590 relations: Abiotic component, Abscisic acid, Abscission, Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Active transport, Adaptation, Adenine, Adenosine triphosphate, Adolf Eugen Fick, Agricultural science, Agriculture, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Albedo, Algae, Alkaloid, Allotropes of oxygen, Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle, Alpine climate, Alternation of generations, American Chemical Society, Amino acid, Amyloplast, Anaerobic organism, Analgesic, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Ant, Anthocyanin, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, Apomixis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arctic, Areole, Aristotle, Aroma compound, Arthur Tansley, Asexual reproduction, Aspirin, Asteraceae, August Weismann, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Auxin, Avestan, Azalea, Bacteriology, Barbara McClintock, Barley, Base pair, ..., Bat, Bentham & Hooker system, Bibliography of biology, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiesel, Biodiversity, Biofuel, Biogeography, Biological life cycle, Biology, Biome, Biopharmaceutical, Bioreactor, Biotic component, Botanical garden, Brachypodium distachyon, Branches of botany, Brassicaceae, Bryophyte, Bulb, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation, Cactus, Caffeine, Calcium, Callus (cell biology), Cannabis (drug), Capsaicin, Carbohydrate, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivorous plant, Carotenoid, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell plate, Cell potency, Cell theory, Cell wall, Cellophane, Cellular differentiation, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Center of origin, Cereal, Charcoal, Charles Darwin, Charophyceae, Charophyta, Cherokee, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyta, Chloroplast, Christen C. Raunkiær, Chromatin remodeling, Chromatography, Cladistics, Cladogram, Class (biology), Climacteric (botany), Climate, Climate change, Climax community, Clive A. Stace, Cloning, Common descent, Common wheat, Community (ecology), Coniine, Conium, Conrad Gessner, Conservation (ethic), Convergent evolution, Cork (material), Cork cambium, Cotton, Coumarin, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cryptogam, Cutin, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Cyanobacteria, Cycad, Cytokinesis, Cytokinin, De Candolle system, Dendrochronology, Derivative (chemistry), Devonian, Dicotyledon, Diffusion, Dispersal vector, Diterpene, DNA, DNA barcoding, DNA methylation, Domain (biology), Drug discovery, Durum, Echinocactus, Ecological succession, Ecosystem, Edaphic, Elaioplast, Electrochemical gradient, Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Embryo, Embryophyte, Empirical evidence, Endangered species, Endosymbiont, Environmental resource management, Enzyme, Epicuticular wax, Epidermis (botany), Epigenetics, Eragrostis tef, Erosion, Essential oil, Ester, Ethephon, Ethnobotany, Eudicots, Eugenius Warming, Eukaryote, Euphorbia, Evaporation, Evolution, Evolutionary history of plants, Fabaceae, Famennian, Family (biology), Fatty acid, Fermentation in food processing, Fern, Fiber, Fick's laws of diffusion, Fitness (biology), Flax, Flora, Flowering plant, Fodder, Food chain, Food security, Forestry, Fossil fuel, Frank Yates, Frederic Clements, Frederick Campion Steward, Frits Went, Fructose, Fungus, Gamboge, Gamete, Gametophyte, Gas exchange, Gene expression, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified maize, Genome, Genomics, Genomics of domestication, Genus, Geography, Geologic time scale, George Bentham, Germination, Gibberellic acid, Gibberellin, Ginkgo, Global warming, Glossary of botanical terms, Glossary of plant morphology, Glucose, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Gnetophyta, Gottlieb Haberlandt, Gravitropism, Grazing, Great Oxygenation Event, Green algae, Green fluorescent protein, Gregor Mendel, Guard cell, Gunpowder, Gymnosperm, Gynoecium, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Heliotropism, Hemicellulose, Hemp, Henry Chandler Cowles, Herbalism, Herbchronology, Herbivore, Heritability, Heroin, Heterotroph, Hieronymus Bock, Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus), Historical climatology, History of phycology, History of plant systematics, Holdridge life zones, Holocene, Honey bee, Horizontal gene transfer, Hornwort, Horticulture, Hybrid (biology), Ibn al-Baitar, Ibn Bassal, Ibn Wahshiyya, Immortalised cell line, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigo, Indole-3-acetic acid, Indoxyl, Integument, International Botanical Congress, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Introduced