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Brain damage

Index Brain damage

Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. [1]

116 relations: Acquired brain injury, Agnosia, Agrammatism, Alcohol, Amnesia, Amorphosynthesis, Amygdala, Aneurysm, Angioma, Anomic aphasia, Aphasia, Apraxia, Arteriosclerosis, Birth, Birth defect, Blindsight, Brain injury, Brain tumor, Broca's area, Calcarine sulcus, Cardiovascular fitness, Carl Wernicke, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral palsy, Chemotherapy, Clinical neuropsychology, Closed-head injury, Color blindness, Coma, Complications of traumatic brain injury, Concussion, Contracture, Counseling psychology, CT scan, Cytokine, Deep brain stimulation, Delusion, Development of the nervous system in humans, Diffusion MRI, Disability, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, Embolism, Encephalopathy, Epilepsy, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Focal and diffuse brain injury, Frontal lobe, Frontal lobe injury, ..., Fusiform gyrus, Genetic disorder, Glasgow Coma Scale, Head injury, Heavy metals, Human brain, Hypoxia (medical), Infarction, Infection, Injury, Intellectual disability, Intensive care unit, Lobotomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mannitol, Medication, Monothematic delusion, Myelin, Neologism, Nerve injury, Neurocognitive, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuron, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychology, Neuroregeneration, Neurosurgery, Neurotoxicity, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Occupational therapy, Oligodendrocyte, Oxygen, Parietal lobe, Paul Broca, Penetrating head injury, Peripheral nervous system, Persistent vegetative state, Phineas Gage, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Physician, Poison, Positron emission tomography, Post-traumatic amnesia, Primary and secondary brain injury, Prosopagnosia, Psychologist, Psychotherapy, Pure alexia, Registered nurse, Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), Snoezelen, Spasticity, Stem cell, Stroke, Superior temporal gyrus, Surgery, Teratology, Thrombosis, Toxicity, Traumatic brain injury, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Visual cortex, Wernicke's area, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome. Expand index (66 more) »

Acquired brain injury

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.

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Agnosia

Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.

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Agrammatism

Agrammatism is a characteristic of non-fluent aphasia.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Amnesia

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Amorphosynthesis

Amorphosynthesis is a medical condition where the patient is unaware of somatic sensations from one side of the body; the left side is most commonly affected.

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.

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Angioma

Angiomas are benign tumors derived from cells of the vascular or lymphatic vessel walls (endothelium) derived from cells of the tissues surrounding these vessels.

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Anomic aphasia

Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).

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Aphasia

Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

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Apraxia

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.

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Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.

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Birth

Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blindsight

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

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Brain injury

A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Calcarine sulcus

The calcarine sulcus (or calcarine fissure) is an anatomical landmark located at the caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. Its name comes from the Latin "calcar" meaning "spur". It is a complete sulcus.

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Cardiovascular fitness

Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart, blood cells and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement.

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Carl Wernicke

Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Clinical neuropsychology

Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.

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Closed-head injury

Closed-head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact.

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Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

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Coma

Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Complications of traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it.

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Concussion

Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Contracture

A muscle contracture is a permanent shortening of a muscle or joint.

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Counseling psychology

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cytokine

Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Delusion

A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Development of the nervous system in humans

The study of neural development in humans draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.

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Diffusion MRI

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.

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Disability

A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Dysgraphia

Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence.

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Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Embolism

An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.

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Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

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Focal and diffuse brain injury

Focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify brain injury: focal injury occurs in a specific location, while diffuse injury occurs over a more widespread area.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Frontal lobe injury

The frontal lobe of the human brain is both relatively large in mass and less restricted in movement than the posterior portion of the brain.

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Fusiform gyrus

The fusiform gyrus, also known as the (discontinuous) occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Glasgow Coma Scale

The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.

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Head injury

A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Infarction

Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Injury

Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Intensive care unit

Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.

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Lobotomy

Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mannitol

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Monothematic delusion

A monothematic delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.

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Myelin

Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Neologism

A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Nerve injury

Nerve injury is injury to nervous tissue.

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Neurocognitive

Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.

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Neuroregeneration

Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products.

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Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Oligodendrocyte

Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Paul Broca

Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.

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Penetrating head injury

A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Persistent vegetative state

A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.

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Phineas Gage

Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".

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Physical medicine and rehabilitation

Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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Physician

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Poison

In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Post-traumatic amnesia

Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a state of confusion that occurs immediately following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which the injured person is disoriented and unable to remember events that occur after the injury.

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Primary and secondary brain injury

Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury.

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Prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia, also called face blindness, (" Choisser had even begun to a name for the condition: face blindness.") is a cognitive disorder of face perception in which the ability to recognize familiar faces, including one's own face (self-recognition), is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decisionmaking) remain intact.

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Psychologist

A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Pure alexia

Pure alexia, also known as agnosic alexia or alexia without agraphia or pure word blindness, is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group.

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Registered nurse

A Registered Nurse (RN) is a nurse who has graduated from a nursing program and met the requirements outlined by a country, state, province or similar licensing body to obtain a nursing license.

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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

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Snoezelen

Snoezelen or controlled multisensory environment (MSE) is a therapy for people with autism and other developmental disabilities, dementia or brain injury.

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stroke

A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Superior temporal gyrus

The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Teratology

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Thrombosis

Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_damage

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