284 relations: Adrian Snodgrass, Akshobhya, Alkali salt, Amitābha, Amoghasiddhi, Amsterdam, Anala, Anastylosis, Anatta, Ancestor, Ancient monuments of Java, Andesite, Angkor Wat, Anthropomorphism, Apsara, Arūpajhāna, Architecture of Indonesia, Art history, Asura (Buddhism), Australia, Australian dollar, Austronesian peoples, Avadana, Avatamsaka Sutra, Śūnyatā, Śuddhodana, Babad Tanah Jawi, Bagan, Balinese language, Baluster, Bangkok National Museum, Belgian franc, Belgium, Bodhi Tree, Bodhisattva, Borobudur ship, Borobudur Temple Compounds, Brahmin, British Museum, Buddhism, Buddhism in Indonesia, Buddhist architecture, Buddhist art, Buddhist cosmology, Buddhist pilgrimage, Calcium hydroxide, Cambodia, Candi of Indonesia, Central Java, Charity (virtue), ..., Chatra (umbrella), Chemical engineering, Chulalongkorn, Circle, Closed-circuit television, Concentric objects, Conradus Leemans, Corbel arch, Cypriot pound, Cyprus, Desire realm, Deutsche Mark, Dharmachakra, Dovetail joint, Drainage, Dutch East Indies, Dutch guilder, Dvarapala, East Java, Epigraphy, Extremism, Facade, Ficus religiosa, Five Tathagatas, Flemish people, Fly-whisk, Four stages of enlightenment, Fractal, France, Frank G. Carpenter, French and British interregnum in the Dutch East Indies, Full moon, Gamelan, Ganapathi Thanikaimoni, Gandavyuha, Gandharva, Gargoyle, Gautama Buddha, Germany, Giant, Gold leaf, Government of Indonesia, Governor-general, Guimet Museum, Guinness World Records, Gunadharma, Gupta Empire, Hinduism in Indonesia, Hotel Borobudur, Hyang, Hypothesis, Idolatry, In situ, India, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Indonesian National Revolution, Indonesian rupiah, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Invasion of Java (1811), Isidore van Kinsbergen, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jakarta Globe, Jataka tales, Java, Javanese historical texts, Javanese language, Javanese people, Jetavana, Jihadism, Kaal, Kalasan, Kapilavastu (ancient city), Karangtengah inscription, Karma in Buddhism, Karmawibhangga Museum, Kedu Plain, Kedu Residency, Kelud, Khmer Empire, Kinnara, Kompas, Kris, Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Lake Borobudur, Lalitavistara Sūtra, Life imprisonment, Ligor inscription, Lingam, List of Buddhist temples, List of sacred places in Java, List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia, London, Lotus position, Louvre, Lumbini, Magelang, Magelang Regency, Mahayana, Maitreya, Majapahit, Makara (Hindu mythology), Mandala, Manjushri, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mataram Sultanate, Maya (mother of the Buddha), Medang Kingdom, Megalith, Mendut, Metres above sea level, Microbiology, Monograph, Mortar (masonry), Mount Merapi, Mount Merbabu, Mount Sumbing, Mount Sundoro, Mpu Prapanca, Mpu Sindok, Mudra, Muntilan, Museum of World Religions, Myanmar, Nagarakretagama, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narada Maha Thera, National Geographic, National Museum (Malaysia), National Museum of Indonesia, Natural rubber, Nelumbo nucifera, Nirvana, Old Javanese, Pacific Asia Travel Association, Palm-leaf manuscript, Panangkaran, Parikrama, Paris, Pawon, Philippines, Pilgrim, Place of worship, Prajnaparamita, Prambanan, Pramodhawardhani, Pratītyasamutpāda, Precipitation, Prehistoric Indonesia, Progo River, Prologue, Public holidays in Indonesia, Pyramid, Rakai Pikatan, Rama, Ratnasambhava, Ratu Boko, Relief, Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, Royal Netherlands Army, Rupajhana, Saṃsāra, Saṃsāra (Buddhism), Samadhi, Samantabhadra, Samaratungga, Samudra Raksa Museum, Sanctuary, Sanjaya of Mataram, Sanskrit, Sari temple, Self-similarity, Semarang, Sewu, Shailendra dynasty, Shaivism, Shambhala Publications, Shiva, Shravasti, Shrine, Soil fertility, Square, Sri Lanka, Srivijaya, Stamford Raffles, Step pyramid, Stone carving, Structural engineering, Stupa, Sudhana, Suharto, Sukarno, Superstition, Surakarta, Surasundari, Tara (Buddhism), Temanggung Regency, Temple, Thailand, The History of Java, Time (magazine), Tourism in Indonesia, Trail of Civilizations, Tri Tepusan inscription, Tribhanga, Tropenmuseum, Tushita, Tusk, UNESCO, Unfinished Buddha, United States dollar, Upāsaka and Upāsikā, Urban planning, Vairocana, Vajrayana, Varanasi, Vastu shastra, Veneration of the dead, Vesak, Vihara, Volcanic ash, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, Wayang, White elephant, World Heritage Committee, World Heritage site, World War II, Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta Sultanate, Zenith, 1985 Borobudur bombing, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi. Expand index (234 more) » « Shrink index
Adrian Snodgrass is an authority in Buddhist studies and Buddhist art.
