216 relations: Aşiyan, Abyssal channel, Achaemenid Empire, Adile Sultan Palace, Aegean Sea, Aeolian processes, Aeschylus, Age of Discovery, Ahırkapı Feneri, Alexander Vallaury, Allies of World War I, Anadolu Agency, Anadolu Feneri, Anadoluhisarı, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Ardahan, Arnavutköy, Artvin, Asia, Athens, Austrian Empire, Auxiliaries, Çırağan Palace, Özhan Öztürk, Üsküdar, İDO, İstanbul Modern, Balkans, Beşiktaş, Bebek, Beşiktaş, Beylerbeyi Palace, Black Sea, Black Sea deluge hypothesis, Boğaziçi University, Bosphorus Bridge, Bosporus Water Tunnel, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cable-stayed bridge, Cargo ship, Chalcedon, Chares of Athens, Christopher Columbus, Columbia University, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Crimea, Cruise ship, Danube, ..., Dardanelles, Darius I, Düzce Province, Deposition (geology), Dokuz Eylül University, Dolmabahçe Mosque, Dolmabahçe Palace, East Thrace, Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eminönü, Erosion, Estuary, Eurasia, Eurasia Tunnel, Europe, Fall of Constantinople, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, Feriye Palace, Ferries in Istanbul, Flood, French Second Republic, Galata Tower, Galatasaray University, Gallipoli Campaign, Göztepe, Kadıköy, Golden Horn, Great Istanbul Tunnel, Great power, Greek mythology, Hagia Irene, Hagia Sophia, Hatice Sultan Palace, Heracles, Herodotus, Highway, Histories (Herodotus), Ihlamur Palace, Imperial Russian Navy, Ingeniøren, International waters, Io (mythology), Istanbul, Istanbul Sapphire, Jason, John Tzetzes, Kabataş Erkek Lisesi, Kabataş, Beyoğlu, Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri, Kanal İstanbul, Kandilli, Üsküdar, Kars Province, Kazlıçeşme, Zeytinburnu, Küçüksu Palace, Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, Kerch Strait, Khedive Palace, Kingdom of Prussia, Kuleli Military High School, League of Nations, Levent, List of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, London Straits Convention, Maiden's Tower, Marmaray, Medieval Greek, Medieval Latin, Mediterranean Sea, Megara, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Metropolitan area, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque (Üsküdar), Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, Mysia, NATO, Near East, Neutral country, New Civil Engineer, New Mosque (Istanbul), Novorossiysk, Nusretiye Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque, Otoyol 1, Ottoman Empire, Oxford, Perili Köşk, Pier, Population, Port, Prince Islands, Prometheus, Prometheus Bound, Prosphorion Harbour, Public transport in Istanbul, Rail transport, Rail transport in Turkey, Renaissance, River, Robert Ballard, Robert College, Roman Empire, Royal Navy, Rumeli Feneri, Rumelia, Rumelihisarı, Russia, Russian Empire, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), RV K. Piri Reis, Sabah (newspaper), SACLANT ASW Research Centre, Sadberk Hanım Museum, Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Scythia, Sea of Marmara, Second Persian invasion of Greece, Selimiye Barracks, Silivri, Sophocles, Soviet Union, Strait, Stratfor, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Suspension (chemistry), Suspension bridge, Symplegades, Taksim Square, Tanker (ship), The Washington Post, Thrace, Titan (mythology), Today's Zaman, Tophane, Topkapı Palace, Trans-European Motorways, Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, Treaty of Kars, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Sèvres, TRT World, Tunnel, Turkey, Turkish Naval Forces, Turkish Straits, Turkish Straits crisis, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Leeds, University of Southampton, Warship, Water tunnel (physical infrastructure), Waterway, Wayback Machine, World War I, World War II, Xerxes I, Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges, Yalı, Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, Yıldız Palace, Yeni Valide Mosque, Yeniköy, Sarıyer, Yoros Castle, Zeus. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aşiyan is a quarter between Bebek and Rumelihisarı in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Abyssal channels (also, deep-sea channels, underwater channels) are channels in Earth's sea floor.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adile Sultan Palace is the former royal residence of Ottoman princess Adile Sultan.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Ahırkap Feneri, a historical lighthouse still in use, is located at the southern Seraglio Point on the Rumelian coast of Bosporus' south entrance, in Ahırkapı neighborhood of Istanbul's Fatih district, Turkey.
Alexander Vallaury (1850-1921) was a French-Ottoman architect, who founded architectural education and lectured in the School of Fine Arts in Constantinople (Istanbul), Ottoman Empire.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Anadolu Agency (Anadolu Ajansı, abbreviated AA) is a state-run international news agency of the Turkish government headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.
