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Index Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring. [1]

254 relations: A Century of Boxing Greats, Aaron Pryor, Albania, Alexis Argüello, Amateur boxing, American Medical Association, Amphitheatre, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Near East, Ancient Olympic Games, Ancient Rome, Anno Domini, Anselmo Moreno, Apollo Creed, Arc (geometry), Archie Moore, Arturo Gatti, Assault occasioning actual bodily harm, Assyria, Automated Boxing Scoring System, Érik Morales, Babylonia, Bare-knuckle boxing, BBC News, Below the belt, Benny Leonard, Bernard Hopkins, Billy Backus, Blocking (martial arts), Bobbing (boxing), Bolo punch, Boxer's fracture, Boxing at the Summer Olympics, Boxing glove, Boxing in the 1980s, Boxing ring, Boxing styles and technique, Boxing training, BoxRec, Brain damage, Brandon Ríos, British Boxing Board of Control, British Medical Association, Bunny, Nottinghamshire, Canastota, New York, Canelo Álvarez, Carlos Monzón, Carmen Basilio, Cecilia Brækhus, ..., Ceferino Garcia, Cestus, Check hook, Chin (combat sports), Chris Byrd, Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, Chuck Liddell, Clinch fighting, Combat sport, Commonwealth Games, Concussion, Consensual crime, Counterpunch (boxing), Covering (martial arts), Crete, Cross (boxing), Cutman, Danny García, David Tua, Diego Corrales, Duke of Albemarle, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, England, ESPN, European Boxing Union, Evander Holyfield, Ezzard Charles, Fall of communism in Albania, Fedor Emelianenko, Fiction, Floyd Mayweather Jr., Footwork (martial arts), Gabriel Elorde, Gene Tunney, Gennady Golovkin, George Foreman, Gerry Peñalosa, Gladiator, Grappling, Grappling hold, Grappling position, Great Britain, Guillermo Rigondeaux, Hand wrap, Hand-to-hand combat, Harry Greb, Heavyweight, Henry Armstrong, Hittites, Hook (boxing), Humberto Soto, Iceland, International Boxing Association (amateur), International Boxing Federation, International Boxing Hall of Fame, International Boxing Organization, Iran, Irish Americans, Jab, Jack Broughton, Jack Dempsey, Jack Johnson (boxer), Jake LaMotta, James Figg, James J. Corbett, James Kirkland (boxer), James Toney, Jerry Quarry, Joe Calzaghe, Joe Frazier, Joe Louis, John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, John Duddy, John Graham Chambers, John L. Sullivan, José Nápoles, Juan Manuel Márquez, Julio César Chávez, Julio César Chávez vs. Meldrick Taylor, Ken Buchanan, Khaosai Galaxy, Kid Gavilán, Kievan Rus', Kim Duk-koo, Knockout, Larry Holmes, Las Vegas, László Papp, Leather, Lennox Lewis, Lightweight, Lillie Bridge Grounds, List of current world boxing champions, List of female boxers, List of governors of Jamaica, List of male boxers, Little Mac (Punch-Out!!), London Prize Ring Rules, Mandatory eight count, Manny Pacquiao, Marco Antonio Barrera, Marcos Maidana, Marquess of Queensberry Rules, Marvelous Marvin Hagler, Max Baer (boxer), Max Schmeling, Medicine ball, Meldrick Taylor, Mesopotamia, Mexican Americans, Mexicans, Michael Carbajal, Michael Katsidis, Micky Ward, Middleweight, Miguel Cotto, Miguel Vázquez, Mike Tyson, Milling (military training exercise), Minoan civilization, Money, Mouthguard, Muhammad Ali, Naseem Hamed, National Safety Council, Nevada Athletic Commission, New Orleans, Nonito Donaire, North Korea, Octuple champion, Olympic Games, Oscar De La Hoya, Overhand (boxing), Parkyns baronets, Parry (fencing), Pernell Whitaker, Physician, Prize money, Professional boxing, Puerto Ricans, Punch (combat), R v Coney, Rabbit punch, Ray Mancini, Referee (boxing), Relief, Ricardo López (boxer), Ricky Hatton, Robert Anasi, Roberto Durán, Rock–paper–scissors, Rocky Marciano, Roger Mayweather, Roman Empire, Ronald J. Ross, Rope-a-dope, Roy Jones Jr., Royal Navy, Ruslan Provodnikov, Russian boxing, Salvador Sánchez, Sam Langford, Saudi Arabia, Sergio Martínez (boxer), Shawn Porter, Skipping rope, Slipping, Sonny Liston, Southpaw stance, Sport, Steve Lott, Strike (attack), Submission (combat sports), Sugar Ray Leonard, Sugar Ray Robinson, Sumer, Sweden, Terry Norris, Tex Rickard, The Ring (magazine), The Rumble in the Jungle, Thebes, Egypt, Thomas Hearns, Tim Witherspoon, Tony Canzoneri, Tony Zale, Toughman Contest, Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, Undisputed champion, Uppercut, Vasyl Lomachenko, Vicente Saldivar, Vitali Klitschko, Wayne McCullough, Weapon, Weight class (boxing), Welterweight, Wilfredo Gómez, Willie Pep, Wladimir Klitschko, World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council, World Boxing Organization. Expand index (204 more) »