species, Inulin, Isatis tinctoria, Islamic Golden Age, Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasmonate, John Gerard, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Katherine Esau, Kenneth V. Thimann, Kingdom (biology), Layering, Leaf, Legume, Leonhart Fuchs, Lichen, Lichenology, Light-independent reactions, Lignin, Lilium columbianum, Lincoln green, Linen, Linnaean taxonomy, List of botanical gardens, List of botanists, List of botanists by author abbreviation (A), List of botany journals, List of domesticated plants, List of garden plants, List of Russian biologists, List of systems of plant taxonomy, Live cell imaging, Lumber, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodiopsida, Magnesium, Maize, Marchantiophyta, Mass flow, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Medication, Megaspore, Mendelian inheritance, Mentha aquatica, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Methionine, Methyl cellulose, Mevalonate pathway, Michel Adanson, Microorganism, Micropropagation, Middle Ages, Mimosa pudica, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Molecular biology, Molecular diffusion, Molecular genetics, Molecular phylogenetics, Monastery, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Morphine, Morphogenesis, Mosquito, Moss, Mutualism (biology), Mycology, Mycorrhiza, Myrmecophyte, Native Americans in the United States, Natural rubber, Neolithic founder crops, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nicotine, Nif gene, Nikolai Vavilov, Nitrocellulose, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Nucleic acid sequence, Oak, Oil, On the Origin of Species, Opiate, Opium, Optical microscope, Order (biology), Ordovician, Organelle, Organic chemistry, Orto botanico di Padova, Oryza sativa, Osmosis, Otto Brunfels, Outline of botany, Ovary, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Paleobotany, Paleoethnobotany, Paleozoic, Palynology, Papaver somniferum, Paper chromatography, Papyrus, Parasitic plant, Parenchyma, Parthenogenesis, Particle board, Pasture, Pea, Pectin, Pedanius Dioscorides, Peppermint, Pereskia, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacopoeia, Pharming (genetics), Phenology, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phloem, Phosphorus, Photomorphogenesis, Photoreceptor protein, Photorespiration, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigment, Phototroph, Phragmoplast, Phragmoplastophyta, Phycology, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Physcomitrella patens, Physic garden, Phytochemistry, Phytochrome, Phytol, Pineapple, Pinophyta, Plant, Plant anatomy, Plant breeding, Plant cell, Plant community, Plant cuticle, Plant defense against herbivory, Plant development, Plant ecology, Plant hormone, Plant identification, Plant morphology, Plant nutrition, Plant pathology, Plant physiology, Plant propagation, Plant reproduction, Plant reproductive morphology, Plant stem, Plant taxonomy, Plant tissue culture, Plastid, Ploidy, Poaceae, Pollen, Pollination, Polymath, Polymer, Polyphyly, Polyploid, Polysaccharide, Potassium, Primary production, Progymnosperm, Protein, Proteomics, Protist, Proxy (climate), Pteridophyte, Pteridospermatophyta, Punnett square, Purine, Pyrolysis, Rapeseed, Raunkiær plant life-form, Rayon, Recreational drug use, Red algae, Red wine, Redox, Reporter gene, Reproductive isolation, Reseda luteola, Resin, Resource management, Rhizobia, Rhizosphere, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Hooke, Ronald Fisher, Root, Root hair, Rope, Rose madder, RuBisCO, Rudolf Virchow, Saintpaulia, Sake, Salicylic acid, Scientific community, Scientist, Secondary cell wall, Secondary metabolism, Seed, Self-incompatibility, Sexual reproduction, Shoot, Signal transduction, Silencer (genetics), Silurian, Single-access key, Sister group, Smelting, Soil science, Soybean, Spatial scale, Spearmint, Species, Species Plantarum, Spectroscopy, Spermatophyte, Sphenophyllales, Spinach, Sporangium, Spore, Sporophyte, Sporopollenin, Staple food, Starch, Statistics, Stem cell, Sterility (physiology), Stigma (botany), Stimulant, Stolon, Stoma, Streptophyta, Sucrose, Sugar beet, Sugarcane, Sulfur, Surface runoff, Sustainability, Symbiogenesis, Sympatric speciation, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Systematics, Systemic acquired resistance, Taraxacum officinale, Taxon, Taxonomic sequence, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Tennessee, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Theodor Schwann, Theophrastus, Ti plasmid, Tracheid, Transgene, Transpiration, Transpiration stream, Transposable element, Trentepohliales, Trichome, Trophic level, Tropical rainforest, Tuber, Tundra, Ulisse Aldrovandi, Ultraviolet, University, University of Oxford Botanic Garden, Utricularia, Vacuole, Valerius Cordus, Vascular plant, Vegetable oil, Vegetative reproduction, Venus flytrap, Vessel element, Virology, Visible spectrum, Water cycle, Weed, Willow, Xanthophyll, Xylem, Xyloglucan, Zeatin, Zoophily, Zygosity, Zygote, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. 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In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone.
