Thailand, Thalassocracy, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The New York Times International Edition, Theobroma cacao, Thesis, Thomas Bradley Harris, Tortoise, Transmigration program, Treaty of Labuan, Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Tropical rainforest, Tropical timber, Tropics, Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tutong District, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Sabah National Organisation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, University of Queensland, Varuna, Vassal state, Victoria, Labuan, Vietnam, Wallace Line, West Kalimantan, White Rajahs, Wildfire, World Wide Fund for Nature, Z Special Unit, Zhao Rugua, 2015 Southeast Asian haze. 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Sheikh Azahari bin Sheikh Mahmud (3 September 1928 – 20 April 2002), better known as A.M. Azahari, was a Brunei politician turned rebel.
Abu Sayyaf (جماعة أبو سياف;, ASG; Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency for an independent province in the country.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Sir Alfred Dent, (12 December 1844 – 23 November 1927) was a British colonial merchant and entrepreneur.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The American Trading Company of Borneo is a chartered company formed by Joseph William Torrey, Thomas Bradley Harris together with several Chinese investors shortly after the acquisition over a parcel of land in northern Borneo from the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London, was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in London on 17 March 1824.
In geography, the antipode of any spot on Earth is the point on Earth's surface diametrically opposite to it; the antipodes of a region similarly represent the area opposite it.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Balambangan Island (Pulau Balambangan) is an island in Kudat Division, Sabah, Malaysia.
Balikpapan is a seaport city on the east coast of the island of Borneo, in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan.
Bandar Seri Begawan (Jawi: بندر سري بڬاوان) (formerly known as Brunei Town) is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Banjar or Banjarese (in Banjarese language; in Jawi script) are a native ethnic group in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Banjarbaru is a city in the province of South Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Banjarmasin (also known as Bandjermasin or Bandjarmasin) is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Barito River, is a long river with a drainage basin of, the average discharge of the river is, located in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle off Mukah was a naval engagement fought in 1862 between the navy of Sarawak and pirates.
Batu Lintang camp (also known as Lintang Barracks and Kuching POW camp) at Kuching, Sarawak on the island of Borneo was a Japanese internment camp during the Second World War.
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.
Belait District, or simply Belait, is the largest as well as the westernmost district in Brunei.
Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, Malaysia and northern West Kalimantan, Indonesia, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture (see also issues below).
Bintulu is a coastal town on the island of Borneo in the central region of Sarawak, Malaysia.
Sultan Bolkiah was the 5th Sultan of Brunei.
Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan.
The Bornean clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi borneensis) is a subspecies of the Sunda clouded leopard.
The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo.
The Bornean rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni), also known as Eastern Sumatran rhinoceros or Eastern hairy rhinoceros, is one of the three subspecies of Sumatran rhinoceros.
The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II.
The Borneo elephant, also called the Borneo pygmy elephant, is a subspecies of Asian elephant that inhabits northeastern Borneo, in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Borneo lowland rain forest is an ecoregion, within the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, of the large island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
The Borneo montane rain forests are an ecoregion, of cloud forest, within the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, of the island of Borneo in south-east Asia.
The Borneo peat swamp forests ecoregion, within the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, are on the island of Borneo, which is divided between Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
The Brunei People's Party (Parti Rakyat Brunei, PRB) is a banned political party in Brunei.
The Brunei revolt (Pemberontakan Brunei) was a December 1962 insurrection in the British protectorate of Brunei by opponents of its monarchy and its proposed inclusion in the Federation of Malaysia.
Brunei-Muara is the northernmost district (daerah in Malay) in Brunei.
The Bruneian Empire or Empire of Brunei, also known as Sultanate of Brunei or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo island in Southeast Asia.
Bruneian MalaysBrunei Malay in its various forms can be identified with a nation, an ethnic group, and a region.
California Polytechnic State University (also known as California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, or Cal Poly) is a public university located in San Luis Obispo, California. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. The university is organized into six colleges offering 64 bachelor's and 32 master's degrees. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo primarily focuses on undergraduate education with 20,425 undergraduate and 881 graduate students.. The university is located in San Luis Obispo, California often noted as one of the happiest cities in the United States, with many alumni in Silicon Valley. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo is known for its "learn by doing" philosophy that encourages students to combine theory with practice to solve real-world problems. The university participates in the Big West Conference in athletics.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
The Capture of Malacca in 1511 occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the city of Malacca in 1511.