A Century of Boxing Greats

A Century of Boxing Greats:Inside the Ring with the Hundred Best Boxers is a book about boxing, written by Patrick Myler and published in England in 1997 by Robson Books.

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Aaron Pryor

Aaron Pryor (October 20, 1955 – October 9, 2016) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1976 to 1990.

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Alexis Argüello

Alexis Argüello (April 19, 1952 – July 1, 2009) was a Nicaraguan professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 1995, and later became a politician.

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Amateur boxing

Amateur boxing (also called Olympic Boxing) is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Ancient Olympic Games

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Anselmo Moreno

Anselmo Moreno (born June 28, 1985) is a Panamanian former professional boxer who competed from 2002 to 2017.

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Apollo Creed

Apollo Creed was a fictional character from the ''Rocky'' films.

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Arc (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, an arc (symbol: ⌒) is a closed segment of a differentiable curve.

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Archie Moore

Archie Moore (born Archibald Lee Wright; December 13, 1916 – December 9, 1998) was an American professional boxer and the longest reigning World Light Heavyweight Champion of all time (December 1952 – May 1962).

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Arturo Gatti

Arturo Gatti (April 15, 1972 – July 11, 2009) was an Italian Canadian professional boxer who competed from 1991 to 2007.

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Assault occasioning actual bodily harm

Assault occasioning actual bodily harm (often abbreviated to Assault O.A.B.H. or simply ABH) is a statutory offence of aggravated assault in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Hong Kong and the Solomon Islands.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Automated Boxing Scoring System

The automated boxing scoring system (ABSS) is a research and development project being developed by a group of Australian institutions and private companies.

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Érik Morales

Érik Isaac Morales Elvira (born September 1, 1976) is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2012.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Bare-knuckle boxing

Bare-knuckle boxing (also known as bare-knuckle, prizefighting, fist fight or fisticuffs) is the original form of boxing, closely related to ancient combat sports.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Below the belt

Mainly used in combat sports such as boxing and kickboxing, below the belt refers to all the area of the body that lies below the line of the opponent's navel, including the genital area, legs, and crotch.

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Benny Leonard

Benny Leonard (born Benjamin Leiner; April 7, 1896 – April 18, 1947) was a Jewish American professional lightweight boxer.

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Bernard Hopkins

Bernard Humphrey Hopkins Jr. (born January 15, 1965) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1988 to 2016.

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Billy Backus

Billy Backus, born March 5, 1943 in Canastota, New York, is a former World Welterweight Champion.

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Blocking (martial arts)

In martial arts, blocking is the act of stopping or deflecting an opponent's attack for the purpose of preventing injurious contact with the body.

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Bobbing (boxing)

Bobbing is one of the basic strategies of defensive boxing, executed by slightly moving the head to either side so that the opponent's punches slip by the boxer's head.

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Bolo punch

A bolo punch is a punch used in martial arts.

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Boxer's fracture

A boxer's fracture is the break of the 5th metacarpal bones of the hand near the knuckle.

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Boxing at the Summer Olympics

Boxing has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since its introduction to the program at the 1904 Summer Olympics, except for the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, because Swedish law banned the sport at the time.

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Boxing glove

Boxing gloves are cushioned gloves that fighters wear on their hands during boxing matches and practices.

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Boxing in the 1980s

Boxing in the 1980s was filled with important fights, events and personalities that shaped the sport.

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Boxing ring

A boxing ring is the space in which a boxing match occurs.

