308 relations: Abdul Hamid II, Adna Chaffee, Aigun, Aisin Gioro, Aleksey Kuropatkin, Alfons Mumm von Schwarzenstein, Alfred Gaselee, Alfred von Waldersee, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Amur River, Anchee Min, Angel (1999 TV series), Angel (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), Anti-Christian Movement (China), Anti-imperialism, Archimandrite, Arthur Henderson Smith, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Austria-Hungary, Ava Gardner, Baguadao, Baoding, Battle of Beicang, Battle of Langfang, Battle of Peking (1900), Battle of Senluo Temple, Battle of the Taku Forts (1900), Battle of Tientsin, Battle of Yangcun, Beijing, Beijing Legation Quarter, Bertram Lenox Simpson, Big Swords Society, BioShock Infinite, Blagoveshchensk, Boxer Indemnity Scholarship, Boxer Protocol, Boxers and Saints, Brill Publishers, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Bullet catch, Caishikou Execution Grounds, Caliphate, Canonization, Cao Futian, Cao Prefecture, Capital punishment, Century of humiliation, Chang Cheh, Chang Chong-Chen, ..., Charlton Heston, Chen Duxiu, China, China Martyrs of 1900, China Relief Expedition, Chinese classics, Chinese Eastern Railway, Chinese martial arts, Chinese Martyrs, Chinese nationalism, Chinese spirit possession, Christian, Christianity in China, Christianity in Inner Mongolia, Chung Ling Soo, Church arson, Church of the Saviour, Beijing, Claude Maxwell MacDonald, Clemens von Ketteler, Colonialism, Concession (territory), Consort Zhen, Convention of Peking, Cultural Revolution, Dalian, Darla (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), David Niven, Declaration of war, Dong Fuxiang, Donghak Peasant Revolution, Dragon Throne, Drusilla (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), East Asia Squadron, Edward Seymour (Royal Navy officer), Edwin H. Conger, Eight Banners, Eight-Nation Alliance, Emerson H. Liscum, Empire of Japan, Empress Dowager Cixi, Enver Pasha, Ernest Mason Satow, First Opium War, First Sino-Japanese War, Forbidden City, Francis Dunlap Gamewell, French Third Republic, Fukushima Yasumasa, G. A. Henty, Gaselee Expedition, Gene Luen Yang, Gengzi Guobian Tanci, George Ernest Morrison, George Frederick Pentecost, German Empire, Ghost Dance, Google Books, Grand Council (Qing dynasty), Graphic novel, Great Hsi-Ku Arsenal, Guangxu Emperor, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hanjian, Hanlin Academy, Herbert G. Squiers, Herbert Hoover, Hergé, Hetao, History of Beijing, HMS Fame (1896), Hong Kong, Honghuzi, Hsiao Ho (actor), Hu Shih, Hudson Taylor, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Hundred Days' Reform, Huns, Hushenying, Imperial Decree of declaration of war against foreign powers, Imperial Decree on events leading to the signing of Boxer Protocol, Imperial examination, Indemnity, Jackie Chan, Jade Emperor, Jiang Guiti, Jiaozhou Bay, Jilin, John Twiggs Myers, Junk (ship), Juye Incident, Kaiser, Kansu Braves, Kingdom of Italy, Komura Jutarō, Korea, Krupp, Kuomintang, Lao She, Lau Kar-leung, Law of war, Lüshunkou District, Legendary Weapons of China, Leo Tolstoy, Lew Rockwell, Li Hongzhang, Liaodong Peninsula, Liberal arts education, Lin Yutang, List of 1900–30 publications on the Boxer Rebellion, Liu E, Liu Kunyi, Ma Biao (general), Ma Fulu, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Fuxing, Ma Haiyan, Ma Hongkui, Manila, Mao Zedong, Mark Twain, Maurice Joostens, Mauser, Metrophanes, Chi Sung, Millenarianism, Ming dynasty, Mo Yan, Moment in Peking, Most Holy Synod, Murdoch Mysteries, Mutual Protection of Southeast China, Nativism (politics), Naval mine, Neal Stephenson, Netherlands, New Army, New Culture Movement, New Martyr, New Policies, Nicholas Ray, Nie Shicheng, Nikolai Linevich, North China, North China Plain, Northern Expedition, OMF International, Open Door Policy, Ottoman Empire, Owen Wilson, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Paul von Rennenkampf, Peking Field Force, Peter Dickinson, Philippine–American War, Pierre Loti, Primorsky Krai, Prince Qing, Prince regent, Project Gutenberg, Protestant missions in China, Qing dynasty, Rabindranath Tagore, Red Guards, Robert Nivelle, Roger Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, Role of Christianity in civilization, Ronglu, Russian Empire, Russian invasion of Manchuria, Russo-Japanese War, Second Opium War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Sexagenary cycle, Seymour Expedition, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Knights, Shanxi, Shaw Brothers Studio, Siege of the International Legations, Silver, Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet, Smedley Butler, Society of the Divine Word, Song Qing (Qing dynasty), Spanish–American War, Sphere of influence, Spike (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), Stanisław