The Spanish Expedition to Borneo, also known locally as the Castilian War (Malay: Perang Kastila; Jawi: ڤراڠ كستيلا; Spanish: Expedición española a Borneo; Filipino: Digmaang Kastila), was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.
The Celebes Sea (Laut Sulawesi, Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahassa Peninsula, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Central Kalimantan (Kalimantan Tengah), is a province of Indonesia.
The act of cession is the assignment of property to another entity.
A city is a large human settlement.
The Cobbold Commission, was a Commission of Enquiry set up to determine whether the people of North Borneo (now Sabah) and Sarawak supported the proposal to create the Federation of Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Brunei, Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak.
The Colony of Singapore was a British Crown colony that existed from 1946 until 1963, when Singapore became part of Malaysia.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
The Cross border attacks in Sabah are a series of cross border terrorism perpetrated by the Moro pirates from Mindanao on Sabah that began even before the British colonial period.
The Crown Colony of North Borneo was a British Crown colony on the island of Borneo established in 1946 shortly after the dissolution of the British Military Administration.
The Crown Colony of Sarawak was a British Crown colony on the island of Borneo established in 1946 shortly after the dissolution of the British Military Administration.
The dayak fruit bat or dyak fruit bat (Dyacopterus spadiceus) is a relatively rare frugivorous megabat species found only on the Sunda Shelf of southeast Asia, specifically the Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra, and the islands of Borneo and Sumatra.
The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo.
Deer Cave (Gua Rusa), located near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia, is a show cave attraction of Gunung Mulu National Park.
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Dipterocarpaceae are a family of 16 genera and approximately 695 known species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees.
Dragon's blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of a number of distinct plant genera: Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, Calamus rotang and Pterocarpus.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Kalimantan (Indonesian) is a province of Indonesia.
East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Edible bird's nests are bird nests created by edible-nest swiftlets using solidified saliva, which are harvested for human consumption.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.
The Federal Territories (Wilayah Persekutuan) in Malaysia comprise three territories: Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the federal government of Malaysia.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
The Flag of Indonesia is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
A folk instrument is a musical instrument that developed among common people and usually does not have a known inventor.
Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto, PC, FRSE (23 April 1751 – 21 June 1814), known as Sir Gilbert Elliott between 1777 and 1797 and as The Lord Minto between 1797 and 1813, was a Scottish diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1776 and 1795.
The Gomantong Caves are an intricate cave system inside Gomantong Hill in Sandakan Division, Sabah, Malaysia.
Greater Indonesia, or in Indonesian and Malaysian, Indonesia Raya or Melayu Raya, was a political concept that sought to bring the so-called Malay race, only part of which were the actual Malays, together by uniting the British territories of Malaya and Borneo with the Dutch East Indies.
The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of four large islands within the Malay Archipelago.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Gunung Mulu National Park is a national park in Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that encompasses caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting.
Gustav Overbeck (from 1867 von Overbeck, in 1873 Baron von Overbeck; born 4 March 1830 in Lemgo; died 8 April 1894 in London) was a German businessman, adventurer and diplomat.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The Han Chinese,.
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin ibni Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II was the 25th Sultan of Brunei from 30 May 1885 to 10 May 1906.
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon in which dust, smoke, and other dry particulates obscure the clarity of the sky.
Headhunting is the practice of taking and preserving a person's head after killing the person.
The Heart of Borneo is a conservation agreement initiated by the World Wide Fund for Nature to protect a 220,000 km² forested region on Borneo island that is known as Asia's last great rainforest.
The helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil) is a very large bird in the hornbill family.
The Hikayat Banjar is the chronicle of Banjarmasin, Indonesia.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The hook-billed bulbul (Setornis criniger) is a species of songbird in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae.
Hornbill ivory (also called "golden jade") is a precious ornamental material derived from the helmeted hornbill (Buceros vigil), a large bird of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.
Hose's palm civet (Diplogale hosei), also known as Hose's civet, is a civet species endemic to the island of Borneo.
The Ibans or Sea Dayaks are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia.
