A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
Absalom, Absalom! is a novel by the American author William Faulkner, first published in 1936.
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
In mathematics, any of the positive integers that occurs as a coefficient in the binomial theorem is a binomial coefficient.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
In quantum mechanics, bra–ket notation is a standard notation for describing quantum states.
A bracket or tournament bracket is a tree diagram that represents the series of games played during a knockout tournament.
In typography, a bullet (•) is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Concision (alternatively brevity, laconicism, terseness, or conciseness) is minimizing words, while conveying an idea.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to and, but differs from these symbols in both length and height.
A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters used to specify the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text or other data streams.
In computer science, denotational semantics (initially known as mathematical semantics or Scott–Strachey semantics) is an approach of formalizing the meanings of programming languages by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations) that describe the meanings of expressions from the languages.
In typography, a dingbat (sometimes more formally known as a printer's ornament or printer's character) is an ornament, character, or spacer used in typesetting, often employed for the creation of box frames.
In mathematics, any vector space V has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear functionals on V, together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants.
Edward Estlin "E.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
An ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, 'omission' or 'falling short') is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.
An emoticon (rarely pronounced) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.
In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two elements: and (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).
In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements.
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).
In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.
In computer science, formal specifications are mathematically based techniques whose purpose are to help with the implementation of systems and software.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
In mathematical logic, a Gödel numbering is a function that assigns to each symbol and well-formed formula of some formal language a unique natural number, called its Gödel number.
Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias toward a particular sex or social gender.
In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset such that every element of the group can be expressed as the combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of the subset and their inverses.
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The greater-than sign is a mathematical symbol that denotes an inequality between two values.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.
An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
In mathematics, the Iverson bracket, named after Kenneth E. Iverson, is a notation that generalises the Kronecker delta.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Law reports or reporters are series of books that contain judicial opinions from a selection of case law decided by courts.
The less-than sign is a mathematical symbol that denotes an inequality between two values.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.
In the mathematical field of differential topology, the Lie bracket of vector fields, also known as the Jacobi–Lie bracket or the commutator of vector fields, is an operator that assigns to any two vector fields X and Y on a smooth manifold M a third vector field denoted.
In differential geometry, the Lie derivative, named after Sophus Lie by Władysław Ślebodziński, evaluates the change of a tensor field (including scalar function, vector field and one-form), along the flow defined by another vector field.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
This page lists Japanese typographic symbols that are not included in kana or kanji.
Musical symbols are the marks and symbols, used since about the 13th century in the musical notation of musical scores, styles, and instruments to describe pitch, rhythm, tempo and, to some degree, its articulation (a composition in its fundamentals).
This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type.
In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.
Macaulay brackets are a notation used to describe the ramp function A popular alternative transcription uses angle brackets, viz. \langle x \rangle.
Market research (also in some contexts known as industrial research) is any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Medieval studies is the academic interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.
In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.
In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of objects.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc..., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.
A paren is a parenthesis.
A parenthesis (plural parentheses) is a type of bracket used for punctuation.
In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Ancient Greek word παρένθεσις parénthesis 'injection, insertion', literally '(a) putting in beside') or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage.
Parenthetical Girls was an experimental pop band formed in Everett, Washington.
Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations—for example, "(Smith 2010, p. 1)"—are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
In mathematics and classical mechanics, the Poisson bracket is an important binary operation in Hamiltonian mechanics, playing a central role in Hamilton's equations of motion, which govern the time evolution of a Hamiltonian dynamical system.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
In mathematics, one method of defining a group is by a presentation.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quasi-quotation or Quine quotation is a linguistic device in formal languages that facilitates rigorous and terse formulation of general rules about linguistic expressions while properly observing the use–mention distinction.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
In algebra, ring theory is the study of rings—algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those operations defined for the integers.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.
In Western musical notation, the staff (US) or stave (UK) (plural for either: '''staves''') is a set of five horizontal lines and four spaces that each represent a different musical pitch or, in the case of a percussion staff, different percussion instruments.
Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools; the standard varieties of English around the world largely align to either British or American English spelling standards.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In common law systems, a superior court is a court of general competence which typically has unlimited jurisdiction with regard to civil and criminal legal cases.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
Triple parentheses or triple brackets, also known as an (((echo))), are an antisemitic symbol that has been used to highlight the names of individuals of a Jewish background, or organizations who are thought to be owned by Jewish people.