Wyspiański, Stephen Pichon, Summary execution, Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yat-sen University, Syracuse University Press, Tael, Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Taiyuan, Taiyuan massacre, Taku Forts, Tax revenue, The Adventures of Tintin, The Blue Lotus, The Daily Telegraph, The Diamond Age, The Imperial Presidency, The Last Empress (novel), The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure, The Times, The Travels of Lao Can, The Wedding (1901 play), Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Woods, Tian, Tongzhou District, Beijing, Treaty of Aigun, Treaty of Nerchinsk, Treaty of Tientsin, Triple Intervention, Tsinghua University, Tulku (novel), Unequal treaty, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom–United States relations, United States, United States Marine Corps, Vladimir Lenin, Walter LaFeber, War Powers Clause, War reparations, Warlord Era, Weihaiwei Regiment, Western world, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William Alexander Parsons Martin, William McKinley, William Scott Ament, Witness, Wuwei Corps, Xenophobia, Xi'an, Xinhai Revolution, Xu Jingcheng, Yìhéquán, Yellow Peril, Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev, Yikuang, Prince Qing, Yongdingmen, Yuan Shikai, Yuan Weishi, Yuxian (Qing dynasty), Zaifeng, Prince Chun, Zaiyi, Zhang Decheng, Zhang Zhidong, Zhili, 14th Infantry Regiment (United States), 55 Days at Peking. 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Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Adna Romanza Chaffee (April 14, 1842 – November 1, 1914) was a lieutenant general in the United States Army.
Aigun (Manchu: aihūn hoton) was a historic Chinese town in northern Manchuria, situated on the right bank of the Amur River, some south (downstream) from the central urban area of Heihe (which, in its turn, is across the Amur from the mouth of the Zeya River and Blagoveschensk).
Aisin Gioro is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
Philipp Alfons Freiherr Mumm von Schwarzenstein (19 March 1859 – 10 July 1924) (also known as Alfons von Mumm) was a diplomat of the German Empire.
General Sir Alfred Gaselee,, (3 June 1844 – 29 March 1918) was a soldier who served in the Indian Army.
Alfred Ludwig Heinrich Karl Graf von Waldersee (8 April 1832 in Potsdam5 March 1904 in Hanover) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) who became Chief of the Imperial German General Staff.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) was among the first American Christian missionary organizations.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Anchee Min or Min Anqi (born January 14, 1957 in Shanghai, China) is a Chinese-American author who lives in San Francisco and Shanghai.
Angel is an American television series, a spin-off from the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
Angel is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon and David Greenwalt for the American television programs Buffy the Vampire Slayer and its spin-off series Angel.
The Anti-Christian Movement (非基督教运动) was an intellectual and political movement in China in the 1920s.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
The title archimandrite (ἀρχιμανδρίτης archimandritis), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise several 'ordinary' abbots (each styled hegumenos) and monasteries, or to the abbot of some especially great and important monastery.
Arthur Henderson Smith (July18, 1845August31, 1932) (Chinese name: 明恩溥; pinyin: Ming Enpu) was a missionary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions noted for spending 54 years as a missionary in China and writing books which presented China to foreign readers.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an American actress and singer.
Baguadao (八卦道 "Way of the Eight Trigrams") or Eight Trigram Teaching (八卦教) is a network of Chinese folk religious sects, one of the most extended in northern China.
Baoding is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing.
The Battle of Beicang (Peitsang), during the Boxer Rebellion, was fought August 5, 1900, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army.
The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin).
The Battle of Peking, or historically the Relief of Peking, was the battle on 14–15 August 1900, in which a multi-national force, led by Britain, relieved the siege of foreign legations in Peking (now Beijing) during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Battle of Senluo Temple was a clash between members of the "Militia United in Righteousness" (better known as the "Boxers") and Qing government troops that took place on October 18, 1899, near a temple located on the western edge of Pingyuan County in northwestern Shandong.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.