The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group native to Mindanao, Philippines, and the west coast of Sabah (in which they are found in 25 villages around the Kota Belud and Lahad Datu districts; also in Kudat and Likas, Kota Kinabalu).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Jabidah massacre was the killing of Moro soldiers by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) on 18 March 1968.
Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868), was a British soldier and adventurer who founded the Kingdom of Sarawak in Borneo.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Java Sea (Laut Jawa) is an extensive shallow sea on the Sunda Shelf.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
The Jesselton revolt (also known as Jesselton uprising or Double Tenth Revolt/Incident) was a revolt by resistance movement comprising local Chinese, indigenous peoples, Eurasian and Sikh Indian of Jesselton, North Borneo led by Albert Kwok under a guerrilla forces known as the Kinabalu Guerrillas against the Japanese occupying forces of North Borneo.
Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia.
Col. Joseph William Torrey, Rajah of Ambong and Marudu, (April 22, 1828 in Bath, Maine; – June 22, 1885 in Boston) was an American merchant, president of the American Trading Company of Borneo and co-founder of the American colony "Ellena" (in present-day Kimanis) together with Thomas Bradley Harris on the island of Borneo.
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.
Kadazan-Dusun (also written as Kadazandusun) is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous peoples of Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
Kapit Division, formed on 2 April 1973, is one of the twelve administrative divisions in Sarawak, Malaysia.
The Kapuas River (or Kapoeas River) is a river in the Indonesian part of Borneo island, at the geographic center of Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Karimata Strait (Selat Karimata) also spelled Carimata or Caramata is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, separating the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan).
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Being an indigenous tribe in central Borneo, the Kayan people are similar to their neighbours, the Kenyah tribe, with which they are grouped together with the Bahau people under the Apo Kayan people group.
Keningau (p) is the capital of the Keningau District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Sundaland heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of tropical moist forest found on the island of Borneo, which is divided between Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia, as well as on the Indonesian islands of Belitung and Bangka, which lie to the west of Borneo.
Kimanis is a fully integrated township and also a parliamentary constituency in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Kinabatangan River (Sungai Kinabatangan) is a river in Sabah, Malaysia.
The Kingdom of Sarawak (also known as the State of Sarawak) was a British protectorate located in the northwestern part of the island of Borneo.
Kota Kinabalu (Jawi), formerly known as Jesselton, is the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia and the capital of the Kota Kinabalu District.
Kuching (Jawi), officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the state of Sarawak in Malaysia.
Kutai is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native people of the region, who have their own language of the same name and their own rich history.
The Kutai sedimentary basin extends from the central highlands of Borneo, across the eastern coast of the island and into the Makassar Strait.
Labuan (Jawi: لابوان), officially the Federal Territory of Labuan (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan, Jawi: ولايه ڤرسكوتوان لابوان), is a federal territory of Malaysia.
Lahad Datu (Pekan Lahad Datu) is the capital of the Lahad Datu District in the Tawau Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Lakawood, or laka wood (kayu laka), is a reddish aromatic heartwood used as incense in China, India and South East Asia.
The Lesser Sunda Islands (Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or Kepulauan Sunda Kecil "lesser Sundanese archipelago") are a group of islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia.
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
This is a list of the bats of Borneo.
This is a list of islands whose land is divided by one or more international borders.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands.
This is a list of islands of Malaysia.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
The Lun Bawang (formerly known as Trusan Murut or Southern Murut) is an ethnic group found in Central Northern Borneo.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
The Madrid Protocol of 1885 is an agreement between Great Britain, Germany and Spain to recognise the sovereignty of Spain over the Sulu Archipelago as well as the limit of Spanish influence in the region.
The Madurese (sometimes Madurace or Madhure) also known as Orang Madura and Suku Madura in Indonesian are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population.
The Mahakam River is a river in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Makassar Strait is a strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi in Indonesia.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The concept of a Malay race was originally proposed by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840), and classified as a brown race.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysia Agreement or the Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore was the agreement which combined North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore with the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, the resulting union being named Malaysia.
The Greater Malayan Confederation, or Maphilindo (for '''Ma'''laysia, the '''Phil'''ippines, and '''Indo'''nesia), was a proposed, nonpolitical confederation of the three Southeast Asian countries.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats).
