276 relations: Acetate, Acetylcholine, Action potential, Action selection, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Alpha wave, Amino acid, Amnesia, Amygdala, Ancient Greek, Andrew Huxley, Anterior grey column, Antibody, Aplysia, Arachnid, Archaeology, Areni-1 cave, Armenia, Arthropod, Artificial intelligence, Attention, Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Basal ganglia, Bernard Katz, Bilateria, Binocular disparity, Biological membrane, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Bottlenose dolphin, Brain as food, Brain damage, Brain positron emission tomography, Brain Research, Brain size, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Brain–computer interface, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cambrian, Camillo Golgi, Cannabinoid, Caprylic acid, Cell–cell interaction, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system disease, Central pattern generator, Cephalopod, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, ..., Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrum, Charles Scott Sherrington, Chemistry, Chimpanzee, Chlorpromazine, Circadian rhythm, Claude Bernard, CLOCK, Cnidaria, Cocaine, Cochlea, Cognitive science, Computational neurogenetic modeling, Computational neuroscience, Computer science, Connective tissue, Connectome, Cre-Lox recombination, Crustacean, Cybernetics, Dale's principle, David H. Hubel, Decade of the Brain, Delta wave, Dentate gyrus, Diencephalon, DNA, Dopamine, Echinoderm, Ectoderm, Electroencephalography, Encephalization quotient, Environment (biophysical), Environmental enrichment, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Episodic memory, Eric Kandel, Europe, Evolution, Executive functions, Exercise, Exponentiation, Extracellular, Fatty acid, Fixation (histology), Fluoxetine, Fore people, Forebrain, Foresight (psychology), Functional imaging, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Galen, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Ganglion, Gene, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Genomics, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Golgi's method, Grey matter, Growth cone, Gyrus, Hagfish, Head, Hebbian theory, Heptanoic acid, Hermaphrodite, Hindbrain, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, Histology, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human brain, Human Brain Project, Hypothalamus, Immortality, Immunostaining, Information theory, Infrared sensing in snakes, Invertebrate, John von Neumann, Journal of Neurophysiology, Ketone bodies, Kuru (disease), Lactic acid, Lamprey, Learning, Leech, List of neuroscience databases, Locus coeruleus, Long-term potentiation, Luigi Galvani, Magnetoencephalography, Magnetoreception, Medical imaging, Medulla oblongata, Membrane potential, Memory, Meninges, Mental disorder, Metencephalon, Midbrain, Milieu intérieur, Mind, Model organism, Mollusca, Motivation, Motor control, Motor cortex, Motor learning, Motor neuron, Motor system, Multielectrode array, Multisensory integration, Myelencephalon, Myelin, Nature versus nurture, Neanderthal, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Negative feedback, Nematode, Neocortex, Nervous system, Nervous system network models, Neural groove, Neural plate, Neural tube, Neuroanatomy, Neurogenesis, Neurogenetics, Neuroglia, Neuroimaging, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuron, Neurophysiology, Neuropil, Neuroplasticity, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Norepinephrine, Oculomotor nucleus, Olfaction, Olfactory bulb, Operant conditioning, Optic lobe (arthropods), Optic nerve, Optogenetics, Organ (anatomy), Outline of neuroscience, Oxford University Press, Pallium (neuroanatomy), Papua New Guinea, Pathogen, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Physiology, Pituitary gland, Pons, Power law, Prefrontal cortex, Premotor cortex, Primary motor cortex, Primate, Prion, Protoplasm, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychology, Pyramidal cell, Pyramidal tracts, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rat, Receptor (biochemistry), Red nucleus, Reflex, René Descartes, Reticular formation, Retina, Retinohypothalamic tract, Reward system, Rhesus macaque, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Second messenger system, Semantic memory, Sense, Sensory nervous system, Serotonin, Slow-wave sleep, Spatial memory, Squid, Staining, Stem cell, Stimulus modality, Sulcus (morphology), Superior colliculus, Supplementary motor area, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Supraesophageal ganglion, Sydney Brenner, Symmetry in biology, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Tanning (leather), Tardigrade, Teleost, Terje Lømo, Thalamus, The Computer and the Brain, Thermostat, Timothy Bliss, Torsten Wiesel, Toxin, Tunicate, Vertebrate, Visual perception, White matter, Working memory, Year, Zona incerta. Expand index (226 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Action selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next.