Anadolu Feneri is a historical lighthouse still in use, which is located on the Asian side of Bosphorus' Black Sea entrance in Istanbul, Turkey.
Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle), known historically as Güzelce Hisar ("the Beauteous Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ardahan (არტაანი, Art’aani; Արդահան, Ardahan) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
Arnavutköy (meaning "Albanian village" in Turkish; known in Greek as Mega Rhevma (Μέγα Ῥεύμα), meaning "great current") is a historic neighbourhood in Istanbul, Turkey, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and seafood restaurants, as well as the campus of the prestigious Robert College with its centennial buildings.
Artvin (ართვინი,; Laz: ართვინი Artvini, Armenian: Արդվին Ardvin) is a city in northeastern Turkey about 30 km inland from the Black Sea.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
An auxiliary force is an organized group supplementing but not directly incorporated in a regular military or police entity.
Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.
Özhan Öztürk (born 1968) is a Turkish writer and researcher.
Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (Σκουτάριον in Greek), is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus.
İDO Istanbul Fast Ferries Co.
İstanbul Modern, a.k.a. Istanbul Museum of Modern Art, (İstanbul Modern Sanat Müzesi) is a museum of contemporary art in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Beşiktaş (pronounced) is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait.
Bebek (known in Greek as Χηλαί, Chelai) is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district.
The Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Sarayı), Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords", is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Üsküdar district in Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa 5600 BCE from waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosphorus strait.
Boğaziçi University (also known as Bosphorus University, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, "Boğaziçi" literally meaning Bosphorus in Turkish) is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Bosphorus Bridge (Boğaziçi Köprüsü), known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge (15 Temmuz Şehitler Köprüsü) and unofficially as the First Bridge (Birinci Köprü), is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia (alongside Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge).
The Bosphorus Water Tunnel (Boğaziçi Su Tüneli) or Bosporus aqueduct is an under sea aqueduct in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing the Bosphorus strait.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers (or pylons), from which cables support the bridge deck.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Chares of Athens (lived in the 4th century BC) and was an Athenian general, who for a number of years was a key commander of Athenian forces.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Düzce Province (Düzce ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. It is on the coastline of the Black Sea and is traversed by the main highway between Istanbul and Ankara. The main town is Düzce. There are ancient Greek ruins in the province. Düzce broke off from Bolu province and became a province in its own right after a devastating earthquake in the city in November 1999. The total population of the province in 2010 was 338,188.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Dokuz Eylül University (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi) (DEÜ) is a university in Turkey.
The Dolmabahçe Mosque is a mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul in Turkey, currently a quarter of Fatih, the province's capital district.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasia Tunnel (Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing underneath the Bosphorus strait.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi).
The Feriye Palace (Feriye Sarayı) is a complex of Ottoman imperial palace buildings along the European shoreline of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.
The city of Istanbul is at a geographic crossroads, straddling Europe and Asia Minor, and is divided by a sea lane called the Bosphorus Strait, which joins the Black Sea in the northeast and the Marmara Sea in the southwest.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
The Galata Tower (Galata Kulesi in Turkish) — called Christea Turris (the Tower of Christ in Latin) by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus.
Galatasaray University (Galatasaray Üniversitesi, Université Galatasaray) is a Turkish university established in İstanbul, Turkey in 1992, following an agreement signed in the presence of President François Mitterrand of France and President Turgut Özal of Turkey during a ceremony at Galatasaray High School, the mother school of the university.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Göztepe is a neighborhood in Kadiköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Great Istanbul Tunnel (Büyük İstanbul Tüneli) is a proposed multi-use highway and railway undersea tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey to cross the Bosphorus strait.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Hagia Irene or Hagia Eirene (Ἁγία Εἰρήνη, Byzantine, "Holy Peace", Aya İrini), sometimes known also as Saint Irene, is a Greek Eastern Orthodox church located in the outer courtyard of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Hatice Sultan Palace (Hatice Sultan Yalısı), a historical yalı (waterside mansion) located at Bosporus in Ortaköy neighborhood of Istanbul, Turkey and named after its original owner Hatice Sultan, is used today as a water sports club's building.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Ihlamur Palace (Ihlamur Kasrı), is a former imperial Ottoman summer palace located in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
Ingeniøren (full name: Nyhedsmagasinet Ingeniøren, literally The News Magazine "The Engineer") is a Danish weekly newspaper specialising in engineering topics.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
Io (Ἰώ) was, in Greek mythology, one of the mortal lovers of Zeus.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istanbul Sapphire, or Sapphire, is a skyscraper, and as of 2016, the tallest building in Istanbul and Turkey, located in the central business district of Levent.
Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.
