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Brain tumor

Index Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. [1]

212 relations: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Aminolevulinic acid, Anaplasia, Anaplastic astrocytoma, Angiography, Anticonvulsant, Aphasia, Arachnoid mater, Astrocyte, Astrocytoma, Ataxia, Atypia, Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, Axon, BBC News, Behavior, Benign tumor, Benignity, Biopsy, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Brachytherapy, Brain metastasis, Brainstem, Breast cancer, Broca's area, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer Research UK, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Central neurocytoma, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrum, Chemoradiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Chromosome 1, Chromosome 19, Coeliac disease, Cognition, Colorectal cancer, Connective tissue, Consciousness, Contrast agent, ..., Corticosteroid, Craniotomy, CT scan, Cyberknife, Cytoplasm, Debulking, Dexamethasone, Diencephalon, Diplopia, Dura mater, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Electroencephalography, Ependyma, Ependymoma, Epileptic seizure, Epstein–Barr virus, External beam radiotherapy, Facial nerve paralysis, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Five-year survival rate, Fluorescence, Focal neurologic signs, Fontanelle, Frontal lobe, Furosemide, Gene therapy, Germ cell tumor, Giant cell, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma, Glioma, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Grading of the tumors of the central nervous system, Grey matter, H&E stain, Headache, Hemangiopericytoma, Hemiparesis, Histology, Human brain, Hydrocephalus, Hypoesthesia, Hypothalamus, Hypoxia (medical), Immune system, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Intracranial pressure, Ionizing radiation, Kidney cancer, List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens, List of people with brain tumors, Lung cancer, Lymphatic system, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malignancy, Medical diagnosis, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medulla oblongata, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Melanoma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Meninges, Meningioma, Metastasis, Midbrain, Mobile phone, Mobile phone radiation and health, Mortality rate, Multiple endocrine neoplasia, Nasal cavity, National Cancer Institute, Necrosis, Neoplasm, Nerve sheath tumor, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Neurofibromatosis, Neuroglia, Neuron, Neurosurgery, Neutron capture therapy of cancer, Occipital lobe, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendrocyte, Oligodendroglioma, Oncology, Optic chiasm, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Otorhinolaryngology, P53, Parenchyma, Parietal lobe, Pathology, Pediatric ependymoma, Phagocyte, Physical examination, Pia mater, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pineal gland, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pituitary adenoma, Pituitary gland, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Pleomorphism (cytology), Pneumoencephalography, Pons, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Primary tumor, Prognosis, Proton therapy, Radiation therapy, Radiosurgery, Risk factor, Sagittal plane, Schwann cell, Segmental resection, Shunt (medical), Skull, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Spinal cord, Spin–lattice relaxation, Spin–spin relaxation, Stereotactic surgery, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Surgery, Symptom, Syncytium, Tara Palmer-Tomkinson, Targeted therapy, Temozolomide, Temporal lobe, Teratoma, Thalamus, Timeline of brain cancer, Tissue (biology), Toca 511 and Toca FC, Toxin, Tremor, Trilateral retinoblastoma, Tumor suppressor, Unconsciousness, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Valsalva maneuver, Ventricular system, Vertebrate, Vesicular stomatitis virus, Vinyl chloride, Viral vector, Visual field, Visual perception, Vomiting, Von Hippel–Lindau disease, Wernicke's area, White matter, World Health Organization. Expand index (162 more) »

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.

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Aminolevulinic acid

δ-Aminolevulinic acid (also dALA, δ-ALA, 5ALA or 5-aminolevulinic acid), an endogenous non-protein amino acid, is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme in mammals and chlorophyll in plants.

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Anaplasia (from ἀνά ana, "backward" + πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a condition of cells with poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells.

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Anaplastic astrocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytoma is a rare WHO grade III type of astrocytoma, which is a type of cancer of the brain.

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Astrocytomas are a type of cancer of the brain.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Atypia (from Greek, a + typos, without type; a condition of being irregular or nonstandard) is a pathologic term for a structural abnormality in a cell, i.e. it is used to describe atypical cells.

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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor

An atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare tumor usually diagnosed in childhood.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Benign tumor

A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.