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Boxing styles and technique

Throughout the history of gloved boxing styles, techniques and strategies have changed to varying degrees.

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Boxing training

Boxing training is the training method that boxers use in order to get more fit for their sport.

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BoxRec or boxrec.com is a website dedicated to holding updated records of professional boxers, both male and female.

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Brain damage

Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

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Brandon Ríos

Brandon Lee Ríos (born April 29, 1986) is an American professional boxer.

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British Boxing Board of Control

The British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC) is the governing body of professional boxing in the United Kingdom.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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Bunny, Nottinghamshire

Bunny is a village and civil parish in the Rushcliffe borough of Nottinghamshire, England.

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Canastota, New York

Canastota is a village located inside the Town of Lenox in Madison County, New York, United States.

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Canelo Álvarez

Santos Saúl Álvarez Barragán (born July 18, 1990), best known as Saúl "Canelo" Álvarez, is a Mexican professional boxer.

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Carlos Monzón

Carlos Monzón (August 7, 1942 – January 8, 1995) was an Argentine professional boxer who held the Undisputed World Middleweight Championship for 7 years.

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Carmen Basilio

Carmen Basilio (Born Carmine Basilio, April 2, 1927 – November 7, 2012) was an American professional boxer who was the world champion in both the Welterweight and Middleweight divisions.

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Cecilia Brækhus

Cecilia Carmen Linda Brækhus (born 28 September 1981) is a Norwegian professional boxer and former kickboxer.

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Ceferino Garcia

Ceferino Montano Garcia (August 26, 1906 – January 1, 1981) was a champion boxer born in Naval, Biliran, Philippines.

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A cestus or caestus is an ancient battle glove, sometimes used in pankration.

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Check hook

In boxing, a check hook is employed to prevent aggressive boxers from lunging in.

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Chin (combat sports)

In combat sports such as boxing, kickboxing and mixed martial arts, a fighter's chin is a figurative term that refers to an ability to tolerate physical trauma to the chin or jaw without being knocked unconscious.

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Chris Byrd

Christopher Cornelius "Chris" Byrd (born August 15, 1970) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2009.

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Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle

Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, KG, PC (14 August 1653 – 6 October 1688) was an English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1667 to 1670 when he inherited the Dukedom and sat in the House of Lords.

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Chuck Liddell

Charles David "Chuck" Liddell (born December 17, 1969) is an American mixed martial artist and former UFC Light Heavyweight Champion.

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Clinch fighting

Clinch fighting is the part of stand-up fighting where the combatants are grappling in a clinch, typically using clinch holds.

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Combat sport

A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat.

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Commonwealth Games

The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Consensual crime

A consensual crime is a public-order crime that involves more than one participant, all of whom give their consent as willing participants in an activity that is unlawful.

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Counterpunch (boxing)

A counterpunch is a boxing punch that immediately follows an attack launched by an opponent.

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Covering (martial arts)

Covering in martial arts is the act of protecting against an opponents strikes by using the arms and shoulders to block and absorb the impact of strikes on the head and torso and prevent injury.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cross (boxing)

In boxing, a cross (also commonly called a straight) is a punch usually thrown with the dominant hand the instant an opponent leads with his opposite hand.

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A cutman is a person responsible for preventing and treating physical damage to a fighter during the breaks between rounds of a full contact match such as a boxing, kickboxing or a mixed martial arts bout.

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Danny García

Danny Óscar García (born March 20, 1988) is an American professional boxer.

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David Tua

Mafaufau Tavita Lio Mafaufau Sanerivi Talimatasi (born 21 November 1972), known as David Tua, is a Samoan New Zealander former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2013.

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Diego Corrales

Diego "Chico" Corrales Jr. (August 25, 1977 – May 7, 2007) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1996 to 2007.

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Duke of Albemarle

The Dukedom of Albemarle has been created twice in the Peerage of England, each time ending in extinction.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).

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European Boxing Union

The European Boxing Union (or EBU) is a pan-European governing body that sanctions championship bouts in professional boxing.

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Evander Holyfield

Evander Holyfield (born October 19, 1962) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1984 to 2011.

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Ezzard Charles

Ezzard Mack Charles (July 7, 1921 – May 28, 1975) was an American professional boxer and World Heavyweight Champion.

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Fall of communism in Albania

The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest on December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities.