In Vajrayana Buddhism, Akshobhya (अक्षोभ्य, Akṣobhya, "Immovable One") is one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, a product of the Adibuddha, who represents consciousness as an aspect of reality.
Alkali salts or basic salts are salts that are the product of the neutralization of a strong base and a weak acid.
Amitābha, also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.
Amoghasiddhi is one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas of the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
In Hinduism, Anala ("fire" in Sanskrit) is one of the Vasus, gods of the material world.
Anastylosis (from the Ancient Greek: αναστήλωσις, -εως; ανα, ana.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Hundreds of ancient stone religious monuments lie on the island of Java.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
An apsara, also spelled as apsaras by the Oxford Dictionary (respective plurals apsaras and apsarases), is a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu culture.
In Buddhism, the arūpajhānas or "formless meditations" are four successive levels of meditation on non-material objects.
The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
An asura (Sanskrit/Pali: असुर, असुरो) in Buddhism is a demigod or titan of the Kāmadhātu.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Avadāna (Sanskrit; Pali cognate: Apadāna) is the name given to a type of Buddhist literature correlating past lives' virtuous deeds to subsequent lives' events.
The (Sanskrit; alternatively, the) is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras of East Asian Buddhism.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
Śuddhodana (Pali: Suddhōdana), meaning "he who grows pure rice," was a leader of the Shakya, who lived in an oligarchic republic with their capital at Kapilavastu.
Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java"), is a generic title for a large number of manuscripts written in Javanese language.
Bagan (formerly Pagan) is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar.
Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.
The Bangkok National Museum (พิพิธภัณฑสถานแห่งชาติ พระนคร) is the main branch museum of the National Museums in Thailand and also one of the largest museum in Southeast Asia.
The Belgian franc (Franc belge, Belgische frank, Belgischer Franken) was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Bodhi Tree, (Sanskrit: बोधि) also known as Bo (from Sinhalese: Bo),The word 'Bodh' means knowledge and enlightenment.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
A Borobudur ship is the 8th-century wooden double outrigger, sailed vessel of Maritime Southeast Asia depicted in some bas reliefs of the Borobudur Buddhist monument in Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur Temple Compounds is a term used by the World Heritage designation of the area of three Buddhist temples in Central Java, Indonesia.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Indonesia has a long history, with a considerable range of relics dated from its earlier years in Indonesia.
Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent.
Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism.
Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries.
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Rajgir.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A candi is a Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Indianized period", between the 4th and 15th centuries.
Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.
In Christian theology charity, Latin caritas, is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God".
The chatra (from छत्र, meaning "umbrella") is an auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
In geometry, two or more objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis.
Conradus Leemans (1809–1893) was a Dutch Egyptologist.
A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge.
The pound, also known as the lira (λίρα / plural λίρες and Turkish: lira, from the Latin libra through the Italian lira), was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The desire realm (Sanskrit: kāmadhātu) is one of the trailokya or three realms (Sanskrit: dhātu, Tibetan: khams) in Buddhist cosmology into which a being wandering in saṃsāra may be reborn.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
The dharmachakra (which is also known as the wheel of dharma), is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joinery technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery (carpentry) including furniture, cabinets.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
A Dvarapala (Sanskrit, "door guard"; IAST) is a door or gate guardian often portrayed as a warrior or fearsome giant, usually armed with a weapon - the most common being the ''gada'' (mace).
East Java (Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Extremism means, literally, "the quality or state of being extreme" or the "advocacy of extreme measures or views".
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.
In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Five Tathāgatas (pañcatathāgata) or Five Wisdom Tathāgatas, the Five Great Buddhas and the Five Jinas (Sanskrit for "conqueror" or "victor"), are emanations and representations of the five qualities of the Adi-Buddha or "first Buddha" Vairocana or Vajradhara, which is associated with Dharmakaya.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
A fly-whisk is a tool to swat or disturb flies.
