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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. [1]

291 relations: Actuator, Adduct, Aerospace, Agriculture, Allotropes of boron, Allotropes of carbon, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Ammonium chloride, Amorphous solid, Aneutronic fusion, Anisotropy, Antibiotics, Apollo program, Arsenic, Arthritis, Arthropod, Atomic diffusion, Atomic number, Balıkesir, Band gap, Big Bang, Biology, Bleach, Borane, Boranes, Borate, Borate minerals, Borax, Boraxo, Borazon, Boric acid, Boride, Borium, Boromycin, Boron, Boron carbide, Boron deficiency (medicine), Boron fiber, Boron nitride, Boron oxide, Boron trifluoride, Boron trioxide, Boron, California, Boronic acid, Borophene, Borosilicate glass, Borospherene, Bortezomib, ..., Bulk modulus, Bulletproof vest, Calcium hexaboride, Carbon, Carborane, Carborane acid, Casein, Cell wall, Ceramic, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical industry, Chemical vapor deposition, China, Chromic acid, Cleaning agent, Cluster chemistry, Colemanite, Colorimetry, Composite material, Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, Continent, Control rod, Cookware and bakeware, Corneal dystrophy, Cosmic dust, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystallinity, Curcumin, Czochralski process, Decaborane, Detergent, Diamond, Diborane, Diboron tetrafluoride, Diet (nutrition), Dimethyl ether, Dipolar bond, Dodecaborate, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Elastic modulus, Electrical conductor, Electrolysis, Electron hole, Electron mobility, Electronvolt, Emet, Empirical formula, Eskişehir, Estrogen, Eti Mine Works, Europe, Evaporite, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fertilizer, Fiberglass, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Fishing rod, Fissile material, Flammability, Flare, Flat panel display, Florence, Flux (metallurgy), Fracture toughness, Francis Marion Smith, Fullerene, Gamma ray, Germanium, Glass fiber, Golf club, Government monopoly, Graphene, Graphite, Half-life, Halo nucleus, Helvetica Chimica Acta, Heterodiamond, Humphry Davy, Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrothermal circulation, Icosahedron, Inorganic nanotube, Insecticide, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Ion, Ion beam deposition, Ion implantation, Isotope, Isotopic signature, Italy, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, JP-7, Kütahya, Kernite, Laboratory glassware, Laser, Laundry detergent, Lewis acids and bases, Lithium, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, Louis Jacques Thénard, Magnesium, Magnesium diboride, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Marco Polo, Market share, Mars, Median lethal dose, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Meteoroid, Microelectromechanical systems, Mining, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, NASA, National Institutes of Health, Neodymium magnet, Neutron capture therapy of cancer, Neutron temperature, Nitric acid, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nucleosynthesis, Nutrient, Ocean, Order and disorder (physics), Organic synthesis, Organoboron chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Osteoporosis, Owens Corning, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Pacific Coast Borax Company, Parts-per notation, Physical vapor deposition, Physiology, Plant, Plasma etching, Plastic, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polymorphism (materials science), Polyvinyl acetate, Polyvinyl alcohol, Pratt & Whitney J58, Pressurized water reactor, Proteasome, Proton emission, Pyrex, Pyrophoricity, Radiation hardening, Radical (chemistry), Radical initiator, Radionuclide, Ramjet, Reagent, Resonance, Rhenium diboride, Rio Tinto Borax Mine, Rio Tinto Group, RNA, Rock (geology), Rocketdyne F-1, Rosocyanine, Salt, Sassolite, Saturn V, Schott AG, Scram, Second, Semi-empirical mass formula, Semiconductor, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Single event upset, Skylab, SLC4A11, Sodium chloride, Sodium perborate, Sodium percarbonate, Soffioni, Solar System, Spallation, Spin (physics), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Starch, State-owned enterprise, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Streptomyces, Sulfuric acid, Superacid, Superconducting wire, Superconductivity, Suzuki reaction, Tetrafluoroborate, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahydroxyborate, Tetraphenylborate, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Titanium diboride, Tooth whitening, Toxicity, Triethylborane, Trigonal crystal system, Triphenylborane, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Turbojet, Turkey, Ulexite, Ultratrace element, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Geological Survey, Vehicle armour, Vickers hardness test, Vitamin D, Volcano, Wood preservation, Zirconium diboride, Zone melting, 20 Mule Team Borax. Expand index (241 more) »


An actuator is a type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.

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An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Allotropes of boron

Boron can be prepared in several crystalline and amorphous forms.

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Allotropes of carbon

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.

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Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride, an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl, is a white crystalline salt, highly soluble in water.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.

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Aneutronic fusion

Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.

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Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which implies identical properties in all directions.

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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.

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An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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Atomic diffusion

Atomic diffusion is a diffusion process whereby the random thermally-activated movement of atoms in a solid results in the net transport of atoms.