The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China.
The Battle of Yangcun was a battle during the march of Eight-Nation Alliance forces from Tianjin to Beijing during the Boxer Rebellion.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing Legation Quarter was the area in Beijing, China where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959.
Bertram Lenox Simpson (1877–1930) was a British author who wrote about China under the pen name "B.
The Big Swords Society or Great Knife Society was a traditional peasant group most noted for the massacre of two German Catholic missionaries at the Juye Incident in 1897 at Zhang Jia Village where the missionaries were ambushed in their sleep by about 30 armed men.
BioShock Infinite is a first-person shooter video game developed by Irrational Games and published by 2K Games.
Blagoveshchensk (p, lit. the city of the Annunciation) is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe.
The Boxer Indemnity Scholarship, funded by the Boxer Rebellion indemnity money, was a scholarship program for Chinese students to be educated in the United States.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.
Boxers and Saints are two companion graphic novel volumes written and illustrated by Gene Luen Yang, and colored by Lark Pien.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with later co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, and David Solomon.
The bullet catch is a stage magic illusion in which a magician appears to catch a bullet fired directly at them – often in their mouth, sometimes in their hand or sometimes caught with other items such as a dinner plate.
Caishikou Execution Grounds (Chinese: 菜市口法場) was an important execution ground in Peking during the Qing Dynasty.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Cao Futian (simplified Chinese:曹福田) was a Chinese nationalist and leader of the Boxers during the Boxer Uprising.
Caozhou or Cao Prefecture (曹州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China centering on modern Heze or Cao County in Shandong, China.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The century of humiliation, also known by permutations such as the hundred years of national humiliation, refers to the period of intervention and imperialism by Western powers and Japan in China between 1839 and 1949.
Chang Cheh (10 February 1923 – 22 June 2002) was a Chinese film director.
Chang Chong-Chen (Tchang Tchong-Jen) is a fictional character in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter or Charlton John Carter; October 4, 1923 – April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist.
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The "China Martyrs of 1900" is a term used by some Protestant Christians to refer to American and European missionaries and converts who were killed during the Boxer Rebellion, when attacks targeting Christians and foreigners took place in northern China.
The China Relief Expedition was an expedition in China undertaken by the United States Armed Forces to rescue United States citizens, European nationals, and other foreign nationals during the latter years of the Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from 1898 to 1901.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER,, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
Chinese Martyrs is the name given to a number of members of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church who were killed in China during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chinese spirit possession is a practice performed by specialists called jitong (a type of shamans) in Chinese folk religion, involving the "channelling" of Chinese deities who take control of the specialist's body, resulting in noticeable changes in body functions and behaviour.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries.
Christians are a minority in Inner Mongolia region of the People's Republic of China.
Chung Ling Soo was the stage name of the American magician William Ellsworth Robinson (April 2, 1861 – March 24, 1918), who is mostly remembered today for his death after a bullet catch trick went wrong.
Church arson is the burning or attempting to burn of religious property.
The Church of the Saviour, colloquially referred to as Xishiku Church or Beitang is a historic Catholic church in the Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
Colonel Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald, (12 June 1852 – 10 September 1915) was a British soldier and diplomat, best known for his service in China and Japan.
Clemens August Freiherr von Ketteler (22 November 1853 – 20 June 1900) was a German career diplomat.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it.This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.
Imperial Noble Consort Keshun (27 February 1876 – 15 August 1900), better known as Consort Zhen or popularly as the Pearl Concubine, was a consort of the Guangxu Emperor, the penultimate emperor of the Qing dynasty and imperial China.
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
Darla is a recurring fictional character created by Joss Whedon and played by Julie Benz in the first, second, and fifth seasons of the American supernatural television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
James David Graham Niven (1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983) was an English actor, memoirist and novelist.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), courtesy name Xingwu (星五), was a Chinese military general who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
The is a joke: only redlinks ! The Donghak Peasant Revolution, also known as the Donghak Peasant Movement, Donghak Rebellion, Peasant Revolt of 1894, Gabo Peasant Revolution, and a variety of other names, was an armed rebellion in Korea led by aggravated peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a panentheistic snobism (in any case: not in the lead) religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.
The Dragon Throne is the term used to identify the throne of the Emperor of China.