The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank George Carpenter (Mansfield, Ohio, May 8, 1855, – Nanking, June 18, 1924) was a journalist, traveler, travel writer, photographer, lecturer.
French and British interregnum in the Dutch East Indies were a relatively short period of French and followed by British interregnum on the Dutch East Indies that took place between 1806 and 1815.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.
Ganapathi Thanikaimoni (1 January 1938 – 5 September 1986), often referred to as Thani was an Indian palynologist.
The Gaṇḍavyūha Sutra or The Flower Ornament Scripture is a Buddhist Mahayana Sutra of Indian origin dating roughly c. 200 to 300 CE.
Gandharva is a name used for distinct heavenly beings in Hinduism and Buddhism; it is also a term for skilled singers in Indian classical music.
In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved or formed grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building, thereby preventing rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giants (from Latin and Ancient Greek: "gigas", cognate giga-) are beings of human appearance, but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
The term Government of Indonesia (Indonesian: Pemerintah Indonesia) can have a number of different meanings.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Guimet Museum (Musée national des arts asiatiques or Musée Guimet) is an art museum located at 6, place d'Iéna in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Gunadharma or Gunadarma is claimed as the name of the architect of Borobudur, the ninth-century Buddhist monument in Central Java, Indonesia.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Hinduism in Indonesia is practised by 1.7% of the total population, and by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census.
Hotel Borobudur is a five star hotel and serviced apartment located in Central Jakarta, Indonesia.
A hyang (Kawi, Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese) is an unseen spiritual entity that has supernatural power in ancient Indonesian mythology.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.
The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The name "Rupiah" is derived from the Indian word rupiya (रुपीया), ultimately from Sanskrit rupyakam (रूप्यकम्; silver). Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ("silver" in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively (see Riau rupiah and West Irian rupiah).
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.
Isodorus "Isidore" van Kinsbergen (3 September 1821 – 10 September 1905) was a Dutch-Flemish engraver who took the first archaeological and cultural photographs of Java during the Dutch East Indies period in the nineteenth century.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Jakarta Globe is a daily online English language newspaper in Indonesia, launched on November 12, 2008.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Javanese literature has a very large historical component.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries or viharas in India.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Kaal or (काल; காலம் kaalam or kaala) is a word used in Sanskrit to mean "time".
Kalasan (Candi Kalasan), also known as Candi Kalibening, is an 8th-century Buddhist temple in Java, Indonesia.
Kapilavastu was an ancient city on the Indian subcontinent which was the capital of Shakya.
Karangtengah inscription (also known as Kayumwungan inscription) is the inscriptions written on five pieces of stones dated 746 Saka or 824 CE, discovered in Karangtengah hamlet, Temanggung Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing".
Karmawibhangga Museum also known as Borobudur Museum, is an archaeology museum located just several hundred meters north of 8th century Borobudur Buddhist monument, within Borobudur Archaeological Park, Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
Kedu Plain, also known as Progo River valley, is the fertile volcanic plain that lies between the volcanoes, Mount Sumbing and Mount Sundoro to the west, and Mount Merbabu and Mount Merapi to the east, roughly corresponds to present-day Magelang and Temanggung Regency of Central Java, Indonesia.
Kedu Residency (also known as Kedoe and Kedoo) was a colonial administrative unit in Central Java in Java, Indonesia.
Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is an active stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
In Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse (India).
Kompas is an Indonesian national newspaper.
The kris (ngoko Javanese:; krama inggil Javanese:; ngoko: keris; krama; dhuwung; krama inggil: wangkingan, lit. "to slice"; Jawi: کريس, Thai: กริช krit, Minangkabau: karih, Tagalog: kalis; Bugis and Makassarese: sele) is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron (pamor).
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (Filipino: Inskripsyon sa Binatbat na Tanso ng Laguna, Malay: Prasasti keping tembaga Laguna; often shortened into the acronym LCI), a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines.
Lake Borobudur is an ancient lake that has been suggested once existed surrounding Borobudur Buddhist monument in Kedu Plain, Central Java, Indonesia.
The Lalitavistara Sūtra is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that tells the story of Gautama Buddha from the time of his descent from Tushita until his first sermon in the Deer Park near Varanasi.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Ligor inscription is an 8th-century stone stele or inscription discovered in Ligor, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Southern Thailand Malay Peninsula.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
This is a list of Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas for which there are Wikipedia articles, sorted by location.