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Atomic number

In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province.

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Bleach refers to a number of chemicals which remove color, whiten or disinfect, often by oxidation.

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Borane (also systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.

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In chemistry, boranes comprise a large group of compounds with the generic formula of BxHy.

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Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.

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Borate minerals

The borate minerals are minerals which contain a borate anion group.

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Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

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Boraxo is an American brand of powdered hand soap.

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Borazon is a brand name of a cubic form of boron nitride (cBN).

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Boric acid

Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.

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In chemistry a boride is a chemical compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).

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Borium is a product that consists of tungsten carbide granules embedded in a matrix of softer metal.

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Boromycin is a bacteriocidal polyether-macrolide antibiotic.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Boron carbide

Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.

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Boron deficiency (medicine)

Boron deficiency is a pathology which may occur in animals due to a lack of boron.

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Boron fiber

Boron fiber (also commonly called "boron filament") is an amorphous elemental boron product which represents the major industrial use of elemental (free) boron.

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Boron nitride

Boron nitride is a chemical compound with chemical formula BN, consisting of equal numbers of boron and nitrogen atoms.

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Boron oxide

Boron oxide may refer to.

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Boron trifluoride

Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.

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Boron trioxide

Boron trioxide (or diboron trioxide) is one of the oxides of boron.

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Boron, California

Boron (formerly, Amargo, Baker, Borate, and Kern) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kern County, California, United States.

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Boronic acid

A boronic acid is an alkyl or aryl substituted boric acid containing a carbon–boron bond belonging to the larger class of organoboranes.

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Borophene is a proposed crystalline allotrope of boron.

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Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

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Borospherene (B40) is a cluster molecule containing 40 boron atoms.

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Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN. Originally codenamed PS-341; marketed as Velcade by Millennium Pharmaceuticals and Cytomib by Venus Remedies) is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be tested in humans.

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Bulk modulus

The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance measures the substance's resistance to uniform compression.

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Bulletproof vest

A bulletproof vest, ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or prohibit penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.

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Calcium hexaboride

Calcium hexaboride (sometimes calcium boride) is a compound of calcium and boron with the chemical formula CaB6.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms.

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Carborane acid

Carborane acid H(CHB11Cl11) is a superacid one million times stronger than sulfuric acid.

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Casein (or, from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).

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Cell wall

The cell wall is a tough, flexible and sometimes rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.

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A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chelation describes a particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chromic acid

The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.

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Cleaning agent

Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.

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Cluster chemistry

In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.

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Colemanite (CaB3O4(OH)3·H2O) is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments.

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Colorimetry (American English) or Colourimetry (British English; see spelling differences) is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

Congenital hereditary corneal dystrophy (CHED) is a form of corneal dystrophy which presents at birth.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth.

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Control rod

Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.

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Cookware and bakeware

Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen.

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Corneal dystrophy

Corneal dystrophy is a group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by bilateral abnormal deposition of substances in the transparent front part of the eye called the cornea.

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust is dust which exists in space.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.

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Cosmic ray spallation

Cosmic ray spallation is a form of naturally occurring nuclear fission and nucleosynthesis.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.

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Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.

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Curcumin is a diarylheptanoid.

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Czochralski process

The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.

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Decaborane, also called decaborane(14), is the borane with the chemical formula B10H14.

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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.

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In mineralogy, diamond (or; from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice.

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Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.

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Diboron tetrafluoride

Diboron tetrafluoride is a colorless gas.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dimethyl ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.

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Dipolar bond

A dipolar bond, also known as a dative covalent bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

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Dodecaborate (or closo-dodecaborate, or dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate) is a ionic molecule containing a symmetrical cluster of boron and hydrogen atoms with the molecular formula B12H122−.

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A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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Elastic modulus

"Young's modulus" or modulus of elasticity, is a number that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it.

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Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electron hole

In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.

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Electron mobility

In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV; also written electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 160 zeptojoules (symbol zJ) or joules (symbol J).

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Emet is a town and a district of Kütahya Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Empirical formula

In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.

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Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city")) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. The population of the city is 685,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of. Airbus A330-200 TC-JNG from Turkish Airlines is named 'Eskişehir'.

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Estrogen or oestrogen (see spelling differences) is the primary female sex hormone and is responsible for development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics.

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Eti Mine Works

Eti Mine Works (Eti Maden İşletmeleri) is a Turkish state-owned mining and chemicals company focusing on boron products.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Evaporite is a name for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.

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Extrinsic semiconductor

An extrinsic is a semiconductor that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.

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A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fiberglass (or fibreglass) is a type of fiber reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber.

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Fibre-reinforced plastic

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also fibre-reinforced polymer) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers.

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Fishing rod

A fishing rod is a long, flexible length of glass fibre composite, carbon fibre composite or, classically, bamboo, used to catch fish.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion.

