287 relations: Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, Adelaide Botanic Garden, Alpine plant, Alter Botanischer Garten Tübingen, American Public Gardens Association, Ancient Egypt, Antonius Castor, Apothecary, Arboretum, Aristotle, Arnold Arboretum, Art exhibition, Asia, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auburn Botanic Gardens, Australia, Aztecs, Bamboo, Bandstand, Bartram's Garden, Basel, Batumi Botanical Garden, Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum, Binomial nomenclature, Bogor Botanical Gardens, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Botanic Gardens St. Vincent, Botanical and horticultural library, Botanical Garden of Curitiba, Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra, Botanical Garden of the University of Heidelberg, Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna, Botanical Garden of Tver State University, Botanical Garden of Valencia, Botanical name, Botanischer Garten der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Botanischer Garten Jena, Botany, Brazil, Breadfruit, British Columbia, British Empire, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Bulb, Butchart Gardens, Cactus, Cairo, Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Capitulary, ..., Carambola, Caribbean, Carl Linnaeus, Carolus Clusius, Center for Plant Conservation, Chalco (altépetl), Charlemagne, Chelsea Physic Garden, Chicago Botanic Garden, Chile, China, Christchurch Botanic Gardens, Cibodas Botanical Garden, Cinchona, Circumnavigation, City Botanic Gardens, Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Cloud forest, Clove, Coffee, Colonialism, Conservation biology, Cornell University, Cotton, Crete, Developed country, Dover Publications, Dunedin Botanic Garden, Durban Botanic Gardens, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economic botany, Ecosystem, Egypt, El Nabatat Island, England, Environmentalism, Erica, Europe, Evergreen, Evolution, Ex situ conservation, Exoticorum libri decem, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Ferdinand von Mueller, Field research, Flora, Flower garden, France, Frankfurt, Garden, Gardening, Genetic variation, George Washington, Geranium, Germany, Germplasm, Giza, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, Government Hill, Greater Western Sydney, Greenhouse, Hainan, Hakgala Botanical Garden, Harry P. Leu Gardens, Head gardener, Henarathgoda Botanical Garden, Herb, Herb farm, Herbaceous border, Herbarium, Hevea brasiliensis, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Horticulture, Hortus Botanicus (Amsterdam), Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Hryshko National Botanical Garden, Human overpopulation, Huntington Library, Ibn al-Wafid, Ibn Bassal, Imperialism, India, Indigenous (ecology), Indonesia, International Peace Garden, International Union for Conservation of Nature, International Union of Biological Sciences, Introduced species, Invasive species, Islam in Spain, James Cook, James Madison, Jardin des plantes, Jardin des plantes de Montpellier, John Bartram, Joseph Banks, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, Kolkata, Landscaping, Leiden, Leipzig Botanical Garden, List of botanical gardens, List of botanical gardens and arboretums in the United States, List of botanical gardens in Australia, List of botanical gardens in Canada, List of botanical gardens in the United Kingdom, Longwood Gardens, Lund, Madrid, Malay Peninsula, Maritime history, Mauritius, Mesopotamia, Mexico, Millennium Seed Bank Partnership, Missouri Botanical Garden, Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens, National Public Gardens Day, Near East, Netherlands, New Brunswick Botanical Garden, New York Botanical Garden, New Zealand, Nikitsky Botanical Garden, North America, Northern Europe, Northern Italy, Oceania, Officinal, Old Botanical Garden, Zürich, Oman, Orangery, Orchidaceae, Orman Garden, Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pavia, Orto Botanico di Firenze, Orto botanico di Padova, Orto botanico di Pisa, Palm oil, Palmengarten, Pavilion, PDF, Pelargonium, Philadelphia, Philip Miller, Physic garden, Phytochemistry, Piper (plant), Plant, Plant collecting, Plant nursery, Plant taxonomy, PlantCollections, Pleasure garden, Pliny the Elder, Pope Nicholas V, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Proteaceae, Province of Georgia, Raised-bed gardening, Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Renaissance, Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, Roman Empire, Rose, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney, Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya, Royal Horticultural Society, Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens, Russia, Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, Sculpture, Shennong, Singapore, Singapore Botanic Gardens, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Botanical Garden, South America, South China Botanical Garden, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Southern Europe, Spain, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Species reintroduction, Sri Lanka, St. Louis, Stellenbosch University Botanical Garden, Succulent plant, Sugar, Sustainability, Sweden, Tasmania, Taxonomy (biology), Tea, Teahouse, Teak, Tenerife, Tenochtitlan, Theobroma cacao, Theophrastus, Thomas Jefferson, Toledo, Spain, Transplanting, Tropics, Turkey, UBC Botanical Garden, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, United States Botanic Garden, United States Capitol, University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden, University of Oxford Botanic Garden, Uppsala University, Vegetation, Victoria, Hong Kong, Washington, D.C., Wellington Botanic Garden, West Indies, Western Europe, Western Sydney, William Aiton, William Jackson Hooker, Woody plant, World Wide Fund for Nature, Xiamen, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yalta. Expand index (237 more) » « Shrink index
The Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (Hindi:आचार्य जगदिश चंद्र बसु भारतीय वानस्पतिक उद्यान) (previously known as Indian Botanic Garden) is situated in Shibpur, Howrah near Kolkata.
