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Bourgeoisie

Index Bourgeoisie

The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean. [1]

177 relations: Absolute monarchy, Adolf Hitler, Age of Enlightenment, American Revolutionary War, Ancien Régime, Antisemitism, Artisan, Authenticity (philosophy), Autonomy, Émile Zola, Babbitt (novel), Benito Mussolini, Beurgeois, Bildungsbürgertum, Boosterism, Borough, Bourgeois tragedy, Buddenbrooks, Burgess (title), Burgher (title), Capital (economics), Catholic Church, City, Class conflict, Conspicuous consumption, Conspicuous leisure, Constitution, Consumerism, Consumption (economics), Craft, Creative destruction, Crucible steel, Cultural capital, Cultural hegemony, Culture and Anarchy, David Brooks (commentator), Disposable and discretionary income, Divine right of kings, Domicile (law), Economic materialism, Economic rent, Economic stratification, Egotism, English Civil War, Estates General (France), Existentialism, Exploitation of labour, Fair, Fascism, Feudal land tenure in England, ..., Feudalism, Financial capital, Frankish language, French language, French nobility, French Revolution, Gemütlichkeit, Gender equality, Gentrification, German town law, Grand Burgher, Guild, Habitus (sociology), Hedonism, Hipster (contemporary subculture), Homo economicus, House of Bourbon, Ideology, Ilustrado, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, Industry, Intellectualism, Intelligentsia, Interest, Italian Fascism, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Lueger, Karl Marx, L'Age d'Or, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Left-wing politics, Legitimacy (political), Les Rougon-Macquart, Liberalism, Louis XVI of France, Luis Buñuel, Luxury goods, Management, Manorialism, Market town, Marxism, Marxist philosophy, Materialism, Means of production, Merchant, Middle Ages, Middle class, Middle Dutch, Middle English, Modern English, Modernism, Molière, Morality, Mores, Municipal charter, Natural and legal rights, Naturalism (literature), Nazi Party, Nazism, Nobility, Nouveau riche, Occupational prestige, Old French, Old money, Ostracism, Patriarchy, Peasant, Petite bourgeoisie, Philistinism, Plutocracy, Political class, Political economy, Political science, Polysemy, Populism, Porcelain, Prelate, Privilege (law), Progressivism, Proletarian internationalism, Proletariat, Property, Rational-legal authority, Rationalism, Real estate broker, Real property, Renaissance of the 12th century, Rent-seeking, Right-wing politics, Ruling class, Rural area, Rural flight, Satire, Sinclair Lewis, Social class, Social class in the United Kingdom, Social environment, Social status, Social stratification, Sociology, Stainless steel, Stereotype, Sturmabteilung, That Obscure Object of Desire, The Communist Manifesto, The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, The Theory of the Leisure Class, Thomas Mann, Totalitarianism, Town privileges, Tradesman, Upper middle class, Urbanization, Utility, Value (ethics), Vecino, Victorian era, Victorian morality, Volk (German word), Wallpaper, Walter Benjamin, Weimar Republic, White-collar worker, Working class, World view, Yuppie. Expand index (127 more) »

Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Artisan

An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.

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Authenticity (philosophy)

Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).

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Autonomy

In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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Babbitt (novel)

Babbitt (1922), by Sinclair Lewis, is a satirical novel about American culture and society that critiques the vacuity of middle-class life and the social pressure toward conformity.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Beurgeois

A beurgeois is a middle-class (and upwards) Muslim born in a working class area of France to parents of North African origin, who continues to proclaim his roots and who is aged between 30 and 40 years old with a successful professional career, a high purchasing power and a demand for a certain quality of life.

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Bildungsbürgertum

Bildungsbürgertum is a social class that initially emerged in mid-18th century Germany as an educated class of the bourgeoisie with an educational ideal based on idealistic values and classical antiquity, inspired by the scholar-official class of China.

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Boosterism

Boosterism is the act of promoting ("boosting") a town, city, or organization, with the goal of improving public perception of it.

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Borough

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.

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Bourgeois tragedy

Bourgeois tragedy (German: Bürgerliches Trauerspiel) is a form of tragedy that developed in 18th-century Europe.

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Buddenbrooks

Buddenbrooks is a 1901 novel by Thomas Mann, chronicling the decline of a wealthy north German merchant family over the course of four generations, incidentally portraying the manner of life and mores of the Hanseatic bourgeoisie in the years from 1835 to 1877.