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Fedor Emelianenko

Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko (r,; born 28 September 1976) is a Ukrainian-born Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist (MMA), sambist, and judoka, currently competing for Rizin Fighting Federation and Bellator MMA.

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Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.

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Floyd Mayweather Jr.

Floyd Joy Mayweather Jr. (né Sinclair; born February 24, 1977) is an American professional boxing promoter and former professional boxer.

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Footwork (martial arts)

Footwork is a martial arts and combat sports term for the general usage of the legs and feet in stand-up fighting.

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Gabriel Elorde

Gabriel "Flash" Elorde (March 25, 1935 – January 2, 1985) was a Filipino professional boxer.

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Gene Tunney

James Joseph "Gene" Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1915 to 1928.

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Gennady Golovkin

Gennady Gennadyevich Golovkin (Cyrillic: Геннадий Геннадьевич Головкин; born 8 April 1982), often known by his nickname "GGG" or "Triple G", is a Kazakhstani professional boxer who currently holds the unified WBA (Super), WBC, and IBO middleweight titles; previously he held the IBF middleweight title from 2015 to 2018.

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George Foreman

George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1969 to 1977, and from 1987 to 1997.

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Gerry Peñalosa

Geronimo "Gerry" Peñalosa (born August 7, 1972) is a Filipino former professional boxer who competed from 1989 to 2010.

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A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent.

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Grappling hold

A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold; in Japanese referred to as katame-waza,, "grappling technique") is a specific grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts grip that is applied to an opponent.

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Grappling position

A grappling position refers to the positioning and holds of combatants engaged in grappling.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Guillermo Rigondeaux

Guillermo Rigondeaux Ortiz (born September 30, 1980) is a Cuban professional boxer.

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Hand wrap

A hand wrap or a wrist wrap is a strip of cloth used by boxers (and participants in other combat sports) to protect the hand and wrist against injuries induced by punching.

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Hand-to-hand combat

Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or non-lethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance, or within the physical reach of a handheld weapon) that does not involve the use of ranged weapons.

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Harry Greb

Edward Henry Greb (June 6, 1894 – October 22, 1926) was an American professional boxer.

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Heavyweight is a weight class in combat sports.

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Henry Armstrong

Henry Jackson Jr. (December 12, 1912 – October 24, 1988) was an American professional boxer and a world boxing champion who fought under the name Henry Armstrong.

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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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Hook (boxing)

A hook is a punch in boxing.

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Humberto Soto

Armando Humberto Soto Ochoa (born May 11, 1980), best known as Humberto Soto, is a Mexican professional boxer.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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International Boxing Association (amateur)

The International Boxing Association, originally the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and still referred to as the AIBA is a sport organization that sanctions amateur (Olympic-style) boxing matches and awards world and subordinate championships.

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International Boxing Federation

The International Boxing Federation (IBF) is one of four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Association (WBA), World Boxing Council (WBC) and World Boxing Organization (WBO).

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International Boxing Hall of Fame

The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame, located in Canastota, New York, United States, honors boxers, trainers and other contributors to the sport worldwide.

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International Boxing Organization

The International Boxing Organization (IBO) is a non-profit organization that sanctions professional boxing matches and awards world and regional championships.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irish Americans

Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.

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A jab is a type of punch used in the martial arts.

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Jack Broughton

John "Jack" Broughton (c. 1703 or 5 July 1704 – 8 January 1789) was an English bare-knuckle boxer.

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Jack Dempsey

William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey (June 24, 1895 – May 31, 1983), nicknamed "Kid Blackie" and "The Manassa Mauler", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1914 to 1927, and reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1919 to 1926.

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Jack Johnson (boxer)

John Arthur Johnson (March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946), nicknamed the Galveston Giant, was an American boxer who, at the height of the Jim Crow era, became the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion (1908–1915).

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Jake LaMotta

Giacobbe "Jake" LaMotta (July 10, 1922 – September 19, 2017) was an American professional boxer, former world middleweight champion, and stand-up comedian.

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James Figg

James Figg (1684 – 7 December 1734) was an English bare-knuckle boxer.

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James J. Corbett

James John Corbett (September 1, 1866 – February 18, 1933) was an American professional boxer and a former World Heavyweight Champion, best known as the man who defeated the great John L. Sullivan.

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James Kirkland (boxer)

James Derick Kirkland (born March 19, 1984) is an American professional boxer who held the regional WBO–NABO junior middleweight title in 2008.

