298 relations: Actuator, Adduct, Aerospace, Agriculture, Allotropes of boron, Allotropes of carbon, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Ammonium chloride, Amorphous solid, Aneutronic fusion, Anisotropy, Antibiotic, Antibody, Apollo program, Arsenic, Arthritis, Arthropod, Atomic diffusion, Atomic number, Balıkesir, Band gap, Big Bang, Bleach, Bleeding, Bohrium, Borane, Boranes, Borate, Borate minerals, Borax, Boraxo, Borazon, Boric acid, Boride, Borium, Boromycin, Boron, Boron carbide, Boron deficiency (medicine), Boron fiber, Boron nitride, Boron oxide, Boron trifluoride, Boron trioxide, Boron, California, Boronic acid, Borophene, ..., Borosilicate glass, Borospherene, Bortezomib, Bulk modulus, Bulletproof vest, Calcium hexaboride, Cancer, Carbon, Carbon fibers, Carborane, Carborane acid, Casein, Ceramic, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical industry, Chemical vapor deposition, China, Chromic acid, Cleaning agent, Cluster chemistry, Colemanite, Colorimetry, Composite material, Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, Continent, Control rod, Cookware and bakeware, Coordinate covalent bond, Corneal dystrophy, Cosmic dust, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal, Curcumin, Curiosity (rover), Czochralski process, Decaborane, Detergent, Diamond, Diborane, Diboron tetrafluoride, Dietary Reference Intake, Dimethyl ether, Dodecaborate, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Earth, Elastic modulus, Electrical conductor, Electrolysis, Electron hole, Electron mobility, Electronvolt, Emet, Empirical formula, Eskişehir, Eti Mine Works, Europe, Evaporite, Extrinsic semiconductor, Falcon 9, Fertilizer, Fiberglass, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Fishing rod, Fissile material, Flare, Flat panel display, Florence, Fluoride, Fluorine-18, Flux (metallurgy), Fracture toughness, Francis Marion Smith, Fullerene, Gale (crater), Gamma ray, Geophysical Research Letters, Germanium, Gizmodo, Glass fiber, Golf club, Graphene, Graphite, Half-life, Halo nucleus, Helvetica Chimica Acta, Heterodiamond, Hexagonal crystal family, Humphry Davy, Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrothermal circulation, Icosahedron, Inorganic nanotube, Insecticide, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Ion, Ion beam deposition, Ion implantation, Isotope, Isotopic signature, Italy, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, JP-7, Kütahya, Kernite, Laboratory glassware, Laser, Laundry detergent, Lewis acids and bases, Life, Lithium, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, Louis Jacques Thénard, Magnesium, Magnesium diboride, Magnetic resonance imaging, Marco Polo, Market share, Mars, Median lethal dose, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Metasomatism, Meteoroid, Microelectromechanical systems, Mining, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, NASA, Neodymium magnet, Neutron capture therapy of cancer, Neutron temperature, Nitric acid, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nucleosynthesis, Nutrient, Ocean, Order and disorder, Organic synthesis, Organoboron chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Owens Corning, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Pacific Coast Borax Company, Parts-per notation, Periodic Videos, Physical vapor deposition, Plasma etching, Plastic, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polymorphism (materials science), Polyvinyl acetate, Polyvinyl alcohol, Positron emission tomography, Pratt & Whitney J58, Pressurized water reactor, Proteasome, Proton emission, Pyrex, Pyrophoricity, Radiation hardening, Radical (chemistry), Radical initiator, Radionuclide, Ramjet, Reagent, Red blood cell, Resonance, Rhenium diboride, Rio Tinto Borax Mine, Rio Tinto Group, RNA, Rock (geology), Rocketdyne F-1, Rosocyanine, Salt, Sassolite, Saturn V, Schott AG, Scram, Semi-empirical mass formula, Semiconductor, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Single event upset, Skylab, SLC4A11, Sodium chloride, Sodium perborate, Sodium percarbonate, Soffioni, Solar System, SpaceX, Spallation, Spin (physics), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Starch, State monopoly, State-owned enterprise, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Streptomyces, Sulfuric acid, Superacid, Superconducting wire, Superconductivity, Supernova, Suzuki reaction, Tavaborole, Tetrafluoroborate, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahydroxyborate, Tetraphenylborate, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Titanium diboride, Tooth whitening, Triethylborane, Triphenylborane, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Turbojet, Turkey, Ulexite, United States, United States Geological Survey, Vehicle armour, Vickers hardness test, Volcano, Wood preservation, Zirconium diboride, Zone melting, 20 Mule Team Borax. Expand index (248 more) » « Shrink index
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Boron can be prepared in several crystalline and amorphous forms.
Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Vacancy diffusion is a diffusion process whereby the random thermally-activated movement of atoms in a solid results in the net transport of atoms.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Bohrium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Boranes are a large group of group-13 hydride compounds that have the generic formula BxHy.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
The borate minerals are minerals which contain a borate anion group.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Boraxo is an American brand of powdered hand soap manufactured and marketed by the Dial Corporation, a subsidiary of Henkel.
Borazon is a brand name of a cubic form of boron nitride (cBN).
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Borium is a product that consists of tungsten carbide granules embedded in a matrix of softer metal.
Boromycin is a bacteriocidal polyether-macrolide antibiotic.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic, and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.
Boron deficiency is a pathology which may occur in animals due to a lack of boron.
Boron Fiber (also commonly called "boron filament") is an amorphous elemental boron product which represents the major industrial use of elemental (free) boron.
Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.
Boron oxide may refer to.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Boron trioxide (or diboron trioxide) is one of the oxides of boron.