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A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.

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Flat panel display

Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of electronic visual display technologies.

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Florence (Firenze, alternative obsolete form: Fiorenza; Latin: Florentia) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.

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Flux (metallurgy)

In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.

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Fracture toughness

In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.

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Francis Marion Smith

Francis Marion Smith (February 2, 1846 – August 27, 1931) (once known nationally and internationally as "Borax Smith" and "The Borax King") was an American miner, business magnate and civic builder in the Mojave Desert, the San Francisco Bay Area, and Oakland, California.

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A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.

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Gamma ray

Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Glass fiber

Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.

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Golf club

A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball in a game of golf.

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Government monopoly

In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.

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Graphene (/ˈɡræf.iːn/) is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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Halo nucleus

In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a halo of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.

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Helvetica Chimica Acta

Helvetica Chimica Acta is a scientific journal founded by the Swiss Chemical Society.

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Heterodiamond is a superhard material containing boron, carbon, and nitrogen (BCN).

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor.

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Hydroboration–oxidation reaction

In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydrothermal circulation

Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.

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In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.

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Inorganic nanotube

An inorganic nanotube is a cylindrical molecule often composed of metal oxides, or group III-Nitrides and morphologically similar to a carbon nanotube.

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An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects.

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International Programme on Chemical Safety

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.

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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Ion beam deposition

Ion Beam Deposition (IBD) is a process of applying materials to a target through the application of an ion beam.

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material are accelerated in an electrical field and impacted into a solid.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Isotopic signature

An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیان, fa, often given the nisbahs al-al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known as Geber, was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), by himself and the contemporary society named Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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JP-7 (Jet Propellant 7, MIL-DTL-38219) is a jet fuel developed by the U.S. Air Force for use in supersonic aircraft because of its high flash point and thermal stability.

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Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.

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Kernite, also known as rasorite is a hydrated sodium borate hydroxide mineral with formula.

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Laboratory glassware

Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laundry detergent

Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.

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Lewis acids and bases

Lewis acid is a chemical species that reacts with a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lockheed Corporation

The Lockheed Corporation (originally the Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company) was an American aerospace company.

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Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird

The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.

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Louis Jacques Thénard

Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857), was a French chemist.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnesium diboride

Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a simple ionic binary compound that has proven to be an inexpensive and useful superconducting material.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (September 15, 1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.

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Market share

"Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity." In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 67% responded that they found the "dollar market share" metric very useful, while 61% found "unit market share" very useful.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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A metalloid is a chemical element with properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through space.

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Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) (also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of very small devices; it merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology.

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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

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Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale that characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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Neodymium magnet

A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.

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Neutron capture therapy of cancer

Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer.

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Neutron temperature

The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station.

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

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Nutrients are components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Order and disorder (physics)

In physics, the terms order and disorder designate the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.

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Organoboron chemistry

Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.

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Orthorhombic crystal system

In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the seven lattice point groups.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Owens Corning

Owens Corning is the world's largest manufacturer of insulation, roofing and fiberglass composites.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pacific Coast Borax Company

The Pacific Coast Borax Company (PCB) was a United States mining company founded in 1890 by the American borax magnate Francis "Borax" Smith, the "Borax King".

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Physical vapor deposition

Physical vapor detion (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods used to deposit thin films by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various workpiece surfaces (e.g., onto semiconductor wafers).

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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plasma etching

Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.

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Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.

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Polyethylene (abbreviated PE) or polyethene (IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the most common plastic.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymorphism (materials science)

In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.

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Polyvinyl acetate

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.

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Polyvinyl alcohol

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer.

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Pratt & Whitney J58

The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D-20) was a jet engine used on the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently on the YF-12 and SR-71 aircraft.

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Pressurized water reactor

Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of all Western nuclear power plants and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).

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Proteasomes are protein complexes inside all eukaryotes and archaea, and in some bacteria.

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Proton emission

Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.

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Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Incorporated in 1915 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.

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A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).

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Radiation hardening

Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.

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Radical initiator

In chemistry, radical initiators are substances that can produce radical species under mild conditions and promote radical reactions.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor.

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A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is more specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction".

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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a given system is driven by another vibrating system or external force to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.

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Rhenium diboride

Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a synthetic superhard material.

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Rio Tinto Borax Mine

The Rio Tinto Boron Mine (formerly the U.S. Borax Boron Mine) in Boron, California is California's largest open-pit mine and the largest borax mine in the world, producing nearly half the world's borates.

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Rio Tinto Group

Rio Tinto Group is a British-Australian multinational metals and mining corporation with headquarters in London, United Kingdom, and a management office in Melbourne, Australia.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Rock (geology)

In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rocketdyne F-1

The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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Rosocyanine and Rubrocurcumin are two red colored materials, which are formed by the reaction between curcumin and borates.