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 38 World Heritage Sites in eleven countries (also called "State parties") of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Singapore, and Laos.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Padmasana or Lotus Position (पद्मासन) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lumbinī (Nepali and Sanskrit: लुम्बिनी, "the lovely") is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi District of Province No. 5 in Nepal.
Magelang is one of six cities in Central Java, each of which is governed by a mayor rather than a bupati.
Magelang (ꦩꦒꦼꦭꦁ) is a regency in Central Java province in Indonesia famous for its 9th century Buddhist temple of Borobudur.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Makara (मकर) is a sea-creature in Hindu culture.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch.
Queen Māyā of Sakya (Māyādevī) was the birth mother of Gautama Buddha, the sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The Medang Empire or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Mendut is a ninth-century Buddhist temple, located in Mendut village, Mungkid sub-district, Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
Mount Merapi, Gunung Merapi (literally Fire Mountain in Indonesian and Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces, Indonesia.
Mount Merbabu (Gunung Merbabu) is a dormant stratovolcano in Central Java province on the Indonesian island of Java.
Mount Sumbing or Gunung Sumbing is an active stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia, symmetrical with Sundoro.
Mount Sindara, Mount Sindoro or Mount Sundoro is an active stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia.
Mpu Prapanca was the author of the epic poem Nagarakretagama, written in Old Javanese.
Mpu Sindok, throne name: Sri Isyana Vikramadhammatunggadeva, was the last king of the Sanjaya Dynasty who ruled the Kingdom of Mataram from Central Java, reigned from around 928 or 929 AD.
A mudra (Sanskrit "seal", "mark", or "gesture") is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
The Muntilan area is a sub-district (''kecamatan'') in the Magelang Regency, Central Java.
The Museum of World Religions (MWR) is a museum in Yonghe District, New Taipei, Taiwan.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakrtagama, also known as Desawarnana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king of the Majapahit Empire.
Nakhon Si Thammarat (นครศรีธรรมราช,; from Pali Nagara Sri Dhammaraja) is a city (thesaban nakhon) in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province and the Nakhon Si Thammarat District.
Narada Mahathera (නාරද මහා ස්ථවිරයන් වහන්සේ), born Sumanapala Perera (14 July 1898 – 2 October 1983) was a Theravadan Buddhist monk and translator, the Superior of Vajiraramaya in Colombo.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Museum (Muzium Negara) is a museum located on Jalan Damansara in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The National Museum of Indonesia (Museum Nasional), is an archeological, historical, ethnological, and geographical museum located in Jalan Medan Merdeka Barat, Central Jakarta, right on the west side of Merdeka Square.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.
The Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) is a membership association working to promote the responsible development of travel and tourism in the Asia Pacific region.
Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves.
Panangkaran or formal regnal name Mahārāja dyāḥ Pañcapaṇa kariyāna Paṇaṃkaraṇa was the king of Shailendra dynasty and also the ruler of Mataram Kingdom between AD 760—775, the kingdom of which its power centralized on Java island of Indonesia.
Parikrama or Pradakshina refers to circumambulation of sacred places in Hindu, Jain or Buddhist context, and the path along which this is performed.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pawon (known locally as Candi Pawon) is a Buddhist temple in Central Java, Indonesia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
A place of worship is a specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study.
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang (Rara Jonggrang) is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimurti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Transformer (Shiva).
Pramodhawardhani (also known as Çrī Kahulunnan or Çrī Sanjiwana) was the queen consort of king Rakai Pikatan (r. 838-850) of Medang Kingdom in 9th century Central Java.
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Prehistoric Indonesia is a prehistoric period in the Indonesian archipelago that spanned from the Pleistocene period to about the 4th century CE when the Kutai people produced the earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia.
The Progo River (Kali Praga) is a river in southern central Java, Indonesia.
A prologue or prolog (from Greek πρόλογος prologos, from πρό pro, "before" and λόγος logos, "word") is an opening to a story that establishes the context and gives background details, often some earlier story that ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information.
The following table indicates declared Indonesian government national holidays for the year 2018 only—cultural variants also provide opportunity for holidays tied to local events.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
Rakai Pikatan was a king of the Sanjaya dynasty Medang Kingdom in Central Java who built the Prambanan temple, dedicated to Shiva, which was completed in 856 AD.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Ratnasambhava (Lit. "Jewel-Born") is one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas (or "Five Meditation Buddhas") of Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism.
Ratu Boko (Ratu Baka) or Ratu Boko Palace is an archaeological site in Java.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 1778-1962) was a Dutch learned society in Batavia (now Jakarta, Indonesia).
The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.