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA through its two catalytic activities, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT).
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adolf Eugen Fick (3 September 1829 – 21 August 1901) was a German-born physician and physiologist.
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de Candolle (28 October 18064 April 1893) was a French-Swiss botanist, the son of the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amyloplasts are non-pigmented organelles found in some plant cells.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
In botany, areoles are small light- to dark-colored bumps on cacti out of which grow clusters of spines.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
Sir Arthur George Tansley FLS, FRS (15 August 1871 – 25 November 1955) was an English botanist and a pioneer in the science of ecology.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Azaleas are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji (evergreen) and Pentanthera (deciduous).
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.
This bibliography of biology is a list of notable works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of biology.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.
Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Brachypodium distachyon, commonly called purple false brome or stiff brome, is a grass species native to southern Europe, northern Africa and southwestern Asia east to India.
Botany is a natural science concerned with the study of plants.
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Plant callus (plural calluses or calli) is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A center of origin (or centre of diversity) is a geographical area where a group of organisms, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charophyceae is a class (biology) of charophyte green algae, and consist of the single order Charales, commonly known as "stoneworts" and "brittleworts".
Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.
Chlorophyll a is a specific form of chlorophyll used in oxygenic photosynthesis. It absorbs most energy from wavelengths of violet-blue and orange-red light. It also reflects green-yellow light, and as such contributes to the observed green color of most plants. This photosynthetic pigment is essential for photosynthesis in eukaryotes, cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes because of its role as primary electron donor in the electron transport chain. Chlorophyll a also transfers resonance energy in the antenna complex, ending in the reaction center where specific chlorophylls P680 and P700 are located.
Chlorophyll b is a form of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. It is more soluble than chlorophyll ''a'' in polar solvents because of its carbonyl group. Its color is yellow, and it primarily absorbs blue light. In land plants, the light-harvesting antennae around photosystem II contain the majority of chlorophyll b. Hence, in shade-adapted chloroplasts, which have an increased ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I, there is a higher ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. This is adaptive, as increasing chlorophyll b increases the range of wavelengths absorbed by the shade chloroplasts.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Christen Christensen Raunkiær (29 March 1860 – 11 March 1938) was a Danish botanist, who was a pioneer of plant ecology.
Chromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
The climacteric is a stage of fruit ripening associated with increased ethylene production and a rise in cellular respiration.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In ecology, climax community, or climatic climax community, is a historic term for a biological community of plants, animals, and fungi which, through the process of ecological succession in the development of vegetation in an area over time, have reached a steady state.
Clive Anthony Stace (born 1938) is a British botanist and botanical author.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.
In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.