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.
Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 7.5–12.5 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase or constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
The anterior grey column (also called the anterior cornu, anterior horn of spinal cord or ventral horn) is the front column of grey matter in the spinal cord.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Aplysia is a genus of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one clade of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Areni-1 cave complex (Արենիի քարանձավ) a multicomponent site and late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age ritual site and settlement is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
Binocular disparity refers to the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes, resulting from the eyes’ horizontal separation (parallax).
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
The brain, like most other internal organs, or offal, can serve as nourishment.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brain positron emission tomography is a form of positron emission tomography (PET) that is used to measure brain metabolism and the distribution of exogenous radiolabeled chemical agents throughout the brain.
Brain Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on several aspects of neuroscience.
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid.
Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS).
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural circuits that produce rhythmic outputs in the absence of rhythmic input.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) is a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor (CLOCK) that is believed to affect both the persistence and period of circadian rhythms.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Computational neurogenetic modeling (CNGM) is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram".
Cre-Lox recombination is a site-specific recombinase technology, used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at specific sites in the DNA of cells.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
In neuroscience, Dale's principle (or Dale's law) is a rule attributed to the English neuroscientist Henry Hallett Dale.
David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex.
The Decade of the Brain was a designation for 1990–1999 by U.S. president George H. W. Bush as part of a larger effort involving the Library of Congress and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health "to enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research".
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
The dentate gyrus is part of a brain region known as the hippocampus (part of the hippocampal formation).
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental enrichment is the stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
In the fields of histology, pathology, and cell biology, fixation is the preservation of biological tissues from decay due to autolysis or putrefaction.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The Fore people live in the Okapa District of the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
Foresight is the ability to predict, or the action of predicting, what will happen or what is needed in the future.
Functional imaging (or physiological imaging), is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Golgi's method is a silver staining technique that is used to visualize nervous tissue under light microscopy.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A growth cone is a big actin-supported extension of a developing or regenerating neurite seeking its synaptic target.
In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.
Heptanoic acid, also called enanthic acid, is an organic compound composed of a seven-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The Human Brain Project (HBP) is a large ten-year scientific research project, based on exascale supercomputers, that aims to build a collaborative ICT-based scientific research infrastructure to allow researchers across Europe to advance knowledge in the fields of neuroscience, computing, and brain-related medicine.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The Journal of Neurophysiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1938.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Kuru is a very rare, incurable neurodegenerative disorder that was formerly common among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
A number of online neuroscience databases are available which provide information regarding gene expression, neurons, macroscopic brain structure, and neurological or psychiatric disorders.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.
Magnetoreception (also magnetoception) is a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organism.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
The motor system is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement.
| --> Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry.
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
The myelencephalon or afterbrain is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which the medulla oblongata develops.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Network of human nervous system comprises nodes (for example, neurons) that are connected by links (for example, synapses).
The neural groove is a shallow median groove of the neural plate between the neural folds of an embryo.
The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
Neurogenetics studies the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
Neuropil (or "neuropile") is any area in the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dendrites and glial cell processes that forms a synaptically dense region containing a relatively low number of cell bodies.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain, which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
The optic(al) lobe of arthropods is a structure of the protocerebrum that sits behind the arthropod eye (mostly compound eyes) and is responsible for the processing of the visual information.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In neuroanatomy, pallium refers to the layers of grey and white matter that cover the upper surface of the cerebrum in vertebrates.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
The pyramidal tracts include both the corticobulbar tract and the corticospinal tract.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The red nucleus or nucleus ruber is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is that part of the memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus.
The term sulcus (pl. sulci) is a general descriptive term for a furrow or fissure.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The supraesophageal ganglion ("arthropod brain" or "a. microbrain") is the first part of the arthropod and especially insect central nervous system.
Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
Terje Lømo (born 3 January 1935) is a Norwegian physiologist who specialized in neuroscience.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The Computer and the Brain is an unfinished book by mathematician John von Neumann, begun shortly before his death and first published in 1958.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.
Timothy Vivian Pelham Bliss FRS (born 27 July 1940) is a British neuroscientist.
Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter in the subthalamus below the thalamus.
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