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Miri (Jawi) is a coastal city in northeastern Sarawak, Malaysia, located near the border of Brunei, on the island of Borneo.
Mohammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's prime minister.
Mohammad Yamin (August 24, 1903 – October 17, 1962) was an Indonesian poet, politician and national hero who played a key role in the writing of the country's 1945 constitution.
The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines.
Mount Kinabalu (Gunung Kinabalu) is a mountain in Sabah, Malaysia.
Mpu Prapanca was the author of the epic poem Nagarakretagama, written in Old Javanese.
The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group, comprising 29 sub-ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo.
Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun, or Tun Mustapha for short (31 July 1918 – 2 January 1995), was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah.
The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakrtagama, also known as Desawarnana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king of the Majapahit Empire.
National Chengchi University (shortened as "政大") is a national research university, and the earliest public service training facility in modern China.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Library of Indonesia (Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia, PNRI) is the legal deposit library of Indonesia.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
Native Indonesians, or Pribumi/Bumiputra (literally "inlanders"), are members of the population group in Indonesia that shares a similar sociocultural and ethnic heritage whose members are considered natives of the country.
Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The North Borneo Chartered Company (NBCC), also known as the British North Borneo Company (BNBC) was a British chartered company formed on 1 November 1881 to administer and exploit the resources of North Borneo (present-day Sabah in Malaysia).
The North Borneo Federation, also known as North Kalimantan or Negara Kesatuan Kalimantan Utara (Unitary State of North Kalimantan) in Malay, was a proposed political entity which would have comprised the British Colonies of Sarawak, British North Borneo (now known as the Malaysian state of Sabah) and the protectorate of Brunei.
North Kalimantan (Kalimantan Utara) is a province of Indonesia.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Omar Ali Saifuddien II was the 23rd Sultan of Brunei.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Orang Ulu ("people of the interior" in Malay) is an ethnic designation politically coined to group together roughly 27 very small but ethnically diverse tribal groups in northeastern Sarawak, Malaysia with populations ranging from less than 300 persons to over 25,000 persons.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Historical Review is the official publication of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association.
Palangka Raya is the capital of the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan, also famously known as Central Borneo situated between the Kahayan and the Sabangau rivers.
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
The Penan are a nomadic indigenous people living in Sarawak and Brunei, although there is only one small community in Brunei; among those in Brunei half have been converted to Islam, even if only superficially.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Piracy in the Sulu Sea occurred in the vicinity of Mindanao, where frequent acts of piracy were committed against the Spanish.
The Pontianak incident consisted of two massacres which took place in Kalimantan during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies.
Pontianak (Chinese: 坤甸, pinyin: Kūndiān, Hakka: Khuntîen, Teochew: Kung1 Diêng6, Jawi: كوت بونتياناك); is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah (Kesultanan Kadriyah) in 23 Oktober 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 Hijriah.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945.
Project Canterbury (sometimes abbreviated as PC) is an online archive of material related to the history of Anglicanism.
Project IC is the name used in Malaysia to describe the allegation of systematic granting of citizenship to immigrants (whether legal or otherwise) by giving them identity cards and subsequently its current iteration, the MyKad.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government (Daerah Tingkat I – level I region).
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Rajang River (Batang Rajang) is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for roughly 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae (from the Greek 'kálamos'.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
The rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros) is a large species of forest hornbill (Bucerotidae).
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Momogun Rungus are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily in northern Sabah in the area surrounding Kudat.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Sabah State Railway (SSR) is a railway system and operator in the state of Sabah in Malaysia.
The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines.
Samarinda is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo.
The Sambas riots were an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence in Indonesia, in 1999.
The Sampit conflict was an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence in Indonesia, beginning in February 2001 and lasting throughout the year.
Sandakan (Jawi) formerly known at various times as Elopura, is the capital of the Sandakan District in Sabah, Malaysia.
The Sandakan camp, also known as Sandakan POW Camp (Malay: Kem Tawanan Perang Sandakan), was a prisoner-of-war camp established during World War II by the Japanese in Sandakan in the Malaysian state of Sabah.