The Adelaide Botanic Garden is a public garden at the north-east corner of the Adelaide city centre, in the Adelaide Park Lands.
Alpine plants are plants that grow in an alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line.
The Alter Botanischer Garten Tübingen is the former botanical garden of the University of Tübingen, now a municipal park.
The American Public Gardens Association, formerly the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, is an association of public-garden institutions and professionals primarily in the United States and Canada.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Antonius Castor was a pioneering botanist and pharmacologist of ancient Rome who lived in the first century.
Apothecary is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients.
An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts.
An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
The Auburn Botanic Gardens are a botanical garden located in Auburn (a suburb of Sydney), New South Wales, Australia.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, pier, or indoor space, designed to accommodate musical bands performing concerts.
Bartram's Garden is a historic Philadelphia garden and arboretum.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Batumi Botanical Garden (ბათუმის ბოტანიკური ბაღი) is a 108 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia.
The Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum (Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem.) is a botanical garden in the German capital city of Berlin, with an area of 43 hectares and around 22,000 different plant species.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
The Bogor Botanical Gardens (Kebun Raya Bogor) is a botanical garden located in Bogor, Indonesia, 60 km south of Jakarta.
Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is a plant conservation charity based in Kew, London, England.
The St Vincent and the Grenadines Botanic Gardens is located in Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
A botanical and horticultural library is a library specializing in the preservation and collection of literature and materials about plants.
The Jardim Botânico de Curitiba, in Portuguese, or the Botanical Garden of Curitiba, in English, also known as the "Jardim Botânico Fanchette Rischbieter", is a park located in the city of Curitiba - the capital of the state of Paraná, and the biggest city in southern Brazil.
The Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra (Jardim Botânico da Universidade de Coimbra or simply Jardim Botânico) is a botanical garden in Coimbra, Portugal.
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Heidelberg (2 hectares), also known as the Botanischer Garten Heidelberg, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Heidelberg.
The Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna is a botanical garden in Vienna, Austria.
Botanical Garden of Tver State University — the northernmost botanical garden with an exhibition of steppe plants, only one of its kind in the Upper Volga.
The Botanical Garden of the University of Valencia (Valencian: Jardí Botànic de la Universitat de València) is a botanical garden located on calle Quart in El Botànic neighbourhood of Valencia, Spain.
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).
The Botanischer Garten der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (8 hectares), or less formally the Botanischer Garten Kiel, is a botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the University of Kiel.
The Botanischer Garten Jena (4.5 hectares) is the second oldest botanical garden in Germany, maintained by the University of Jena and located at Fürstengraben 26, Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and eventually spreading to the rest of Oceania. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century, and today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the trees' light, sturdy timber has been used for outriggers, ships and houses in the tropics.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) is a botanical garden in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City.