John Tzetzes (Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Ioánnis Tzétzis; c. 1110, Constantinople – 1180, Constantinople) was a Byzantine poet and grammarian who is known to have lived at Constantinople in the 12th century.
Kabataş Erkek Lisesi or Kabataş High School (Kabataş Mekteb-i İdâdisi) is one of the oldest and most prominent high schools in Turkey.
Kabataş is a quarter of Beyoğlu municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri (aka Kadıköy Feneri or İnciburnu Feneri) is a lighthouse located at the head of Kadıköy Harbor's İnciburnu Breakwater on the Anatolian coast of Bosporus' south entrance, in Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Kanal İstanbul (Channel Istanbul) is a Turkish project for the artificial sea-level waterway, which is being built by the Republic of Turkey on the European side of Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, and thus to the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
Kandilli is a neighbourhood of Üsküdar, Istanbul, Turkey.
Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Kazlıçeşme is one of the seven neighborhoods of Zeytinburnu district in Istanbul, Turkey.
Küçüksu Palace or Küçüksu Pavilion, a.k.a. Göksu Pavilion, (Küçüksu Kasrı) is a summer palace in Istanbul, Turkey, situated in the Küçüksu neighborhood of Beykoz district on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus between Anadoluhisarı and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.
The Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex (Kılıç Ali Paşa Külliyesi) is a group of buildings designed and built between 1580 and 1587 by Mimar Sinan, who at the time was in his 90s.
The Kerch Strait (Керченский пролив, Керченська протока, Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.
The Khedive Palace (Hıdiv Kasrı) or Çubuklu Palace (Çubuklu Sarayı), located on the Asian side of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey, was a former residence of Khedive Abbas II of Egypt and Sudan.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kuleli Military High School was the oldest military high school in Turkey, located in Çengelköy, Istanbul, on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus strait.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Levent is a neighbourhood and one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city.
The list of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits is a listing of major maritime casualties that occurred in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits in Turkey.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time—Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia—the "ancient rule" of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and Dardanelles), which link the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, from all warships whatsoever, barring those of the Sultan's allies during wartime.
The Maiden's Tower (Kız Kulesi), also known as Leander's Tower (Tower of Leandros) since the medieval Byzantine period, is a tower lying on a small islet located at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus strait from the coast of Üsküdar in Istanbul, Turkey.
Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Memorial University of Newfoundland, colloquially known as Memorial University or MUN, is a comprehensive university based in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The Mihrimah Sultan Mosque (Iskele Mosque, Jetty Mosque, Üsküdar Quay Mosque, Mihrimah Sultan Camii, İskele Camii) is an Ottoman mosque located in the historic center of the Üsküdar municipality in Istanbul, Turkey.
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University (Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi; abbreviated MSGSÜ) is a Turkish state university dedicated to the higher education of fine arts.
The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits is a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the Dardanelles and regulates the transit of naval warships.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
New Civil Engineer is the monthly magazine for members of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), the UK chartered body that oversees the practice of civil engineering in the UK.
The Yeni Cami, meaning New Mosque; originally named the Valide Sultan Mosque (Valide Sultan Camii) and later New Valide Sultan Mosque (Yeni Valide Sultan Camii) after its partial reconstruction and completion between 1660 and 1665; is an Ottoman imperial mosque located in the Eminönü quarter of Istanbul, Turkey.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Nusretiye Mosque is an ornate mosque located in Tophane district of Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey.
Ortaköy Mosque (Ortaköy Camii), officially the Büyük Mecidiye Camii (Grand Imperial Mosque of Sultan Abdülmecid) in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, Turkey, is situated at the waterside of the Ortaköy pier square, one of the most popular locations on the Bosphorus.
Otoyol 1 (Motorway 1), abbreviated as O-1 and locally referred to as Istanbul Inner Beltway (İstanbul 1.), is a controlled access highway in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Perili Köşk (originally known as the Yusuf Ziya Pasha Mansion and currently housing the headquarters of Borusan Holding and the Borusan Contemporary art museum) is a historical monument at the Rumelihisarı neighbourhood of the Sarıyer district in Istanbul, Turkey.
Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Prince Islands (Πριγκηπονήσια, Prens Adaları, alternatively written as Princes' Islands in which the "princes" are plural (meaning "Islands of the Princes"); or Kızıl Adalar ("Red Islands") in Turkish); officially just Adalar ("Islands"), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
Prometheus Bound (Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης, Promētheus Desmōtēs) is an Ancient Greek tragedy.
The Prosphorion Harbour (Προσφόριον) was a harbour in the city of Constantinople, active from the time when the city was still the Greek colony of Byzantium (657 BC – 324 AD), until the eve of the first millennium.