Drusilla, or Dru, is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon and David Greenwalt for the American television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel.
The German East Asia Squadron (Ger Kreuzergeschwader or Ostasiengeschwader) was an Imperial German Navy cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the mid-1890s and 1914.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, (30 April 1840 – 2 March 1929) was a Royal Navy officer.
Edwin Hurd Conger (March 7, 1843 – May 18, 1907) was an American Civil War soldier, lawyer, banker, Iowa congressman, and United States diplomat.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Emerson Hamilton Liscum (July 16, 1841 – July 13, 1900) was a U.S. Army officer who was killed in battle at Tianjin, China during the Boxer Rebellion.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
Sir Ernest Mason Satow, (30 June 1843 – 26 August 1929), was a British scholar, diplomat and Japanologist.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
Francis Dunlap Gamewell (b. Aug 31, 1857, Camden, SC; d. Aug 14, 1950, Clifton Springs, NY) was a Methodist missionary in China.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
George Alfred Henty (8 December 1832 – 16 November 1902) was a prolific English novelist and war correspondent.
The Gaselee Expedition was a successful relief by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks in 1900.
Gene Luen Yang (Chinese Traditional: 楊謹倫, Simplified: 杨谨伦, Pinyin: Yáng Jǐnlún; born August 9, 1973) is an Asian-American cartoonist.
Gengzi Guobian Tanci (T: 庚子國變彈詞, S: 庚子国变弹词; P: Gēngzǐguóbiàn Táncí, W: Keng-tzu kuo-pien t'an-tz'u; "Tanci, on the Boxer Rebellion of 1900" or "The tanci of the national calamity of 1900" or "The National Disturbances of the Year Gengzi")PL, p..
George Ernest "G.
George Frederick Pentecost, was a prominent American evangelist and co-worker with Revivalist D.L. Moody, He was born September 23, 1842 in Albion, Illinois to Hugh Lockett and Emma Flower Pentecost.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Ghost Dance (Caddo: Nanissáanah, also called the Ghost Dance of 1890) was a new religious movement incorporated into numerous American Indian belief systems.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Grand Council or Junjichu (Manchu: coohai nashūn i ba; literally, "Office of Military Secrets") was an important policy-making body during the Qing dynasty.
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content.
The Great Hsi-Ku Arsenal, was a Qing Dynasty Imperial Arsenal that stored munitions, rifles, and millions of rounds of ammunition.
The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 187114 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu: dzai-tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
In Chinese culture, a hanjian is a derogatory and pejorative term for a national traitor to the Han Chinese state and, to a lesser extent, Han ethnicity.
The Hanlin Academy (Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.
Herbert Goldsmith Squiers (April 20, 1859 – October 19, 1911) was a United States diplomat and soldier, serving as Minister to Cuba (1902–1905), and Panama (1906–1909) and a Second Lieutenant in the United States Army.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Georges Prosper Remi (22 May 1907 – 3 March 1983), known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian cartoonist.
Hetao is a region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in Northwestern China.
The city of Beijing has a long and rich history that dates back over 3,000 years.
HMS Fame was a two funnel, 30 knot destroyer of the Royal Navy, ordered under the 1894 – 1895 Naval Estimates.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Honghuzi were armed Chinese robbers and bandits in the areas of the eastern Russia-China borderland, comprising southeastern Siberia, the Russian Far East, and Northeast China (then known as Manchuria).
Hsiao Ho, (Hsiao Hou) (Cantonese: Siu Hau, born 1 January 1958 (age 58) in Meixian District, Guangdong, China) is a Hong Kong martial arts film actor, stunt performer and action choreographer.
Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.
James Hudson Taylor (21 May 1832 – 3 June 1905) was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission (CIM, now OMF International).
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Hushenying were a unit of 10,000 Manchu Bannermen under the command of Zaiyi during the Boxer Rebellion.
Imperial Decree of declaration of war against foreign powers (Chinese: 宣戰詔書) was a 1900 declaration of war against the colonising powers: Russian Empire, United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, German Empire, Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, and the Netherlands simultaneously.
The Imperial Decree on events leading to the signing of Boxer Protocol is an imperial decree issued by the government of the Qing dynasty in the name of the Guangxu Emperor, as an official imperial statement on historical events such as Boxer Rebellion, Eight-Nation Alliance and Battle of Peking and Siege of the International Legations, detailing instructions given to Prince Qing and Li Hongzhang as the full representatives of the imperial court in negotiating a peace treaty with the foreign powers, prior to the official signing of the Boxer Protocol on 7 September 1901.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
Chan Kong-sang, SBS, MBE, PMW (生; born 7 April 1954), known professionally as Jackie Chan, is a Hong Kong martial artist, actor, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer.