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Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Sassolite is a borate mineral, and is the mineral form of boric acid.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (spoken as "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1966 and 1973.

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Schott AG

Schott AG, founded in Jena in 1884, is a German developer and manufacturer of high-quality industrial specialty glass products.

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A scram or SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor, though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads.

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The second (symbol: s) (abbreviated s or sec) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI).

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Semi-empirical mass formula

In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) (sometimes also called Weizsäcker's formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker mass formula to distinguish it from the Bethe–Weizsäcker process) is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Single event upset

A single event upset (SEU) is a change of state caused by one single ionizing particle (ions, electrons, photons...) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistors.

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Skylab was a space station launched and operated by NASA and was the United States' first space station. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a weight of. Three manned missions to the station, conducted between 1973 and 1974 using the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) atop the smaller Saturn IB, each delivered a three-astronaut crew. On the last two manned missions, an additional Apollo / Saturn IB stood by ready to rescue the crew in orbit if it was needed. The station was damaged during launch when the micrometeoroid shield separated from the workshop and tore away, taking one of two main solar panel arrays with it and jamming the other one so that it could not deploy. This deprived Skylab of most of its electrical power, and also removed protection from intense solar heating, threatening to make it unusable. The first crew was able to save it in the first in-space major repair, by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panels. Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount, which was a multi-spectral solar observatory, Multiple Docking Adapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module with EVA hatches, and the Orbital Workshop, the main habitable volume. Electrical power came from solar arrays, as well as fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heat radiator. Numerous scientific experiments were conducted aboard Skylab during its operational life, and crews were able to confirm the existence of coronal holes in the Sun. The Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) was used to view the Earth with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Thousands of photographs of Earth were taken, and records for human time spent in orbit were extended. Plans were made to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. However, development of the Shuttle was delayed, and Skylab reentered Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated in 1979, with debris striking portions of Western Australia. Post-Skylab NASA space laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station ''Freedom'' (later merged into the International Space Station).

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Sodium bicarbonate transporter-like protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium perborate

Sodium perborate (PBS) is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with the chemical formula 3.

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Sodium percarbonate

Sodium percarbonate is a chemical, an adduct of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide (a perhydrate), with formula 2Na2CO3 · 3H2O2.

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Soffioni (sometimes spelt suffioni), a name applied in Italy to certain volcanic vents which emit jets of steam, generally associated with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, sometimes also with a little ammonia and marsh gas.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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State-owned enterprise

A state-owned enterprise (SOE) otherwise known as a: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars.

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Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.

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Superconducting wire

Superconducting wire is wire made of superconductors.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Suzuki reaction

The Suzuki reaction is the organic reaction that is classified as a coupling reaction where the coupling partners are a boronic acid with a halide catalyzed by a palladium(0) complex.

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Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−.

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Tetragonal crystal system

In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups.

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Tetrahydroxyborate (systematically named tetrahydroxyboranuide and tetrahydroxidoborate(1−)) is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula (also written as or). It contributes no colour to tetrahydroxyborate salts.

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Tetraphenylborate (IUPAC name: Tetraphenylboranuide) is an organoboron anion consisting of a central boron atom with four phenyl groups.

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The Periodic Table of Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, when the body is heated its dimension(size) increase.This increase in dimension is called thermal expansion.

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Titanium diboride

Titanium diboride (chemical formula TiB2) is an extremely hard compound composed of titanium and boron which has excellent resistance to mechanical erosion.

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Tooth whitening

Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilizing bleach), is either restoration of natural tooth shade or whitening beyond natural tooth shade, depending on the definition used.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.

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Triethylborane (TEB), also called triethylboron, is an organoborane (a compound with a B-C bond).

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Trigonal crystal system

In crystallography, the trigonal crystal system is one of the seven crystal systems.

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Triphenylborane, often abbreviated to BPh3 where Ph is the phenyl group C6H5-, is a chemical compound with the formula B(C6H5)3.

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Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.

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Tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.

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The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, usually used in aircraft.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)) (hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide), sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers.

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Ultratrace element

In biochemistry, an ultratrace element is a chemical element that normally comprises less than one microgram per gram of a given organism (i.e. less than 0.0001% by weight), but which plays a significant role in its metabolism.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Vehicle armour

Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles, or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.

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Vickers hardness test

The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.

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A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Wood preservation

All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).

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Zirconium diboride

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure.

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Zone melting

Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.

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20 Mule Team Borax

20 Mule Team Borax is a brand of cleaner manufactured by the US soap firm Dial Corporation, a subsidiary of the German consumer product firm Henkel.

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Atomic number 5, B (element), Boron (element), Boron Chemistry, Boron chemistry, Boron compounds, Boron quantification, Boron-10, Burah, Curcumin method, Element 5.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron

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