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James Toney

James Nathaniel Toney (born August 24, 1968) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1988 to 2017.

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Jerry Quarry

Jerry Quarry (May 15, 1945 – January 3, 1999), nicknamed "Irish" or "The Bellflower Bomber", was an American heavyweight boxer.

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Joe Calzaghe

Joseph William Calzaghe, (born 23 March 1972) is a Welsh former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2008.

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Joe Frazier

Joseph William Frazier (January 12, 1944 – November 7, 2011), nicknamed "Smokin' Joe", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1965 to 1981.

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Joe Louis

Joseph Louis Barrow (May 13, 1914 – April 12, 1981), best known as Joe Louis and nicknamed the "Brown Bomber", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1934 to 1951.

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John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (20 July 184431 January 1900) was a Scottish nobleman, remembered for his atheism, his outspoken views, his brutish manner, for lending his name to the "Queensberry Rules" that form the basis of modern boxing, and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde.

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John Duddy

John Francis Duddy (born 19 June 1979) is an Irish actor and former professional boxer who fought from 2003 to 2010.

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John Graham Chambers

John Graham Chambers (12 February 1843 – 4 March 1883) was a Welsh sportsman.

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John L. Sullivan

John Lawrence Sullivan (October 15, 1858 – February 2, 1918), also known as the "Boston Strong Boy", was an Irish-American boxer recognized as the first heavyweight champion of gloved boxing, holding the title from February 7, 1882, to 1892.

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José Nápoles

José Ángel Nápoles, nicknamed Mantequilla ("Butter", referring to his smooth boxing style), (born April 13, 1940), is a Cuban-Mexican boxer and former World Welterweight Champion.

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Juan Manuel Márquez

Juan Manuel Márquez Méndez (born August 23, 1973) is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2014.

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Julio César Chávez

Julio César Chávez González (born July 12, 1962), also known as Julio César Chávez Sr., is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1980 to 2005.

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Julio César Chávez vs. Meldrick Taylor

The world championship bout held on March 17, 1990 between WBC world champion Julio César Chávez of Mexico and IBF world champion Meldrick Taylor of the United States, both at light welterweight, was a historic event in professional boxing.

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Ken Buchanan

Ken Buchanan MBE (born 28 June 1945) is a British retired professional boxer and the former Undisputed World Lightweight ChampionGutteridge, Reg.

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Khaosai Galaxy

Khaosai Galaxy (เขาทราย แกแล็คซี่, born, May 15, 1959) is a former professional Thai super flyweight (also known as junior bantamweight) boxer and Muaythai kickboxer.

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Kid Gavilán

Gerardo González (January 6, 1926 – February 13, 2003), better known in the boxing world as Kid Gavilan, was a former World Welterweight Champion from Camagüey, Cuba.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kim Duk-koo

Kim Duk-Koo (January 8, 1959November 18, 1982) was a South Korean boxer who died following a world championship boxing match against Ray Mancini.

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A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo, and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games.

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Larry Holmes

Larry Holmes (born November 3, 1949) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1973 to 2002.

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Las Vegas

Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.

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László Papp

László Papp (March 25, 1926 – October 16, 2003) was a Hungarian professional boxer from Budapest.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Lennox Lewis

Lennox Claudius Lewis,, (born 2 September 1965) is a former professional boxer who competed from 1989 to 2003.

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Lightweight is a weight class in combat sports and rowing.

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Lillie Bridge Grounds

The Lillie Bridge Grounds was a sports ground on the Fulham side of West Brompton, London.

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List of current world boxing champions

This is a list of current world boxing champions.

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List of female boxers

This is a list of notable female boxers.

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List of governors of Jamaica

This is a list of viceroys in Jamaica from its initial occupation by Spain in 1509, to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962.

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List of male boxers

This is a list of notable male boxers.

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Little Mac (Punch-Out!!)

is the main protagonist in Nintendo's series of Punch-Out!! video games.

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London Prize Ring Rules

The London Prize Ring Rules were a list of boxing rules promulgated in 1838 and revised in 1853.

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Mandatory eight count

The mandatory eight count, also called a compulsory eight count, is a rule in boxing and kickboxing requiring the referee to give any fighter a count of eight seconds once they have been knocked down by their opponent, and before the fight is allowed to resume.

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Manny Pacquiao

Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao, PLH (born December 17, 1978) is a Filipino professional boxer and politician, currently serving as a Senator of the Philippines.