The Jade Emperor (or 玉帝) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝). In Daoist theology he is the assistant of Yuanshi Tianzun, who is one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao.
Jiang Guiti (1844 – January 16, 1922) was a Chinese general who served under Song Qing in the suppression of the Taiping and Nian rebels and later against the Empire of Japan.
The Jiaozhou Bay (Kiautschou Bucht) is a gulf located in Qingdao, China.
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
John Twiggs Myers (January 29, 1871 – April 17, 1952) was a United States Marine Corps general who was most famous for his service as the American Legation Guard in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion.
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.
The Juye Incident (German: Juye Vorfall) refers to the killing of two German Catholic missionaries, Richard Henle and Franz Xaver Nies, of the Society of the Divine Word, in Juye County Shandong Province, China in the night of 1-2 November 1897 (All Saints' Day to All Souls' Day).
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
The Kansu Braves or Gansu Army was a unit of 10,000 Chinese Muslim troops from the northwestern province of Kansu (now Gansu) in the last decades the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
was a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Shu Qingchun (3 February 189924 August 1966), courtesy name Sheyu, best known by his pen name Lao She, was a Chinese novelist and dramatist.
Lau Kar-leung (28 July 1934 – 25 June 2013), also known as Liu Chia-liang, was a Hong Kong-based Chinese actor, filmmaker, choreographer and martial artist.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
Legendary Weapons of China (aka Legendary Weapons of Kung Fu) is a 1982 martial arts fantasy film directed by Lau Kar-Leung.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant.
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Lin Yutang (October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer, translator, linguist, philosopher and inventor.
List of 1900-1930 publications on Boxer Rebellion is a list of Chinese language publications on the nature of Boxer Rebellion during the early 20th century.
Liu E (also spelled Liu O; 18 October 1857 – 23 August 1909), courtesy name Tieyun, was a Chinese writer, archaeologist and politician of the late Qing Dynasty.
Liu Kunyi (January21, 1830October6, 1902) was a Chinese official during the late Qing dynasty (1644–1911) and a native of Xinning County, Hunan.
Ma Biao (1885–1948) was a Chinese Muslim Ma Clique General in the National Revolutionary Army, and served under Ma Bufang, the Governor of Qinghai.
Ma Fulu (Chinese: 马福禄; Pinyin: Mǎ Fúlù, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﻟُﻮْ; 1854–1900), a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fuxiang.
Ma Fuxiang (French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China and illustrated the power of family, the role of religious affiliations, and the interaction of Inner Asian China and the national government of China.
Ma Fuxing (Ma Fu-hsing in Wade Giles; 1864–1924) was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing dynasty China.
Ma Haiyan (1837–1900) was a Chinese Muslim General of the Qing Dynasty.
Ma Hongkui (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ ﻛُﻮِ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Baron Adolphe Marie Maurice Joostens (23 September 1862 – 21 July 1910), was a Belgian diplomat.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
Metrophanes, Chi Sung (Cháng Yángjí,常楊吉, his Chinese name is also sometimes translated as Tsi Chung) or Mitrophan (December 10, 1855 – June 10, 1900) was the first Chinese Eastern Orthodox priest to be martyred.
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Guan Moye (born 17 February 1955), better known by the pen name Mo Yan, is a Chinese novelist and short story writer.
Moment in Peking is a novel originally written in English by Chinese author Lin Yutang.
The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918 (when the Church re-instated the Patriarchate).
Murdoch Mysteries is a Canadian television drama series aired on both City and CBC Television (titled The Artful Detective on the Ovation cable TV network) featuring Yannick Bisson as William Murdoch, a police detective working in Toronto, Ontario, around the turn of the twentieth century.
The Mutual Protection of Southeast China (Chinese: 東南互保) was an agreement made by the governors of the provinces in southern, eastern and central China during the Eight Power Expedition in 1900.
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer and game designer known for his works of speculative fiction.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Armies (Traditional Chinese: 新軍, Simplified Chinese: 新军; Pinyin: Xīnjūn, Manchu: Ice cooha), more fully called the Newly Created Army (Xinjian LujunAlso translated as "Newly Established Army"), was the modernized army corps formed under the Qing dynasty in December 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War.