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Burgess (title)

Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).

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Burgher (title)

A burgher was a rank or title of a privileged citizen of medieval towns in early modern European.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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City

A city is a large human settlement.

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Conspicuous consumption

Conspicuous consumption is the spending of money on and the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power—of the income or of the accumulated wealth of the buyer.

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Conspicuous leisure

Conspicuous leisure is a concept introduced by the American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen, in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Consumerism

Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Craft

A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.

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Creative destruction

Creative destruction (German: schöpferische Zerstörung), sometimes known as Schumpeter's gale, is a concept in economics which since the 1950s has become most readily identified with the Austrian-American economist Joseph Schumpeter who derived it from the work of Karl Marx and popularized it as a theory of economic innovation and the business cycle.

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Crucible steel

Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.

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Cultural capital

In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.

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Cultural hegemony

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

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Culture and Anarchy

Culture and Anarchy is a series of periodical essays by Matthew Arnold, first published in Cornhill Magazine 1867-68 and collected as a book in 1869.

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David Brooks (commentator)

David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is an American author and conservative political and cultural commentator who writes for The New York Times.

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Disposable and discretionary income

Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Domicile (law)

In law, domicile is the status or attribution of being a lawful permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction.

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Economic materialism

Materialism is a personal attitude which attaches importance to acquiring and consuming material goods.

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Economic rent

In economics, economic rent is any payment to an owner or factor of production in excess of the costs needed to bring that factor into production.

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Economic stratification

Economic stratification refers to the condition within a society where social classes are separated, or stratified, along economic lines.

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Egotism

Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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Estates General (France)

In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.

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Existentialism

Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Exploitation of labour

Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.

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Fair

A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Feudal land tenure in England

Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Financial capital

Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.

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Frankish language

Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French nobility

The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Gemütlichkeit

Gemütlichkeit is a German-language word used to convey the idea of a state or feeling of warmth, friendliness, and good cheer.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Gentrification

Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.

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German town law

The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.

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Grand Burgher

Grand Burgher or Grand Burgheress (from German: Großbürger, Großbürgerin) is a specific conferred or inherited title of medieval German origin and legally defined preeminent status granting exclusive constitutional privileges and legal rights (German: Großbürgerrecht),Titel: Lehrbuch des teutschen Privatrechts; Landrecht und Lehnrecht enthaltend.

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Guild

A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Habitus (sociology)

Habitus is a system of embodied dispositions, tendencies that organize the ways in which individuals perceive the social world around them and react to it.

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Hedonism

Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.

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Hipster (contemporary subculture)

The hipster subculture is stereotypically composed of younger and middle-aged adults who reside primarily in gentrified neighborhoods.

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Homo economicus

The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.

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House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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Ideology

An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Ilustrado

The Ilustrados ("erudite", "learned" or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Intellectualism

Intellectualism denotes the use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind.

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Intelligentsia

The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.

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Interest

Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Joseph Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.

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Karl Lueger

Karl Lueger (24 October 1844 – 10 March 1910) was an Austrian politician, mayor of Vienna, and leader and founder of the Austrian Christian Social Party.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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L'Age d'Or

L'Age d'Or (L'Âge d'Or), commonly translated as The Golden Age or Age of Gold, is a 1930 French surrealist satirical comedy film directed by Luis Buñuel about the insanities of modern life, the hypocrisy of the sexual mores of bourgeois society and the value system of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Le Bourgeois gentilhomme

Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman or The Middle-Class Aristocrat or The Would-Be Noble) is a five-act comédie-ballet—a play intermingled with music, dance and singing—written by Molière, first presented on 14 October 1670 before the court of Louis XIV at the Château of Chambord by Molière's troupe of actors.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Les Rougon-Macquart

Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to a cycle of twenty novels by French writer Émile Zola.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

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Luis Buñuel

Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.

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Luxury goods

In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.

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Management

Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

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Manorialism

Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.

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Market town

Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxist philosophy

Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.

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Materialism

Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Means of production

In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.

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Merchant

A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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Middle Dutch

Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Modernism

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.

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Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Mores

Mores (sometimes; from Latin mōrēs,, plural form of singular mōs, meaning "manner", "custom", "usage", "habit") was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner (1840–1910), an early U.S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others.