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Marco Antonio Barrera

Marco Antonio Barrera Tapia (born January 17, 1974) is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1989 to 2011.

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Marcos Maidana

Marcos René Maidana (born July 17, 1983) is an Argentine former professional boxer who competed from 2004 to 2014.

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Marquess of Queensberry Rules

The Marquess of Queensberry Rules are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.

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Marvelous Marvin Hagler

Marvelous Marvin Hagler (born Marvin Nathaniel Hagler; May 23, 1954) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1973 to 1987.

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Max Baer (boxer)

Maximilian Adelbert "Max" Baer (February 11, 1909 – November 21, 1959) was an American boxer of the 1930s (one-time Heavyweight Champion of the World) as well as a referee, and had an occasional role on film or television.

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Max Schmeling

Maximillian Adolph Otto Siegfried "Max" Schmeling (28 September 1905 – 2 February 2005) was a German boxer who was heavyweight champion of the world between 1930 and 1932.

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Medicine ball

A medicine ball (also known as an exercise ball, a med ball, or a fitness ball) is a weighted ball roughly the diameter of the shoulders (approx. 13.7 inches), often used for rehabilitation and strength training.

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Meldrick Taylor

Meldrick Taylor (born October 19, 1966) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1984 to 2002.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

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Mexicans (mexicanos) are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America.

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Michael Carbajal

Michael Carbajal (born September 17, 1967 in Phoenix, Arizona) is an American five-time world boxing champion of Mexican descent.

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Michael Katsidis

Michael Alan Katsidis (Μιχάλης Κατσίδης; born 15 August 1980) is an Australian professional boxer.

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Micky Ward

George Michael "Micky" Ward Jr. (born October 4, 1965), often known by his nickname of "Irish" Micky Ward, is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2003.

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Middleweight is a weight class in combat sports.

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Miguel Cotto

Miguel Ángel Cotto Vázquez (born October 29, 1980) is a Puerto Rican former professional boxer who competed from 2001 to 2017.

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Miguel Vázquez

Miguel Ángel Vázquez Bautista (born January 6, 1987), best known as Miguel Vázquez, is a Mexican professional boxer who held the IBF lightweight title from 2010 to 2014.

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Mike Tyson

Michael Gerard Tyson (born June 30, 1966) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2005.

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Milling (military training exercise)

Milling is a training activity in the British airborne infantry.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums.

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Muhammad Ali

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.

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Naseem Hamed

Naseem Hamed (نسيم حميد; born 12 February 1974), commonly known as "Prince" Naseem or "Naz", is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2002.

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National Safety Council

The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.

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Nevada Athletic Commission

The Nevada Athletic Commission (popularly known as the Nevada State Athletic Commission or NSAC) regulates all contests and exhibitions of unarmed combat within the state of Nevada, including licensure and supervision of promoters, boxers, kickboxers, mixed martial arts fighters, seconds, ring officials, managers, and matchmakers.

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New Orleans

New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.

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Nonito Donaire

Nonito Gonzales Donaire Jr. (born November 16, 1982) is a Filipino-American professional boxer.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Octuple champion

In different sports, a sportsperson who wins eight crowns, titles, medals, belts, or other distinctions is called an octuple champion.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Oscar De La Hoya

Oscar De La Hoya (born February 4, 1973) is an American boxing promoter and former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2008.

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Overhand (boxing)

An overhand (or overcut or drop) is a semi-circular and vertical punch thrown with the rear hand.

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Parkyns baronets

The Parkyns Baronetcy, of Bunny Park in Nottinghamshire, is a title in the Baronetage of England.

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Parry (fencing)

A parry is a fencing bladework maneuver intended to deflect or block an incoming attack.

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Pernell Whitaker

Pernell Whitaker (born January 2, 1964) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1984 to 2001, and has since worked as a boxing trainer.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Prize money

Prize money has a distinct meaning in warfare, especially naval warfare, where it was a monetary reward paid out under prize law to the crew of a ship for capturing or sinking an enemy vessel.

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Professional boxing

Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is a regulated, sanctioned boxing.

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Puerto Ricans

Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.

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Punch (combat)

A punch is a striking blow with the fist.

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R v Coney

R v. Coney (1882) 8 QBD 534 is an English case in which the Court for Crown Cases Reserved found that a bare-knuckle fight was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm, despite the consent of the participants.