The Buenos Aires Botanical Garden (official name in Spanish: Jardín Botánico Carlos Thays de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires) is a botanical garden located in the Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires in Argentina.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
The Butchart Gardens is a group of floral display gardens in Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Canada, located near Victoria on Vancouver Island.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is a botanical garden located in Cambridge, England associated with the university Department of Plant Sciences (formerly Botany School).
A capitulary (medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of Charlemagne; the first emperor of the Romans in the west since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century.
Carambola, or starfruit, is the fruit of Averrhoa carambola, a species of tree native to Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, and Seychelles.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius (Arras, February 19, 1526 – Leiden, April 4, 1609), seigneur de Watènes, was an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.
The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is a national not-for-profit organization in the United States and Canada consisting of a network of 40 botanical institutions, with the mission to conserve and restore the rare native plants of the United States.
Chālco was a complex pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl or confederacy in central Mexico.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The Chelsea Physic Garden was established as the Apothecaries' Garden in London, England, in 1673.
The Chicago Botanic Garden is a living plant museum situated on nine islands in the Cook County Forest Preserves.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Christchurch Botanic Gardens, located in the central city of Christchurch, New Zealand, were founded in 1863 when an English oak was planted to commemorate the solemnisation of the marriage of Prince Albert and Princess Alexandra of Denmark.
Cibodas Botanical Gardens (Kebun Raya Cibodas, KRC) is a botanical garden on the slopes of Mount Gede, located in the Cibodas subdistrict of West Java, Indonesia.
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
The City Botanic Gardens (formerly the Brisbane Botanic Gardens) is a heritage-listed botanic garden on Alice Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Nezahualcóyotl, or more commonly Neza, is a city and municipality of State of Mexico adjacent to the northeast corner of Mexico City: it is thus part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
The Dunedin Botanic Garden (often incorrectly referred to as the Botanic or Botanical Gardens) is located at the northern end of central Dunedin, in the South Island of New Zealand.
The Durban Botanic Gardens is situated in the city of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economic botany is the study of the relationship between people (individuals and cultures) and plants.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Nabatat Island or Kitchener's Island, (Geziret En Nabatat (Plant Island) or the Botanical Island) is a small, oval-shaped island in the Nile at Aswan, Egypt.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Erica is a genus of roughly 860 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
Exoticorum libri decem ("Ten books of exotic life forms") is an illustrated zoological and botanical compendium in Latin, published at Leiden in 1605 by Charles de l'Écluse.
Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden is an botanic garden, with extensive collections of rare tropical plants including palms, cycads, flowering trees, and vines.
Baron Sir Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller, (German: Müller) (30 June 1825 – 10 October 1896) was a German-Australian physician, geographer, and most notably, a botanist.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
A flower garden or floral garden is any garden where flowers are grown and displayed.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Geranium is a genus of 422 species of flowering annual, biennial, and perennial plants that are commonly known as the cranesbills.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Germplasm are living genetic resources such as seeds or tissues that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding, preservation, and other research uses.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) is a program of the UN's Convention on Biological Diversity founded in 1999.
The Government Hill is a hill in Central, Hong Kong, bounded by upper section of Upper Albert Road on the south, Queen's Road Central north, Garden Road east, and Glenealy, west of Hong Kong Island.
Greater Western Sydney (GWS) is the region of the metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia that is generally accepted to embrace the north-west, south-west, central-west, and western sub-regions of greater metropolitan Sydney.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Hakgala Botanical Garden is one of the five botanical gardens in Sri Lanka.
The Harry P. Leu Gardens are semi-tropical and tropical gardens in Orlando, Florida, United States.
The head gardener (also known as a curator) or as a Master Gardener is an individual who manages the staff of a large garden, landscape or park, such as a residential garden, botanical garden, theme park, public park, museum or roadside embankments and islands.
Henarathgoda Botanical Garden is one of the six botanical gardens in Sri Lanka.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale.
A herbaceous border is a collection of perennial herbaceous plants (plants that live for more than two years and are soft-stemmed and non-woody) arranged closely together, usually to create a dramatic effect through colour, shape or large scale.
A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.
Hevea brasiliensis, the Pará rubber tree, sharinga tree, seringueira, or, most commonly, the rubber tree or rubber plant, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae.