Public transport in Istanbul comprises a bus network, various rail systems, funiculars, and maritime services to serve the more than 13 million inhabitants of the city spread over an area of 5712 km².
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Turkey has a well-developed, state-owned railway system built to standard gauge which falls under the remit of the Ministry of Transport and Communication.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Robert Duane Ballard (born June 30, 1942) is a retired United States Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island who is most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks.
Robert College of Istanbul (İstanbul Özel Amerikan Robert Lisesi or Robert Kolej) is an independent privateThe Turkish education system divides schools into two classes: public or private.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rumeli Feneri, also Türkeli Feneri, a historical lighthouse still in use, is located on the European side of Bosphorus' Black Sea entrance in Istanbul, Turkey.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Rumelihisarı (also known as Rumelian Castle and Roumeli Hissar Castle) or Boğazkesen Castle (literally meaning "Strait-Cutter Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a series of hills on the European banks of the Bosphorus.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The RV K. Piri Reis (full name Koca Piri Reis) is a Turkish multi purpose research vessel owned by Dokuz Eylül University in İzmir and operated by its Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology.
Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.
The SACLANT ASW Research Centre was the predecessor to the NATO Undersea Research Centre.
The Sadberk Hanım Museum (Sadberk Hanım Müzesi) is a private museum located at the Bosporus in Büyükdere quarter of Sarıyer district in Istanbul, Turkey, which was established by the Vehbi Koç Foundation in memory of Vehbi Koç’s deceased wife Sadberk.
The Sabancı University Sakıp Sabancı Museum (Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi) is a private fine arts museum in Istanbul, Turkey, dedicated to calligraphic art, religious and state documents, as well as paintings of the Ottoman era.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
Selimiye Barracks (Selimiye Kışlası), also known as Scutari Barracks, is a Turkish Army barracks located in the Üsküdar district on the Asian part of Istanbul, Turkey.
Silivri (Selymbria) is a city and a district in Istanbul Province along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, outside metropolitan Istanbul, containing many holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.
Stratfor is an American geopolitical intelligence platform and publisher founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas, by George Friedman, who was the company's chairman.
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) is a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
The Symplegades (Συμπληγάδες, Symplēgádes) or Clashing Rocks, also known as the Cyanean Rocks, were, according to Greek mythology, a pair of rocks at the Bosphorus that clashed together whenever a vessel went through.
Taksim Square (Taksim Meydanı), situated in Beyoğlu in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops, and hotels.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.
Tophane is a quarter in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Trans-European Motorways (abbreviated "TEM") are a project of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe of sub-regional cooperation among Central, Eastern and South Eastern European countries regarding transport infrastructure.
The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (once commonly spelled Unkiar Skelessi, and translating to The Treaty of "the Royal Pier" or "the Sultan's Pier") was a treaty signed between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on July 8, 1833, following the military aid of Russia against Mehmed Ali that same year.
The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması, Карсский договор / Karskii dogovor, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Կարսի պայմանագիր, Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
TRT World is a 24-hour international English-language news channel based in Istanbul, Turkey.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.
The Turkish Straits crisis was a Cold War-era territorial conflict between the Soviet Union and Turkey.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
Water tunnels are tunnels (below-ground channels) used to transport water to areas with large populations or agriculture.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges were constructed in 480 BC during the second Persian invasion of Greece upon the order of Xerxes I of Persia for the purpose of Xerxes’ army to traverse the Hellespont (the present day Dardanelles) from Asia into Thrace, then also controlled by Persia (in the European part of modern Turkey).
A yalı (yalı, from Greek γιαλή yialí (mod. γιαλός yialós), literally "seashore, beach") is a house or mansion constructed at immediate waterside (almost exclusively seaside, particularly on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul) and usually built with an architectural concept that takes into account the characteristics of the coastal location.
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.
Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Yeni Valide Mosque (Yeni Valide Camii) is an 18th-century Ottoman mosque in the Üsküdar district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Yeniköy (Yeniköy, "New Village"), sometimes also referred to as Yeni Kioi, is a neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Yoros Castle (Yoros kalesi) is a Byzantine ruined castle at the confluence of the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, to the north of Joshua's Hill, in Istanbul, Turkey.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Bosfor, Bosforus, Bosphoros, Bosphorous, Bosphorous straits, Bosphorus, Bosphorus Strait, Bosphorus strait, Bosporous, Bosporus Strait, Bosporus Straits, Bósporos, Istanbul Bogazi, Istanbul Strait, Istanbul Straits, Straight of Bosphorus, Strait of Istanbul, The Bosphorus, İstanbul Boğazı, İstanbul Boğazı (station), Βόσπορος.