103 relations: Abdominal aorta, Abdominal distension, Abdominal pain, Abdominal x-ray, Acute abdomen, Adhesion (medicine), Analgesic, Anismus, Antibiotic, Antiemetic, Appendicitis, Barbed suture, Biopsy, Bloating, Blood test, Bowel resection, Carcinosis, Catheter, Chagas disease, Colonoscopy, Conservative management, Constipation, Crohn's disease, CT scan, Defecation, Dehydration, Descending perineum syndrome, Differential diagnosis, Digestion, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis, Duodenum, Ebers Papyrus, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Endometriosis, Endoscopy, Enema, Enterocele, Fecal impaction, Flatulence, Foreign body, Gallstone, Gallstone ileus, Gastrointestinal perforation, Gastrointestinal tract, General surgery, Hernia, Hippocrates, Hirschsprung's disease, ..., Ileus, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intestinal atresia, Intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Intravenous therapy, Intussusception (medical disorder), Ischemia, Ischemic colitis, Laparoscopy, Laparotomy, Large intestine, Lysis, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malignancy, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Megarectum, Metastasis, Multiple sclerosis, Nasogastric intubation, Neoplasm, Ogg, Ogilvie syndrome, Opioid, Pain, Palliative care, Peritonitis, Pneumonia, Pregnancy, Pulmonary aspiration, Radiation enteropathy, Radiography, Radiology, Rectal prolapse, Rectocele, Sensitivity and specificity, Sepsis, Small intestine, Spinal cord, Stent, Stethoscope, Stoma (medicine), Superior mesenteric artery, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Surgery, Thoracic diaphragm, Tuberculosis, Ultrasound, Urinary bladder, Volvulus, Vomiting, Wiley-Blackwell, X-ray. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.
Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain.
Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anismus (or dyssynergic defecation) refers to the failure of the normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
A barbed suture is a type of knotless surgical suture that has barbs on its surface.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
A bowel resection or enterectomy (enter- + -ectomy) is a surgical procedure in which a part of an intestine (bowel) is removed, from either the small intestine or large intestine.
Carcinosis, or carcinomatosis, is disseminated cancer, forms of metastasis, whether used generally or in specific patterns of spread.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Conservative management is a type of medical treatment defined by the avoidance of invasive measures such as surgery or other invasive procedures, usually with the intent to preserve function or body parts.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Descending perineum syndrome (also known as Levator plate sagging) refers to a condition where the perineum "balloons" several centimeters below the bony outlet of the pelvis during strain, although this descent may happen without straining.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
Diverticulosis is the condition of having multiple pouches (diverticula) in the colon that are not inflamed.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
An enterocele or enterocoele is a protrusion of the small intestines and peritoneum into the vaginal canal.
A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
In the field of medicine, a foreign body, sometimes known as FB (Latin: corpus alienum), is any object originating outside the body of an organism.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
First described by Bartolin in 1654, gallstone ileus is a rare form of small bowel obstruction caused by an impaction of a gallstone within the lumen (small opening) of the small intestine.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hirschsprung's disease (HD or HSCR) is a birth defect in which nerves are missing from parts of the intestine.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Intestinal atresia is a malformation where there is a narrowing or absence of a portion of the intestine.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Megarectum is a large rectum as a result of underlying nerve supply abnormalities or muscle dysfunction, which remains after disimpaction of the rectum.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Ogilvie syndrome is the acute dilation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction in severely ill patients.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
Radiation enteropathy or radiation enteritis is a syndrome that may develop following abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy for cancer.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Rectal prolapse often used to mean complete rectal prolapse (external rectal prolapse), where the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body.
A rectocele or posterior vaginal wall prolapse results when the rectum herniates into or forms a bulge in the vagina.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
In anatomy, a natural stoma is any opening in the body, such as the mouth.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
A volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.