The Sandakan Death Marches were a series of forced marches in Borneo from Sandakan to Ranau which resulted in the deaths of 2,345 Allied prisoners of war held captive by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II in the Sandakan POW Camp.
The Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst is a karstique area in Sub Kelay, Biatan, Talisayan, Batu Putih, and Biduk-biduk Berau districts of East Kalimantan of the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Sharif ul-Hashim (began reign 17 November 1405) was the regal name of Sayyed walShareef Abubakar Abirin AlHashmi.
Sibu is an inland town at the central region of Sarawak and the capital of Sibu District in Sibu Division, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Singkawang or San Khew Jong in Hakka (Hakka POJ: Sán-khiéu-yòng), is a city located in the province of West Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
South Kalimantan (Kalimantan Selatan) is a province of Indonesia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java (1811–1815) and Governor-General of Bencoolen (1817–1822), best known for his founding of Modern Singapore.
The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.
Stone walls are a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Sambas (Malay/Indonesian: Kesultanan Sambas) was a traditional Malay state on the Western coast of the island of Borneo, in modern-day Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).
The Sulu Sea (Dagat Sulu, Laut Sulu, Mar de Joló) is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sunda Shelf mangroves ecoregion, in the mangrove biome, are on the coasts of the islands of Borneo and eastern Sumatra in Malaysia and Indonesia.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Tanjung Selor is a district in Bulungan Regency, North Kalimantan Province of Indonesia, and the administrative capital of the province, as well as the capital of Bulungan Regency.
Tanjungpura Kingdom is a name of an ancient kingdom located in the Ketapang Regency of West Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
Tarakan, located on Tarakan Island is one of the major cities in northern Borneo, just across the border from Sabah, Malaysia.
Tawau (Jawi) formerly known as Tawao, is the capital of the Tawau District in Sabah, Malaysia.
Temburong is the easternmost district (daerah) in Brunei.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
Thomas Bradley Harris (October 29, 1826 in New York City; – May 22, 1866 in Ellena, Borneo) was an American businessman and co-founder of the American colony of "Ellena" together with Joseph William Torrey on the island of Borneo.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
The transmigration program (Transmigrasi, from Dutch, transmigratie) was an initiative of the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by the Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country.
The Treaty of Labuan which was signed between the government of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sultan of Brunei on 18 December 1846.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tropical timber may refer to any type of timber or wood that grows in tropical rainforests and tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and is harvested there.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah II (Jawi: تونكو عبدالرحمن ڤوترا الحاج ابن المرحوم سلطان عبدالحميد حاليم شه;, 8 February 1903 – 6 December 1990) was a Malaysian politician who served as the first Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955 to 1957, before becoming Malaya's first Prime Minister after independence in 1957.
Tutong District is one of the four districts of Brunei.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) was a political party based in Sabah, Malaysia.
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS; Malaysian University of Sabah) is the ninth Malaysian public university located in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, established on 24 November 1994.
The Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS; University of Malaysia, Sarawak) was officially incorporated on 24 December 1992.
The University of Queensland (UQ) is a public research university primarily located in Queensland's capital city, Brisbane, Australia.
Varuna (IAST: वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Victoria or Victoria Town (Bandar Victoria) is the capital of the Federal Territory of Labuan in Malaysia, an island group off the north coast of Borneo.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Wallace Line or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.
West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat, Malay: كليمنتان بارت,; Hakka: Sî-Kâ-lí-màn-tân; Teochew: Sai-Gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia.
The White Rajahs were a dynastic monarchy of the British Brooke family, who founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo, from 1841 to 1946.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Z Special Unit—also known as Special Operations Executive (SOE), Special Operations Australia (SOA) or the Services Reconnaissance Department (SRD)—was a joint Allied special forces unit formed during the Second World War to operate behind Japanese lines in South East Asia.
Zhao Rugua (Chau Ju-Kua/Chou Ju-kua) (1170–1228), also written as Zhao Rukuo or misread as Zhao Rushi, is a Song dynasty official who wrote a two-volume book titled Zhu fan zhi.
The 2015 Southeast Asian haze was an air pollution crisis affecting several countries in Southeast Asia, including Brunei, Indonesia (especially its islands of Sumatra and Borneo), Malaysia, Singapore, southern Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and the Philippines.