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong.
The Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens is one of the oldest zoological and botanical centres in the world.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Hortus Botanicus is a botanical garden in the Plantage district of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
The Hortus botanicus of Leiden is the oldest botanical garden of the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world.
The M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden (Національний ботанічний сад ім., Natsionalnyi botanichnyi sad im. M.M.Hryshka; Национальный ботанический сад им., Natsionalnyi botanicheskiy sad im. N.N.Grishko) is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens (or The Huntington) is a collections-based educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) and located in Los Angeles County in San Marino, California.
Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Wafid al-Lakhmi (Circa 997– 1074), known in Latin Europe as Abenguefit, was an Arab pharmacologist and physician from Toledo.
Ibn Bassal (1085 C.E.) was an Andalusian Arab botanist and agronomist in Toledo and Seville, Spain who wrote about horticulture and arboriculture.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Peace Garden is a park located adjacent to the International Peace Garden Border Crossing between Canada and the United States, in the state of North Dakota and the province of Manitoba.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) is a non-profit organization and non-governmental organization, founded in 1919, that promotes the biological sciences internationally.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Islam was a widespread religion in what is now Spain and Portugal for nine centuries, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and ending (at least overtly) with its prohibition by the modern Spanish state in the mid-16th century and the expulsion of the Moriscos in the early 17th century.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
The Jardin des plantes (French for 'Garden of the Plants'), also known as the jardin des plantes de Paris when distinguished from other jardins des plantes in other cities, is the main botanical garden in France.
The jardin des plantes de Montpellier (4.5 hectares) is a historic botanical garden and arboretum located on Boulevard Henri IV, Montpellier, Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon, France.
John Bartram (March 23, 1699 – September 22, 1777) was an early American botanist, horticulturist and explorer.
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
Kirstenbosch is an important botanical garden nestled at the eastern foot of Table Mountain in Cape Town.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leipzig Botanical Garden (3.5 hectares), (Leipziger Botanische Gärten, Botanischer Garten der Universität Leipzig), is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Leipzig, and located at Linnéstraße 1, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.
A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research, conservation, and education.
This list is intended to include all significant botanical gardens and arboretums in the United States.
There are more than 140 botanical gardens in Australia, some like the Australian National Botanic Gardens have collections consisting entirely of Australian native and endemic species; most have a collection that include plants from around the world.
Botanical gardens in the United Kingdom is a link page for any botanical garden, arboretum or pinetum in the United Kingdom.
Longwood Gardens is an American botanical garden.
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership (MSBP or MSB), formerly known as the Millennium Seed Bank Project, is an international conservation project coordinated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.
The Tsytsin Main Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences was founded in April 1945, and claims itself to be the largest botanical garden in Europe.
The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG), also known as Plant Heritage, is a botanical conservation organisation in the United Kingdom and a registered charity.
National Public Gardens Day, occurring annually on the Friday before Mother's Day, is a day to promote awareness of botanic gardens, arboreta, zoos, historic gardens, or any of North America's public gardens.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Brunswick Botanical Garden is a provincial park located in suburban Saint-Jacques neighbourhood in Edmundston, New Brunswick.
The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is a botanical garden and National Historic Landmark located in the Bronx, New York City.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nikita Botanical Garden - (Нікітський ботанічний сад) is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Europe.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Officinal drugs, plants and herbs are those which are sold in a chemist or druggist shop.
The Old Botanical Garden (German: Alter Botanischer Garten) is a botanical garden and arboretum in the Swiss city of Zürich.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
An orangery or orangerie was a room or a dedicated building on the grounds of fashionable residences from the 17th to the 19th centuries where orange and other fruit trees were protected during the winter, similar to a greenhouse or conservatory.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
The Orman Garden is one of the most famous Botanical gardens in Egypt.
The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, also known as the Orto Botanico di Bologna, is a botanical garden operated by the University of Bologna.
The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pavia (20,000 m²), also known as the Orto Botanico di Pavia, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Pavia.
The Orto Botanico di Firenze (2.3 hectares), also known as the Giardino dei Semplici, the "Garden of simples", is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Florence.