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr (νεο-, neo, the prefix for "new"; and μάρτυς, martys, "witness") of the Eastern Orthodox Church was originally given to martyrs who died under heretical rulers or non-christian rulers in post-medieval period (the original martyrs being under pagans, mostly during Roman period).
The New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1644-1912), also known as the Late Qing Reform, were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms that were implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the humiliating defeat in the Boxer Rebellion.
Nicholas Ray (born Raymond Nicholas Kienzle Jr., August 7, 1911 – June 16, 1979) was an American film director best known for the movie Rebel Without a Cause. Ray is also appreciated for a large number of narrative features produced between 1947 and 1963 including Bigger Than Life, Johnny Guitar, They Live by Night, and In a Lonely Place, as well as an experimental work produced throughout the 1970s titled We Can't Go Home Again, which was unfinished at the time of Ray's death from lung cancer.
Nie Shicheng (1836 – July 1900) was a Chinese general who served the Imperial government during the Boxer Rebellion.
Nikolai Petrovich Linevich, also Lenevich and Linevitch (Николай Петрович Линевич, Ліневич Микола Петрович; –) was a career military officer, General of Infantry (1903) and Adjutant general in the Imperial Russian Army in the Far East during the latter part of the Russo-Japanese War.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
OMF International (formerly Overseas Missionary Fellowship and before 1964 the China Inland Mission) is an international and interdenominational Protestant Christian missionary society with an international centre in Singapore.
The Open Door Policy is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century that would allow for a system of trade in China open to all countries equally.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Owen Cunningham Wilson (born November 18, 1968) is an American actor, producer, and screenwriter.
Pamela Kyle Crossley (born 18 November 1953) is an historian of modern China, northern Asia, and global history and holds the Charles and Elfriede Collis Professor of History, Dartmouth College.
Paul Georg Edler von Rennenkampf(f) (Russified into Павел-Георг Карлович (фон) Ренненкампф, Pavel-Georg Karlovich (von) Rennenkampf; – 1 April 1918) was an Baltic German nobleman and military leader of Baltic German extraction, General of the Cavalry (1910), General-Adjutant (1912), who served in the Imperial Russian Army.
The Peking Field Force was a modern-armed military unit that defended the Chinese imperial capital Beijing in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Peter Malcolm de Brissac Dickinson OBE FRSL (16 December 1927 – 16 December 2015) was an English author and poet, best known for children's books and detective stories.
The Philippine–American War (also referred to as the Filipino-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Tagalog Insurgency; Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense) was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.
Pierre Loti (pseudonym of Louis Marie-Julien Viaud; 14 January 1850 – 10 June 1923) was a French naval officer and novelist, known for his exotic novels.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Prince Qing of the First Rank (Manchu:; hošoi fengšen cin wang), or simply Prince Qing, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
In the early 19th century, Western colonial expansion occurred at the same time as an evangelical revival – the Second Great Awakening – throughout the English-speaking world, leading to more overseas missionary activity.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.
Admiral of the Fleet Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, (4 October 1872 – 26 December 1945) was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he served in a corvette operating from Zanzibar on slavery suppression missions. Early in the Boxer Rebellion, he led a mission to capture a flotilla of four Chinese destroyers moored to a wharf on the Peiho River. He was one of the first men to climb over the Peking walls, to break through to the besieged diplomatic legations and to free the legations. During the First World War Keyes was heavily involved in the organisation of the Dardanelles Campaign. Keyes took charge in an operation when six trawlers and a cruiser attempted to clear the Kephez minefield. The operation was a failure, as the Turkish mobile artillery pieces bombarded Keyes' minesweeping squadron. He went on to be Director of Plans at the Admiralty and then took command of the Dover Patrol: he altered tactics and the Dover Patrol sank five U-Boats in the first month after implementation of Keyes' plan compared with just two in the previous two years. He also planned and led the famous raids on the German submarine pens in the Belgian ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend. Between the wars Keyes commanded the Battlecruiser Squadron, the Atlantic Fleet and then the Mediterranean Fleet before becoming Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth. During the Second World War he initially became liaison officer to Leopold III, King of the Belgians. He went on to be the first Director of Combined Operations and implemented plans for the training of commandos and raids on hostile coasts.
The role of Christianity in civilization has been intricately intertwined with the history and formation of Western society.