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Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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Brain metastasis

A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

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Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytoma, abbreviated CNC, is an extremely rare, ordinarily benign intraventricular brain tumour that typically forms from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Choroid plexus carcinoma

A choroid plexus carcinoma (WHO grade III) is a type of choroid plexus tumor that affects the choroid plexus of the brain.

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Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papilloma, also known as papilloma of choroid plexus, is a rare benign neuroepithelial intraventricular WHO grade I lesion found in the choroid plexus.

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Choroid plexus tumor

Choroid plexus tumors are a rare type of cancer that occur from the brain tissue called choroid plexus of the brain.

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Chromosome 1

Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.

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Chromosome 19

Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Contrast agent

A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system used for treating benign tumors, malignant tumors and other medical conditions.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Debulking is the reduction of as much of the bulk (volume) of a tumour as possible.

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Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.

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The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.

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Dura mater

Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT or DNET, is a type of brain tumor.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.

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Ependymoma is a tumor that arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Epstein–Barr virus

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.

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External beam radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).

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Facial nerve paralysis

Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve.

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Fibrillary astrocytoma

Fibrillary astrocytomas also called low-grade or diffuse astrocytomas, are a group of primary slow-growing brain tumors.

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Five-year survival rate

The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.

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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Focal neurologic signs

Focal neurologic signs also known as focal neurological deficits or focal CNS signs are impairments of nerve, spinal cord, or brain function that affects a specific region of the body, e.g. weakness in the left arm, the right leg, paresis, or plegia.

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A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

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Germ cell tumor

A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells.

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Giant cell

A giant cell (multinucleated giant cell, multinucleate giant cell) is a mass formed by the union of several distinct cells (usually macrophages), often forming a granuloma.

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Giant-cell glioblastoma

The giant-cell glioblastoma is a histological variant of glioblastoma, presenting a prevalence of bizarre, multinucleated (more than 20 nuclei) giant (up to 400 μm diameter) cells.

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Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.

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A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.

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Gliomatosis cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri (infiltrative diffuse astrocytosis) is a rare primary brain tumor.

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Gliosarcoma is a rare type of glioma, a cancer of the brain that comes from glial, or supportive, brain cells, as opposed to the neural brain cells.

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Grading of the tumors of the central nervous system

The concept of grading of the tumors of the central nervous system, agreeing for such the regulation of the "progressiveness" of these neoplasias (from benign and localized tumors to malignant and infiltrating tumors), dates back to 1926 and was introduced by P. Bailey and H. Cushing, in the elaboration of what turned out the first systematic classification of gliomas.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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H&E stain

Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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A hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that originates in the pericytes in the walls of capillaries.

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Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half").

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.

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Hypoesthesia (also spelled as hypesthesia) is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.

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List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is "possibly carcinogenic to humans".

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List of people with brain tumors

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the brain or inside the skull, and can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric malignant primary brain tumor (cancer), originating in the part of the brain that is towards the back and the bottom, on the floor of the skull, in the cerebellum, or posterior fossa.

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Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Meningeal carcinomatosis

Meningeal carcinomatosis is a condition in which a solid tumor diffusely spreads to the leptomeninges.

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Mobile phone radiation and health

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia

The term multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) encompasses several distinct syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern.

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Nasal cavity

The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nerve sheath tumor

A nerve sheath tumor is a type of tumor of the nervous system (nervous system neoplasm) which is made up primarily of the myelin surrounding nerves.

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Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue. It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Symptoms may include bone pain, a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest, or a painless bluish lump under the skin. Occasionally, neuroblastoma may be due to a mutation inherited from a person's parents. Environmental factors have not been found to be involved. Diagnosis is based on a tissue biopsy. Occasionally it may be found in a baby by ultrasound during pregnancy. At diagnosis, the cancer has usually already spread. The cancer is divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on a child's age, cancer stage, and what the cancer looks like. Treatment and outcomes depends on the risk group a person is in. Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Low-risk disease in babies typically has a good outcome with surgery or simply observation. In high-risk disease, chances of long-term survival, however, are less than 40% despite aggressive treatment. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in babies and the third-most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. About one in every 7,000 children is affected at some time. About 90% of cases occur in children less than 5 years old and it is rare in adults. Of cancer deaths in children, about 15% are due to neuroblastoma. The disease was first described in the 1800s.