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Rabbit punch

A rabbit punch is a blow to the back of the head or to the base of the skull.

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Ray Mancini

Raymond Michael Mancini (born March 4, 1961), best known as Ray "Boom Boom" Mancini, is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1979 to 1992, and has since worked as an actor.

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Referee (boxing)

The referee in boxing is the individual charged with enforcing the rules of that sport during a match.

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Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Ricardo López (boxer)

Ricardo “El Finito” López Nava (born July 25, 1966) is a retired undefeated Mexican professional boxer.

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Ricky Hatton

Richard John Hatton, (born 6 October 1978) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1997 to 2009, and had one comeback fight in 2012.

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Robert Anasi

Robert Anasi, (born in Providence, Rhode Island in 1966) is an American writer and journalist.

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Roberto Durán

Roberto Durán Samaniego (born June 16, 1951) is a Panamanian former professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 2001.

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Rock-paper-scissors (also known as scissors-paper-rock or other variants) is a hand game usually played between two people, in which each player simultaneously forms one of three shapes with an outstretched hand.

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Rocky Marciano

Rocco Francis Marchegiano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), best known as Rocky Marciano, was an American professional boxer who competed from 1947 to 1955.

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Roger Mayweather

Roger Mayweather (born April 24, 1961) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1981 to 1999, and has since worked as a boxing trainer.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Ronald J. Ross

Ronald J. Ross is a Cleveland, Ohio radiologist known for research on brain injury in professional and amateur boxers and for the first clinical use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR later known as MRI) on human patients.

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The rope-a-dope is a boxing fighting style commonly associated with Muhammad Ali in his 1974 Rumble in the Jungle match against George Foreman.

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Roy Jones Jr.

Roy Levesta Jones Jr. (born January 16, 1969) is an American former professional boxer, boxing commentator, boxing trainer, rapper, and actor who holds dual American and Russian citizenship.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Ruslan Provodnikov

Ruslan Mikhailovich Provodnikov (Руслан Михайлович Проводников; born 20 January 1984) is a Russian professional boxer and politician.

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Russian boxing

Russian boxing (Russian - Кулачный бой Kulachniy Boy "fist fighting, pugilism") is the traditional bare-knuckle boxing of Russia.

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Salvador Sánchez

Salvador Sánchez Narváez (January 26, 1959 – August 12, 1982) was a Mexican boxer born in the town of Santiago Tianguistenco, Estado de México.

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Sam Langford

Samuel E. Langford (March 4, 1883 – January 12, 1956), known as the Boston Tar Baby, Boston Terror, and Boston Bonecrusher, was a Black Canadian boxing standout of the early part of the 20th century.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sergio Martínez (boxer)

Sergio Gabriel Martínez (born February 21, 1975) is an Argentine former professional boxer who competed from 1997 to 2014.

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Shawn Porter

Shawn Porter (born October 27, 1987) is an American professional boxer who held the IBF welterweight title from 2013 to 2014.

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Skipping rope

A skipping rope (British English) or jump rope (American English) is a tool used in the sport of jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads.

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Slipping is a technique used in boxing that is similar to bobbing.

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Sonny Liston

Charles L. "Sonny" Liston (unknown – December 30, 1970) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1953 to 1970.

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Southpaw stance

In boxing, a southpaw stance is where the boxer has his right hand and right foot forward, leading with right jabs, and following with a left cross right hook.

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Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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Steve Lott

Steve Lott (January 17, 1950) is the CEO of Boxing Hall of Fame Las Vegas Nevada, boxing manager, former film editor at ESPN, old friend of Mike Tyson and assitant to fight managers of the time Bill Cayton and Jim Jacobs who financed Tyson's boxing coach and life mentor Cus D'Amato, boxing film historian.

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Strike (attack)

A strike is a directed physical attack with either a part of the human body or with an inanimate object (such as a weapon) intended to cause blunt trauma or penetrating trauma upon an opponent.

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Submission (combat sports)

A submission is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat.

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Sugar Ray Leonard

Ray Charles Leonard (born May 17, 1956), best known as "Sugar" Ray Leonard, is an American former professional boxer, motivational speaker, and occasional actor.

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Sugar Ray Robinson

Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr.; May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1940 to 1965.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Terry Norris

Terry Wayne Norris (born June 17, 1967) is an American former boxer and a three-time world champion in the light-middleweight (super-welterweight) division.