Coniine refers to a poisonous chemical compound, an alkaloid present in and isolable from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), where its presence has been a source of significant economic, medical, and historico-cultural interest; coniine is also produced by the yellow pitcher plant (Sarracenia flava), and fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium).
Conium is a genus of flowering plants in the carrot family Apiaceae which consists of four species accepted by The Plant List.
Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.
Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cork cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums) is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Coumarin (2H-chromen-2-one) is a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, although it may also be seen as a subclass of lactones.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds.
Cutin is one of two waxy polymers that are the main components of the plant cuticle, which covers all aerial surfaces of plants.
Cyanidioschyzon merolae is a small (2μm), club-shaped, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments (pH 1.5, 45 °C).
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
The De Candolle system is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778−1841).
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
In the biology of dispersal, a dispersal vector is "an agent transporting seeds or other dispersal units".
Diterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of two terpene units, often with the molecular formula C20H32.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.
Echinocactus is a genus of cacti in the subfamily Cactoideae.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edaphic is a nature related to soil.
Elaioplasts are a type of leucoplast that is specialized for the storage of lipids in plants.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epicuticular wax is a coating of wax covering the outer surface of the plant cuticle in land plants.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethephon is a plant growth regulator.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (3 November 1841 – 2 April 1924), known as Eugen Warming, was a Danish botanist and a main founding figure of the scientific discipline of ecology.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...
The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Frank Yates FRS (12 May 1902 – 17 June 1994) was one of the pioneers of 20th century statistics.
Frederic Edward Clements (September 16, 1874 – July 26, 1945) was an American plant ecologist and pioneer in the study of vegetation succession.
Frederick "Camp" Campion Steward FRS (16 June 1904 – 13 September 1993) was a British botanist and plant physiologist.Detailed practical applications of the totipotency was shown by Steward(1932) who developed a complete carrot plant from a root cell.
Friedrich August Ferdinand Christian Went ForMemRS (June 18, 1863 – July 24, 1935) was a Dutch botanist.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gamboge is a partially transparent deep saffron to mustard yellow pigment.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Domesticated species and the human populations that domesticate them are typified by a mutualistic relationship of interdependence, in which humans have over thousands of years modified the genomics of domesticated species.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
George Bentham (22 September 1800 – 10 September 1884) was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
This article is related to the chemical gibberelic acid.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
This glossary of botanical terms is a list of terms relevant to botany and plants in general.
This page provides a glossary of plant morphology.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).
Gottlieb Haberlandt (28 November 1854, Ungarisch-Altenburg (present day Magyaróvár) – 30 January 1945, Berlin) was an Austrian botanist.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Guard cells are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Heliotropism, a form of tropism, is the diurnal motion or seasonal motion of plant parts (flowers or leaves) in response to the direction of the sun.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
Henry Chandler Cowles (February 27, 1869 – September 12, 1939) was an American botanist and ecological pioneer (see History of ecology).
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herbchronology is the analysis of annual growth rings (or simply annual rings) in the secondary root xylem of perennial herbaceous plants.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
Hieronymus Bock (Latinised Tragus) (1498 – February 21, 1554) was a German botanist, physician, and Lutheran minister who began the transition from medieval botany to the modern scientific worldview by arranging plants by their relation or resemblance.
Theophrastus's Enquiry into Plants or Historia Plantarum (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία, Peri phyton historia) was, along with his mentor Aristotle's History of Animals, Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, one of the most important books of natural history written in ancient times, and like them it was influential in the Renaissance.
Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in climate and their effect on human history and development.
The history of phycology is the history of the scientific study of algae.
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists.
The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areas.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī, commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist.
Ibn Bassal (1085 C.E.) was an Andalusian Arab botanist and agronomist in Toledo and Seville, Spain who wrote about horticulture and arboriculture.
Ibn Wahshiyyah the Nabataean (ابن وحشية النبطي), also known as ʾAbū Bakr ʾAḥmad bin ʿAlī (أبو بكر أحمد بن علي) (fl. 9th/10th centuries) was an Arab alchemist, agriculturalist, farm toxicologist, Egyptologist, and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq.