Boron (formerly Amargo, Baker, Borate, and Kern) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kern County, California, United States.
A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group.
Borophene is a proposed crystalline allotrope of boron.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
Borospherene (B40) is a cluster molecule containing 40 boron atoms.
Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN; marketed as Velcade by Takeda Oncology; Chemobort by Cytogen and Bortecad by Cadila Healthcare) is an anti-cancer drug and the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans.
The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.
A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
Calcium hexaboride (sometimes calcium boride) is a compound of calcium and boron with the chemical formula CaB6.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre) are fibers about 5–10 micrometers in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.
A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Carborane acids H(CHB11X11) are a class of superacids, that are at least one million times stronger than 100% sulfuric acid in terms of their Hammett acidity function (H0) values, which measure the ability of a medium or solvent to donate protons.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.
In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.
Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O) or (CaB3O4(OH)3·H2O) is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments.
Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Congenital hereditary corneal dystrophy (CHED) is a form of corneal dystrophy which presents at birth.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
Corneal dystrophy is a group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by bilateral abnormal deposition of substances in the transparent front part of the eye called the cornea.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
Decaborane, also called decaborane(14), is the borane with the chemical formula B10H14.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.
Diboron tetrafluoride is a colorless gas.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Dodecaborate (or closo-dodecaborate, or dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate) is an ionic molecule containing a symmetrical cluster of boron and hydrogen atoms with the molecular formula B12H.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Emet is a town and a district of Kütahya Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of.
Eti Mine Works (Eti Maden İşletmeleri) is a Turkish state-owned mining and chemicals company focusing on boron products.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.
A fishing rod is a long, flexible rod used to catch fish.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.
Francis Marion Smith (February 2, 1846 – August 27, 1931) (once known nationally and internationally as "Borax Smith" and "The Borax King") was an American miner, business magnate and civic builder in the Mojave Desert, the San Francisco Bay Area, and Oakland, California.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
Gale is a crater, and probable dry lake, on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.
Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.
A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball in a game of golf.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
Helvetica Chimica Acta is a scientific journal founded by the.
Heterodiamond is a superhard material containing boron, carbon, and nitrogen (BCN).
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
An inorganic nanotube is a cylindrical molecule often composed of metal oxides, or group III-Nitrides and morphologically similar to a carbon nanotube.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion beam deposition (IBD) is a process of applying materials to a target through the application of an ion beam.
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Turbine Fuel, Low Volatility, JP-7, commonly known as JP-7, was referred to as Jet Propellant 7, to MIL-DTL-38219 is a specific jet fuel that was developed for the United States Air Force (USAF), for use in its supersonic military aircraft that required a jet fuel with a high flash point, and high thermal stability.
Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.
Kernite, also known as rasorite is a hydrated sodium borate hydroxide mineral with formula.
Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment in scientific work traditionally made of glass.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company.
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a simple ionic binary compound that has proven to be an inexpensive and useful superconducting material.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
In physics, the terms order and disorder designate the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Owens Corning is a global company that develops and produces insulation, roofing, and fiberglass composites.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Pacific Coast Borax Company (PCB) was a United States mining company founded in 1890 by the American borax magnate Francis "Borax" Smith, the "Borax King".
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings.
Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D-20) was a jet engine that powered the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently the YF-12 and the SR-71 aircraft.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In chemistry, radical initiators are substances that can produce radical species under mild conditions and promote radical reactions.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a synthetic superhard material.
The Rio Tinto Boron Mine (formerly the U.S. Borax Boron Mine) in Boron, California is California's largest open-pit mine and the largest borax mine in the world, producing nearly half the world's borates.
Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.
Rosocyanine and Rubrocurcumin are two red colored materials, which are formed by the reaction between curcumin and borates.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sassolite is a borate mineral, and is the mineral form of boric acid.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Schott AG is an international manufacturing group of glass and glass-ceramics.
A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor.
In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) (sometimes also called Weizsäcker's formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker mass formula to distinguish it from the Bethe–Weizsäcker process) is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A single event upset (SEU) is a change of state caused by one single ionizing particle (ions, electrons, photons...) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistors.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
Sodium bicarbonate transporter-like protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium perborate is chemical compound whose chemical formula may be written,, or, more properly, ·. Its name is sometimes abbreviated as PBS.
Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula.
Soffioni (sometimes spelt suffioni), a name applied in Italy to certain volcanic vents which emit jets of steam, generally associated with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, sometimes also with a little ammonia and marsh gas.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.
Superconducting wire is wire made of superconductors.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
The Suzuki reaction is an organic reaction, classified as a coupling reaction, where the coupling partners are a boronic acid and an organohalide catalyzed by a palladium(0) complex.
Tavaborole (trade name Kerydin) is a topical antifungal medication for the treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail and nail bed.
Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Tetrahydroxyborate (systematically named tetrahydroxyboranuide and tetrahydroxidoborate(1−)) is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula (also written as or). It contributes no colour to tetrahydroxyborate salts.
Tetraphenylborate (IUPAC name: Tetraphenylboranuide) is an organoboron anion consisting of a central boron atom with four phenyl groups.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Titanium diboride (TiB2) is an extremely hard ceramic which has excellent heat conductivity, oxidation stability and resistance to mechanical erosion.
Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilising bleach), is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade.
Triphenylborane, often abbreviated to BPh3 where Ph is the phenyl group C6H5-, is a chemical compound with the formula B(C6H5)3.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6·5H2O, hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide), sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).
Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure.
Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.
20 Mule Team Borax is a brand of cleaner manufactured in the United States by The Dial Corporation, a subsidiary of Henkel.