In Buddhism, rūpajhānas (Sanskrit: rūpadhyāna "meditations of form", literally "form meditations") are successive levels of meditation in which the mind is focused on a material or mental object: it is a word frequently used in Pāli scriptures and to a lesser extent in the Mahayana scriptures.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Saṃsāra (Sanskrit, Pali; also samsara) in Buddhism is the beginning-less cycle of repeated birth, mundane existence and dying again.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
Samantabhadra (Sanskrit, "Universal Worthy") is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation.
Samaratungga was the head of the Sailendra dynasty who ruled Central Java and Srivijaya in the 8th and the 9th century.
Samudra Raksa Museum is a maritime museum that was built several hundred meters north of the 8th-century Borobudur Buddhist monument, within the Borobudur archaeological complex, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
King Sanjaya of Mataram (AD 716 – 746) or in complete stylized name known as Rakai Mataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya (King Sanjaya Rakai (lord) of Mataram) was the founder of Mataram Kingdom during the eighth century.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Candi Sari (Candi Sari also known as Candi Bendah) is an 8th-century Buddhist temple located at Dusun Bendan, Tirtomartani village, Kalasan, Sleman regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
In mathematics, a self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself (i.e. the whole has the same shape as one or more of the parts).
Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia.
Sewu (Sèwu) is an eighth century Mahayana Buddhist temple located 800 meters north of Prambanan in Central Java, Indonesia.
The Shailendra dynasty (derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain", also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shambhala Publications is an independent publishing company based in Boulder, Colorado.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Shravasti (Pali) was a city of ancient India and one of the six largest cities in India during Gautama Buddha's lifetime.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java (1811–1815) and Governor-General of Bencoolen (1817–1822), best known for his founding of Modern Singapore.
A step pyramid or stepped pyramid is an architectural structure that uses flat platforms, or steps, receding from the ground up, to achieve a completed shape similar to a geometric pyramid.
Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone.
Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
Sudhanakumâra, mainly known as Sudhana and Shancai or Shancai Tongzi in Chinese, and translated as Child of Wealth, is the protagonist in the next-to-last and longest chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
Surakarta (ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ, often called Solo or less common spelling Sala) is a city in Central Java.
In Indian art, a surasundari (literally "celestial beauty") is a young maiden characterizing feminine beauty and graceful sensuality.
Tara (तारा,; Tib. སྒྲོལ་མ, Dölma) or Ārya Tārā, also known as Jetsun Dölma (Tibetan language: rje btsun sgrol ma) in Tibetan Buddhism, is an important figure in Buddhism.
Temanggung Regency (Kabupaten Temanggung) is a regency in the Central Java Province of Indonesia.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
History of Java is a book written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, and published in 1817.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues.
Trail of Civilizations was the motto of a symposium, initially held in August 2006 in Indonesia under the auspices of the governor of Central Java and the Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
The Tri Tepusan inscription is an inscription discovered in Kedu Plain, Temanggung Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, dated from 842 CE.
Tribhaṅga or Tribunga is a (tri-bent pose) standing body position or stance used in the traditional Indian sculpture, art and Indian classical dance forms like the Odissi.
The Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics) is an ethnographic museum located in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1864.
Tushita or Tusita (meaning "realm, contentment") is the fourth of the six deva or heavenly realms of Kamadhatu, located between the "Yāmā deva" realm and the "Nirmanarati deva" realm.
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unfinished Buddha is the name given to a statue which is believed to have originated from the largest stupa of Borobudur.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant".
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Vairocana (also Vairochana or Mahāvairocana, वैरोचन) is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Dharma Body of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama).
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Vastu shastra is a traditional Hindu system of architecture which literally translates to "science of architecture." These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement and spatial geometry.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Wijnand Otto Jan Nieuwenkamp (often abbreviated as W. O. J. Nieuwenkamp) (Amsterdam, July 27, 1874 – Fiesole, April 23, 1950), was a Dutch multi-faceted autodidact.
Wayang (Krama Javanese: Ringgit, "Shadow"), also known as Wajang, is a form of puppet theatre art found in Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia, wherein a dramatic story is told through shadows thrown by puppets and sometimes combined with human characters.
A white elephant is a possession which its owner cannot dispose of and whose cost, particularly that of maintenance, is out of proportion to its usefulness.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
Yogyakarta Sultanate (Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat; Hanacaraka) is a Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
The 1985 Borobudur bombing occurred on 21 January 1985 when nine bombs detonated at the Borobudur Buddhist temple located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (also known as the Bantul earthquake) occurred at with a moment magnitude of 6.4 and a maximum MSK intensity of VIII (Damaging).
In late October 2010, Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that continued into November.