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Municipal charter

A city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (charter) establishing a municipality such as a city or town.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Naturalism (literature)

The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Nobility

Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Nouveau riche

"Nouveau riche" (French: 'new rich') is a term, usually derogatory, to describe those whose wealth has been acquired within their own generation, rather than by familial inheritance.

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Occupational prestige

Occupational prestige (also known as job prestige) is a way for sociologists to describe the relative social class positions people have.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old money

Old money is "the inherited wealth of established upper-class families (i.e. gentry, patriciate)" or "a person, family, or lineage possessing inherited wealth".

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Ostracism

Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.

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Patriarchy

Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.

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Peasant

A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.

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Petite bourgeoisie

Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie (literally small bourgeoisie), is a French term (sometimes derogatory) referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.

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Philistinism

In the fields of philosophy and æsthetics, the derogatory term philistinism describes “the manners, habits, and character, or mode of thinking of a philistine”, manifested as an anti-intellectual social attitude that undervalues and despises art and beauty, intellect and spirituality.

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Plutocracy

A plutocracy (πλοῦτος,, 'wealth' + κράτος,, 'rule') or plutarchy is a society that is ruled or controlled by people of great wealth or income.

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Political class

Political class, or political elite is a concept in comparative political science originally developed by Italian political theorist theory of Gaetano Mosca (1858–1941).

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Polysemy

Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.

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Populism

In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".

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Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Prelate

A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.

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Privilege (law)

A privilege is a certain entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis.

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Progressivism

Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.

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Proletariat

The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).

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Property

Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Rational-legal authority

Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic authority) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Real estate broker

A real estate broker or real estate salesperson (often called a real estate agent) is a person who acts as an intermediary between sellers & buyers of real estate/real property.

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Real property

In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.

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Renaissance of the 12th century

The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.

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Rent-seeking

In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.

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Ruling class

The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

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Rural flight

Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.

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Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Sinclair Lewis

Harry Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 – January 10, 1951) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social class in the United Kingdom

The social structure of the United Kingdom has historically been highly influenced by the concept of social class, with the concept still affecting British society today.

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Social environment

The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Stereotype

In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Sturmabteilung

The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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That Obscure Object of Desire

That Obscure Object of Desire (Cet obscur objet du désir; Ese oscuro objeto del deseo), a 1977 French-Spanish comedy-drama film directed by Luis Buñuel, based on the 1898 novel The Woman and the Puppet by Pierre Louÿs.

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The Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie

The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (Le Charme discret de la bourgeoisie) is a 1972 surrealist film directed by Luis Buñuel and written by Jean-Claude Carrière in collaboration with the director.

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The Theory of the Leisure Class

The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions (1899), by Thorstein Veblen, is a treatise on economics and a detailed, social critique of conspicuous consumption, as a function of social class and of consumerism, derived from the social stratification of people and the division of labour, which are the social institutions of the feudal period (9th – 15th centuries) that have continued to the modern era.

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Thomas Mann

Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.

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Totalitarianism

Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Town privileges

Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.

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Tradesman

A tradesman, tradesperson, tradie or skilled tradesman refers to a worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education, but often not a bachelor's degree.

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Upper middle class

In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class.

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Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Utility

Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Vecino

A 'vecino' means neighbour" or resident in Spanish.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Victorian morality

Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general.

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Volk (German word)

The German noun Volk translates to people, both uncountable in the sense of people as in a crowd, and countable (plural Völker) in the sense of a people as in an ethnic group or nation (compare the English term folk).

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Wallpaper

Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings.

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Walter Benjamin

Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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White-collar worker

In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Yuppie

"Yuppie" (short for "young urban professional" or "young, upwardly-mobile professional") is a term coined in the early 1980s for a young professional person working in a city.

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Beugoise, Borgeois, Borgeoisie, Bougeoise, Bougeoisie, Bougoise, Bougoisie, Bourgeois, Bourgeois mentality, Bourgeois personality, Bourgeois sentiment, Bourgeois society, Bourgeois worldview, Bourgeoise, Bourgeoise culture, Bourgeoisie class, Bourgeoisies, Bourgeosie, Bourgoise, Bourgoisie, Burzhwa, Burzhwazi, Capitalist Class, Capitalist class, Employing class, French elite, French elites, Grand bourgeoisie, History of the bourgeoisie, Medieval bourgeoisie, Merchant class, Townfolk, Townsfolk, Townspeople.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bourgeoisie

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