Ronglu (6 April 1836 – 11 April 1903), courtesy name Zhonghua, was a Manchu political and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian invasion of Manchuria occurred in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–5) when concerns regarding China's defeat by the Japanese and the latter's occupation of Manchuria caused the Russians to speed up their long held designs for imperial expansion across Eurasia.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms used for reckoning time in China and the East Asian cultural sphere.
The Seymour Expedition was an attempt by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks by Boxers in 1900.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanghai Knights is a 2003 American-Hong Kong martial arts action comedy film.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shaw Brothers (HK) Ltd. was the largest film production company of Hong Kong.
The Siege of the International Legations occurred in the summer of 1900 in Peking (today Beijing), the capital of the Qing Empire, during the Boxer Rebellion.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sir Edmund Trelawny Backhouse, 2nd Baronet (20 October 1873 – 8 January 1944) was a British oriental scholar, Sinologist, and linguist whose books exerted a powerful influence on the Western view of the last decades of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912).
Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881June 21, 1940) was a United States Marine Corps major general, the highest rank authorized at that time, and at the time of his death the most decorated Marine in U.S. history.
The Society of the Divine Word (Societas Verbi Divini, abbreviated SVD), popularly called Verbites or the Divine Word Missionaries, and sometimes the Steyler Missionaries, is a missionary religious congregation in the Latin Church, one of the 24 sui iuris churches which make up the Catholic Church.
Song Qing (1820–1902), courtesy name Zhusan, was a Chinese general who served the Imperial government during the First Sino-Japanese War and in the Boxer Rebellion.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Spike, played by James Marsters, is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel.
Stanisław Wyspiański (15 January 1869 – 28 November 1907) was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer.
Stephen Jean-Marie Pichon (10 August 1857 – 18 September 1933, Vers-en-Montagne) was a French journalist, diplomat and politician of the Third Republic.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Sun Yat-sen University, abbreviated SYSU and colloquially known in Chinese as Zhongda, also known as Zhongshan University, is a major Chinese public research university located in Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.
The Taiyuan massacre took place during the Boxer Rebellion, July 9, 1900, in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, North China.
The Taku Forts or Dagu Forts, also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River (Peiho River) estuary in the Binhai New Area, Tianjin, in northeastern China.
Tax revenue is the income that is gained by governments through taxation.
The Adventures of Tintin (Les Aventures de Tintin) is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé.
The Blue Lotus (Le Lotus bleu) is the fifth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Diamond Age: Or, A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer is a science fiction novel by American writer Neal Stephenson.
The Imperial Presidency, by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., is a book published in 1973 by Houghton Mifflin.
The Last Empress is a historical novel by Anchee Min that provides a sympathetic account of the life of Empress Dowager Cixi (referred to as Empress Orchid), from her rise to power as Empress Tzu-Hsi, until her death at 72 years of age.
The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure is a 2003 novel by Adam Williams.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Travels of Lao Can (or "The Travels of an old wreck") was a novel by Liu E (1857-1909), written in 1903-04 and published in 1907.
The Wedding (Wesele) is a defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the 20th century by Stanisław Wyspiański.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Ernest Woods Jr. (born August 1, 1972) is an American historian, political commentator, author, and podcaster.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Tongzhou District (alternate spellings Tungchow Tungchou (T'ung-chou), or Tong County during 1914–1997) is a district of Beijing.
The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор) was an 1858 unequal treaty between the Russian Empire, and the empire of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers of China, that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria (the original homeland of the Manchu people and the Qing Dynasty), which is now known as Northeast China.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858.
The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.
Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU;; also romanized as Qinghua) is a major research university in Beijing, China and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.
Tulku is a children's historical novel by Peter Dickinson, published by Gollancz in 1979.
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter "Walt" LaFeber (born August 30, 1933 in Walkerton, Indiana) is the Marie Underhill Noll Professor Emeritus of History and a Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow in the Department of History at Cornell University.
Article I, Section 8, Clause 11 of the United States Constitution, sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause, vests in the Congress the power to declare war, in the following wording: A number of wars have been declared under the United States Constitution, although there is some controversy as to the exact number, as the Constitution does not specify the form of such a declaration.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
The 1st Chinese Regiment, or the Weihaiwei Regiment, was a British Army Regiment formed and disbanded in British Weihaiwei.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William Alexander Parsons Martin (April 10, 1827 – December 17, 1916), also known as Ding WeiliangLydia H. Liu, The Clash of Empires: The invention of China in modern world making, Harvard University Press, 2004, pp.