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.
For a printed medium (such as paper), a typographic approximation is a replacement (approximation) of some element of the writing system (usually, a glyph) with some else glyph(s), such as a nearly homographic character, digraph or character string.
An uncertain plural occurs when a writer does not know in advance whether a word should be written in the singular or plural.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
When Usenet and e-mail users respond to a message, they often want to include some context for the discussion.
In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.
Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing that uses more words than necessary (for example, using "Despite the fact that" instead of "Although").
A vinculum is a horizontal line used in mathematical notation for a specific purpose.
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi.
The Z notation is a formal specification language used for describing and modelling computing systems.
"()" or two parentheses (40 and 41 in ASCII) may refer to.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
(, ( ), (), ), Angle bracket, Angle brackets, Angle brackets (punctuation), Angled bracket, Angular bracket, Angular brackets, Banana bracket, Box bracket, Brace (punctuation), Brace bracket, Braces (punctuation), Bracket (punctuation), Bracket (typography), Brackets, Brackets (punctuation), Brakcet, Brakcets, Broket, Brokets, Chevron (punctuation), Close bracket, Close parentheses, Close parenthesis, Close square bracket, Closed parentheses, Closed parenthesis, Closing bracket, Closing curly brace, Closing curly bracket, Closing parentheses, Closing parenthesis, Closing round bracket, Closing square bracket, Corner quote, Corner quotes, Corner-quote, Curley brace, Curley braces, Curley brackets, Curly brace, Curly braces, Curly bracket, Curly brackets, Double bracket, Double brackets, Hoinkies, Hoinky, Inequality sign bracket, Inequality sign brackets, Left angle bracket, Left bracket, Left curly brace, Left curly bracket, Left parentheses, Left parenthesis, Left round bracket, Left square bracket, Lenticular brackets, List of Unicode brackets, List of bracket types, List of brackets, List of types of brackets, Open bracket, Open parentheses, Open parenthesis, Open square bracket, Opening bracket, Opening curly brace, Opening curly bracket, Opening parentheses, Opening parenthesis, Opening round bracket, Opening square bracket, Parantheses, Paranthesis, Paren, Parens, Parenthases, Parenthese, Parentheses, Parenthesis, Parenthesis-point, Parenthesis-points, Parenthesisation, Parenthesise, Parenthesization, Parenthesize, Parenthesized, Parenthetic clause, Parenthetical, Parenthetical Sentence, Parenthetical sentence, Parentheticals, Quine corner, Quine corners, Quine's corner quotation mark, Quine's corner quotation marks, Quine's corner quote, Quine's corner quotes, Right angle bracket, Right bracket, Right curly brace, Right curly bracket, Right parentheses, Right parenthesis, Right round bracket, Right square bracket, Round bracket, Square bracket, Square brackets, Squiggly bracket, Squiggly brackets, Squigly bracket, Squirrely Bracket, Tortoise shell brackets, \langle, \rangle, ⁅, ⁆, ⎛, ⎜, ⎝, ⎞, ⎟, ⎠, ⎡, ⎢, ⎣, ⎤, ⎥, ⎦, ⎧, ⎨, ⎩, ⎪, ⎫, ⎬, ⎭, ⎰, ⎱, ⎴, ⎵, ⎶, ⎸, ⎹, ⏜, ⏝, ⏞, ⏟, ⏠, ⏡, ❨, ❩, ❪, ❫, ❬, ❭, ❮, ❯, ❰, ❱, ❲, ❳, ❴, ❵, ⟦, ⟧, ⟨, ⟩, ⟪, ⟫, ⟬, ⟭, ⟮, ⟯, ⦃, ⦄, ⦅, ⦆, ⦋, ⦌, ⦍, ⦎, ⦏, ⦐, ⦑, ⦒, ⦓, ⦔, ⦕, ⦖, ⦗, ⦘, 〈, 〈 〉, 〉, 《, 》, 【, 】, 〚, 〛, ﴾, ﴾ ﴿, ﴾﴿, ﴿, ︵, ︶, ︷, ︸, ︽, ︾, ︿, ﹀, ﹇, ﹈, ﹙, ﹚, ﹛, ﹜, ﹝, ﹞, （, （）, ）, ［, ］, ｛, ｝.