An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class.
In chemistry, indoxyl is a nitrogenous substance with the chemical formula: C8H7NO.
In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.
International Botanical Congress (IBC) is an international meeting of botanists in all scientific fields, authorized by the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS) and held every six years, with the location rotating between different continents.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.
Isatis tinctoria, also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Jasminum grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalan jasmine, among others, is a species of jasmine native to South Asia, the Arabian peninsula (Oman, Saudi Arabia), Northeast Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan), the African Great Lakes (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda), and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China.
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based plant hormones that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development.
John Gerard (also John Gerarde, c. 1545–1612) was an English botanist with a large herbal garden in London.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
Katherine Esau (3 April 1898 – 4 June 1997) was a German-American botanist who received the National Medal of Science for her work on plant anatomy.
Kenneth Vivian Thimann (August 5, 1904 – January 15, 1997) was an English-American plant physiologist and microbiologist known for his studies of plant hormones, which were widely influential in agriculture and horticulture.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leonhart Fuchs (17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566), sometimes spelled Leonhard Fuchs, was a German physician and botanist.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lichenology is the branch of mycology that studies the lichens, symbiotic organisms made up of an intimate symbiotic association of a microscopic alga (or a cyanobacterium) with a filamentous fungus.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lilium columbianum is a lily native to western North America.
Lincoln green is the colour of dyed woollen cloth associated with Robin Hood and his merry men in Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research, conservation, and education.
This is a list of botanists who have Wikipedia articles, in alphabetical order by surname.
The following is a list of botanical scientific journals.
This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans.
This is a partial list of garden plants, plants that can be cultivated in the garden, listed alphabetically by genus.
This list of Russian biologists includes the famous biologists from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification.
Live cell imaging is the study of living cells using time-lapse microscopy.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
This article is about the flow of fluids in biological systems.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Mentha aquatica (water mint; syn. Mentha hirsuta Huds.Euro+Med Plantbase Project) is a perennial flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Methyl cellulose (or methylcellulose) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Michel Adanson (7 April 17273 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist, of Scottish descent.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mimosa pudica (from pudica "shy, bashful or shrinking"; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant, action plant, Dormilones, touch-me-not, shameplant, or shy plant) is a creeping annual or perennial flowering plant of the pea/legume family Fabaceae and Magnoliopsida taxon, often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, defending themselves from harm, and re-open a few minutes later.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Myrmecophyte (mər′mek•ə‚fīt; literally "ant-plant") is a plant that lives in a mutualistic association with a colony of ants.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The nif genes are genes encoding enzymes involved in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into a form of nitrogen available to living organisms.
Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (a) (– January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian and Soviet agronomist, botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
The Orto Botanico di Padova is a botanical garden in Padua, in the northeastern part of Italy.
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Otto Brunfels (also known as Brunsfels or Braunfels) (believed to be born in 1488 – 23 November 1534) was a German theologian and botanist.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to botany: Botany – biological discipline which involves the study of plants.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.
Pal(a)eoethnobotany or Archaeobotany, "is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by people in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts." Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
Paper chromatography is an analytical method used to separate colored chemicals or substances.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Particle board – also known as particleboard, low-density fibreboard (LDF), and chipboard – is an engineered wood product manufactured from wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even sawdust, and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild.) is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint.
Pereskia, as traditionally circumscribed, is a genus of 17 tropical species and varieties of cacti that do not look much like other types of cacti, having substantial leaves and thin stems.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).
Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photosynthetic pigment (accessory pigment; chloroplast pigment; antenna pigment) is a pigment that is present in chloroplasts or photosynthetic bacteria and captures the light energy necessary for photosynthesis.
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. The phragmoplast is a plant cell specific structure that forms during late cytokinesis.
The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyander 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004, incl. Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Mesotaeniaceae) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form the Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.
Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.
Phytol is an acyclic diterpene alcohol that can be used as a precursor for the manufacture of synthetic forms of vitamin E and vitamin K1.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
A plant community (sometimes "phytocoenosis" or "phytocenosis") is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues.