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Tex Rickard

George Lewis "Tex" Rickard (January 2, 1870 – January 6, 1929) was an American boxing promoter, founder of the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League (NHL), and builder of the third incarnation of Madison Square Garden in New York City.

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The Ring (magazine)

The Ring (often called The Ring magazine) is an American boxing magazine that was first published in 1922 as a boxing and wrestling magazine.

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The Rumble in the Jungle

The Rumble in the Jungle was a historic boxing event in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) on October 30, 1974 (at 4:00 am).

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Thebes, Egypt

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.

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Thomas Hearns

Thomas "Tommy" Hearns (born October 18, 1958) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1977 to 2006.

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Tim Witherspoon

Tim Witherspoon (born December 27, 1957) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1979 to 2003.

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Tony Canzoneri

Tony Canzoneri (November 6, 1908 – December 9, 1959) was an American professional boxer.

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Tony Zale

Tony Zale, born Anthony Florian Zaleski (May 29, 1913 – March 20, 1997) was an American boxer.

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Toughman Contest

The Toughman Contest, founded in 1979 in Bay City, Michigan by boxing promoter Art Dore, is a chance for the novice amateur boxers (those with no more than five sanctioned wins in the past five years) to test themselves in the ring.

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Transnational Boxing Rankings Board

The Transnational Boxing Rankings Board (TBRB) is an all-volunteer initiative formed in October 2012 with the intention of providing professional boxing with authoritative top-ten rankings, identifying the singular world champion of every division by unbiased reasoning and common sense, and to insist on the sport's reform.

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Undisputed champion

In professional boxing, the undisputed champion of a weight class is usually a boxer who is recognized as the world champion at that class by each boxing organization, However, there are no officially declared necessary conditions needed to become an undisputed champion, as the major boxing organizations refer to all boxers holding at least two world titles in their respective division as unified champions.

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The uppercut (formerly known as the undercut; sometimes also referred to as the upper) is a punch used in boxing that travels along a vertical line at the opponent's chin or solar plexus.

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Vasyl Lomachenko

Vasyl Anatoliyovich Lomachenko (Василь Анатолійович Ломаченко,; also Vasily or Vasiliy; born 17 February 1988) is a Ukrainian professional boxer.

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Vicente Saldivar

Vicente Samuel Saldívar García (May 3, 1943 – July 18, 1985) was a Mexican boxer.

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Vitali Klitschko

Vitali Volodymyrovych Klitschko (Віта́лій Володи́мирович Кличко́,; born 19 July 1971) is a Ukrainian politician and former professional boxer.

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Wayne McCullough

Wayne Pocket Rocket McCullough (born Wayne William McCullough; 7 July 1970) is a former professional boxer from Northern Ireland who competed from 1993 to 2008.

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A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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Weight class (boxing)

A weight class is a measurement weight range for boxers.

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Welterweight is a weight class in combat sports.

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Wilfredo Gómez

Wilfredo Gómez Rivera, El Nuevo Día (2015-04-18).

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Willie Pep

Guglielmo Papaleo (September 19, 1922 – November 23, 2006) was an American professional boxer, better known as Willie Pep who held the World Featherweight championship twice between the years of 1942 and 1950.

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Wladimir Klitschko

Wladimir Wladimirowitsch Klitschko (born 25 March 1976) is a Ukrainian former professional boxer who competed from 1996 to 2017.

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World Boxing Association

The World Boxing Association (WBA) is the oldest and one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC, and WBO.

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World Boxing Council

The World Boxing Council (WBC) is one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the International Boxing Federation (IBF), World Boxing Association (WBA) and World Boxing Organization (WBO) and one of the two original sanctioning bodies (along with the WBA).

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World Boxing Organization

The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is a sanctioning organization which recognizes professional boxing world champions.

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Boxer, Boxing (sport), Boxing Styles and Techniques, Boxing match, Boxing moves, Boxing punches, Corner men, Corner person, Corner persons, Corner-man, Corner-men, Corner-person, Corner-persons, Cornermen, Cornerperson, Cornerpersons, English boxing, Fist Fighting, Fist fighting, Fist-fight, Fist-fighting, Fistfight, Fistfighting, History of boxing, History of professional boxing, Hit and Away, Low guard, Modern boxing, Noble art, Parrying (boxing), Pugilist, Pugilistic, Ring second, Round (boxing), Sports boxing, Western boxing.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxing

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