The Orto Botanico di Padova is a botanical garden in Padua, in the northeastern part of Italy.
The Orto botanico di Pisa, also known as the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pisa, is a botanical garden operated by the University of Pisa, and located at via Luca Ghini 5, Pisa, Italy.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
The Palmengarten is one of two botanical gardens in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
In architecture, a pavilion (from French pavillon, from Latin papilio) has several meanings.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pelargonium is a genus of flowering plants which includes about 200 species of perennials, succulents, and shrubs, commonly known as geraniums (in the United States also storksbills).
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines (a term used for certain Clematis in older times), are an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant collecting is the acquisition of plant specimens for the purposes of research, cultivation, or as a hobby.
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size.
Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.
PlantCollections is an electronic database which will combine and store documented records of the diverse living plant collections of 16 botanical gardens and arboreta in the United States.
A pleasure garden is usually a garden that is open to the public for recreation and entertainment.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British America.
Raised-bed gardening is a form of gardening in which the soil is formed in three-to-four-foot-wide (1.0–1.2 m) beds, which can be of any length or shape.
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (Spanish for Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid) is an 8 hectares (19.7684 acres) botanical garden in Madrid (Spain).
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden or Jardim Botânico is located at the Jardim Botânico district in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is a scientific centre for the study of plants, their diversity and conservation, as well as a popular tourist attraction.
The Royal Botanic Garden Sydney is a major botanical garden located in the heart of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria are botanic gardens across two sites - Melbourne and Cranbourne.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya are about 5.5 km to the west of the city of Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.
The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity.
The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens (RTBG), which cover an area of approximately 14 hectares (34.6 acres), in Hobart located within the Queens Domain.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, also known as the Botanic Gardens of the Komarov Botanical Institute or the Komarov Botanical Garden, is the oldest botanical garden in Russia.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Singapore Botanic Gardens is a 158-year-old tropical garden located at the fringe of Singapore's Orchard Road shopping district.
The Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Botanical Garden (sometimes shortened to the SSR Botanical Garden), commonly known as the Pamplemousses Botanical Garden, is a popular tourist attraction in Pamplemousses, near Port Louis, Mauritius, and the oldest botanical garden in the Southern Hemisphere.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South China Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (formerly Institute of Agriculture and Forestry) is a large botanical garden in Guangzhou, Guangdong province in southern China.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Species reintroduction is the deliberate release of a species into the wild, from captivity or other areas where the organism is capable of survival.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Stellenbosch University Botanical Garden located in the historical center of Stellenbosch is the oldest university botanical garden in South Africa.
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A teahouse is an establishment which primarily serves tea and other light refreshments.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
For botanical organ transplant, see Grafting In agriculture and gardening, transplanting or replanting is the technique of moving a plant from one location to another.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
UBC Botanical Garden, at the University of British Columbia, was established in 1916 under the directorship of John Davidson, British Columbia's first provincial botanist.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Botanic Garden (USBG) is a botanic garden on the grounds of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., near Garfield Circle.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden (Botanisk have), usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in Great Britain and one of the oldest scientific gardens in the world.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
The City of Victoria, often called Victoria City or simply Victoria, was the de facto capital of Hong Kong during the British colonial period.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Wellington Botanic Garden, Wellington, New Zealand, covers 25 hectares of land on the side of the hill between Thorndon and Kelburn, near central Wellington.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western Sydney is a major region of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
William Aiton (17312 February 1793) was a Scottish botanist.
Sir William Jackson Hooker (6 July 1785 – 12 August 1865) was an English systematic botanist and organiser, and botanical illustrator.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.
Xishuangbanna, Sibsongbanna, or Sipsong Panna, shortened to Banna (full name: Tham: ᩈᩥ᩠ᨷᩈ᩠ᩋᨦᨻᩢ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ; New Tai Lü script:;; สิบสองปันนา; ສິບສອງພັນນາ; သိပ်းသွင်ပၼ်းၼႃး; စစ်ဆောင်ပန္နား) is a Tai Lü autonomous prefecture in the extreme south of Yunnan, China.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.