Plant ecology is a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution and abundance of plants, the effects of environmental factors upon the abundance of plants, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Plant identification is the process of matching a specimen plant to a known taxon.
Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings and other plant parts.
Reproduction means producing offspring for the survival of the species.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.
Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
In the study of past climates ("paleoclimatology"), climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).
The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
The Raunkiær system is a system for categorizing plants using life-form categories, devised by Danish botanist Christen C. Raunkiær and later extended by various authors.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation.
Reseda luteola is a plant species in the genus Reseda.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective development of an organization's resources when they are needed.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root.
A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.
Rose madder is the commercial name sometimes used to designate a red paint made from the pigment madder lake, a traditional lake pigment extracted from the common madder plant Rubia tinctorum.
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Saintpaulias, commonly known as African violets, are a genus of 6–20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae, native to Tanzania and adjacent southeastern Kenya in eastern tropical Africa.
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
The secondary cell wall is a structure found in many plant cells, located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane.
Secondary metabolism (also called specialized metabolism) is a term for pathways and small molecule products of metabolism that are not absolutely required for the survival of the organism.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a general name for several genetic mechanisms in angiosperms, which prevent self-fertilization and thus encourage outcrossing and allogamy.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
In phylogenetics, a single-access key (also called dichotomous key, sequential key, analytical key, or pathway key) is an identification key where the sequence and structure of identification steps is fixed by the author of the key.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
In sciences such as physics, geography, astronomy, meteorology and statistics, the term scale or spatial scale is used for describing or classifying with large approximation the extent or size of a length, distance or area studied or described.
Spearmint (binomial Mentha spicata, synonym Mentha viridis), also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
Sphenophyllales is an extinct order of articulate land plants and a sister group to the present-day Equisetales (horsetails).
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
SEM image of pollen grains Sporopollenin is one of the most chemically inert biological polymers.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Sterility is the physiological inability to effect sexual reproduction in a living thing, members of whose kind have been produced sexually.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
Streptophyta, informally the streptophytes (from the Greek strepto, for twisted, i.e., the morphology of the sperm of some members), is an unranked clade of plants.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Sympatric speciation is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a "whole-plant" resistance response that occurs following an earlier localized exposure to a pathogen.
Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae).
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomic sequence (also known as systematic, phyletic or taxonomic order) is a sequence followed in listing of taxa which aids ease of use and roughly reflects the evolutionary relationships among the taxa.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
A Ti or tumour inducing plasmid is a plasmid that often, but not always, is a part of the genetic equipment that Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes use to transduce their genetic material to plants.
Tracheids are elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants that serve in the transport of water and mineral salts.
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
In plants, the transpiration stream is the uninterrupted stream of water and solutes which is taken up by the roots and transported via the xylem to the leaves where it evaporates into the air/apoplast-interface of the substomatal cavity.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Trentepohliales is an order of Ulvophyceaen green algae.
Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 – 4 May 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in Great Britain and one of the oldest scientific gardens in the world.
Utricularia, commonly and collectively called the bladderworts, is a genus of carnivorous plants consisting of approximately 233 species (precise counts differ based on classification opinions; a 2001 publication lists 215 species).
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Valerius Cordus (February 18, 1515 – September 25, 1544) was a German physician and botanist who authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias and one of the most celebrated herbals in history.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
The Venus flytrap (also referred to as Venus's flytrap or Venus' flytrap), Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.
A vessel element or vessel member (trachea) is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Xyloglucan is a hemicellulose that occurs in the primary cell wall of all vascular plants; however, all enzymes responsible for xyloglucan metabolism are found in Charophyceae algae.
Zeatin is a cytokinin derived from adenine.
Zoophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is transferred by animals, usually invertebrates but may include vertebrates, particularly by hummingbirds and other birds, and bats, but also by monkeys, marsupials, lemurs, bears, rabbits, deer, rodents, lizards, and other animals.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.
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