William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.
William Scott Ament (Chinese Names: 梅子明 and 梅威良 Mei Wei Liang) (14 September 1851 – 6 January 1909 in San Francisco) was a missionary to China for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) from 1877, and was known as the "Father of Christian Endeavor in China."Porter, 353.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
The Wuwei Corps or Guards Army was a modernised army unit of the Qing dynasty.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xu Jingcheng (1845 – 28 July 1900) was a Chinese diplomat and Qing politician supportive of the Hundred Days' Reform. He was envoy to Belgium, France, Italy, Russia, Austria, the Netherlands, and Germany for the Qing imperial court and led reforms in modernizing China's railways and public works. As a modernizer and diplomat, he protested the breaches of international law in 1900 as one of the five ministers executed during the Boxer Rebellion. In Article IIa of the Boxer Protocol of 1901, the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) successfully pressed for the rehabilitation of Xu Jingcheng by an Imperial Edict of the Qing government.
The Yihequan, or Fists of Harmony and Justice (also named Yihetuan, League of Harmony and Justice), was a Chinese secret society known for having triggered the Boxer Rebellion.
The Yellow Peril (also Yellow Terror and Yellow Spectre) is a racist color-metaphor that is integral to the xenophobic theory of colonialism: that the peoples of East Asia are a danger to the Western world.
Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev or Alexeyev (Евге́ний Ива́нович Алексе́ев (– May 27, 1917) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy, viceroy of the Russian Far East, and commander-in-chief of Imperial Russian forces at Port Arthur and in Manchuria during the first year of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05.
Yikuang (Manchu: I-kuwang; 16 November 1838 – 28 January 1917), formally known as Prince Qing (or Prince Ch'ing), was a Manchu noble and politician of the Qing dynasty.
Yongdingmen was the former front gate of the outer city of Beijing's old city wall.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yuan Weishi (born December 15, 1931) is a Chinese historian and philosopher.
Yuxian (1842–1901) was a Chinese Manchu high official of the Qing dynasty who played an important role in the violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian Boxer Rebellion, which unfolded in northern China from the fall of 1899 to 1901.
Zaifeng (Manchu: dzai-feng; 12 February 1883 – 3 February 1951), formally known by his title Prince Chun, was a Manchu prince and regent of the late Qing dynasty.
Zaiyi (Manchu:; dzai-i; 26 August 1856 – 24 November 1922),Edward J.M. Rhoads, Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, University of Washington Press, 2001 better known by his title Prince Duan (or Prince Tuan), was a Manchu prince and statesman of the late Qing dynasty.
Zhang Decheng was a Chinese nationalist and leader of the Boxers during the Boxer Uprising.
Zhang Zhidong (4 September 18375 October 1909) was a Chinese official who lived the late Qing dynasty.
Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.
The 3rd battalion 14th infantry regiment was reactivated in 1987 and was based in Fort Drum, New York.
55 Days at Peking is a 1963 historically based American epic film drama in Technirama and Technicolor, produced by Samuel Bronston and directed by Nicholas Ray, Andrew Marton (credited as second unit director), and Guy Green (uncredited).
Beiqing Incident, Beiqing Insident, Boxer Movement, Boxer Rebellion of 1900, Boxer Rebels, Boxer Rising, Boxer Uprising, Boxer rebellion, Boxer revolution, Boxer rising, Boxer troubles, Boxer uprising, Boxer war, Causes of the Boxer Rebellion, Fist of Righteous Harmony, Fists Of Righteous Harmony, Fists of Patriotic Union, Fists of Righteous Harmony, Fists of Righteous Harmony Test, I Ho Ch'Uan, I Ho Chuan, I-Ho Ch'Uan, I-ho-ch'uan, I-ho-chuan, I-ho-tuan, Righteous & Harmonious Fists, Righteous Fists, Righteous Fists of Harmony, Righteous Harmonious Fists, Righteous Harmony Fists, Righteous Harmony Society Movement, Russo-Chinese War, Society of Right and Harmonious Fists, Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, The Boxer Rebellion, The Boxer Uprising, The Boxers, The Righteous Harmony Society, The Righteous Harmony Society Movement, The Society of Right and Harmonious Fists, The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, Ther Boxer War, War of righteous and harmonious fists, Yihetuan Movement, Yìhétuán, 义和团, 義和團.