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Neurocytoma (or neuroepithelioma) is a type of nervous system tumor which is primarily derived from nervous tissue.

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Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a group of three conditions in which tumors grow in the nervous system.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neutron capture therapy of cancer

Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer.

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Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumors that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.

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Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.

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Optic nerve sheath meningioma

Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) are rare benign tumors of the optic nerve.

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Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Pediatric ependymoma

Pediatric ependymomas are similar in nature to the adult form of ependymoma in that they are thought to arise from radial glial cells lining the ventricular system.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Pia mater

Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Pilocytic astrocytoma

Pilocytic astrocytoma or juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma or cystic cerebellar astrocytoma (and its variant juvenile pilomyxoid astrocytoma) is a brain tumor that occurs more often in children and young adults (in the first 20 years of life).

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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Pinealoblastoma or pineoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the pineal gland.

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Pineocytoma, also known as a pinealocytoma, is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland.

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Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma

Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma (PAN) is a striking aspect of neuroblastoma first described by Cozzutto and Carbone in 1988.

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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a brain tumor that occurs most frequently in children and teenagers.

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Pleomorphism (cytology)

Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei.

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Pneumoencephalography (sometimes abbreviated PEG; also referred to as an "air study") was a common medical procedure in which most of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained from around the brain by means of a lumbar puncture and replaced with air, oxygen, or helium to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray image.

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The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.

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Primary central nervous system lymphoma

A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma, is a primary intracranial tumor appearing mostly in patients with severe immunodeficiency (typically patients with AIDS).

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Primary tumor

A primary tumor is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mass.

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Proton therapy

In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Sagittal plane

A sagittal plane or longitudinal plane is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.

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Schwann cell

Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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Segmental resection

Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.

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Shunt (medical)

In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Sphenoid wing meningioma

A sphenoid wing meningioma is a benign brain tumor near the sphenoid bone.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spin–lattice relaxation

Spin–lattice relaxation is the mechanism by which the component of the magnetization vector along the direction of the static magnetic field reaches thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings (the "lattice") in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

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Spin–spin relaxation

In physics, the spin–spin relaxation is the mechanism by which, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Stereotactic surgery

Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.

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Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA, SGCA, or SGCT) is a low-grade astrocytic brain tumor (astrocytoma) that arises within the ventricles of the brain.

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A subependymoma is a type of brain tumor; specifically, it is a rare form of ependymal tumor.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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Tara Palmer-Tomkinson

Tara Claire Palmer-Tomkinson (23 December 1971 – 8 February 2017), also known as T P-T, was an English socialite and television personality.

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Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.

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Temozolomide (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Timeline of brain cancer

This is a timeline of brain cancer, describing especially major discoveries, advances in treatment and major organizations.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Toca 511 and Toca FC

Toca 511 and Toca FC is a combination drug involving a gene therapy agent and a prodrug.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Trilateral retinoblastoma

Trilateral retinoblastoma (TRb) is a malignant midline primitive neuroectodermal tumor occurring in patients with inherited uni- or bilateral retinoblastoma.

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Tumor suppressor

A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.

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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Southern California

The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.

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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vesicular stomatitis virus

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV; often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family.

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Vinyl chloride

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.

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Viral vector

Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Von Hippel–Lindau disease

von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL), also known as Familial cerebello retinal angiomatosis, is a rare genetic disorder with multisystem involvement.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Adult Brain Tumor, Brain Cancer, Brain Neoplasms, Brain Tumor, Brain Tumors, Brain Tumour, Brain cancer, Brain cancers, Brain neoplasms, Brain tumors, Brain tumour, Brain tumours, Brain-cancer therapy, Brain-tumor, Cancer of the brain, Causes of brain cancer, Causes of brain tumors, Central nervous system neoplasms, Central nervous system tumor, Cerebral cancer, Children's brain tumors, Intracranial neoplasm, Intracranial tumor, Malignant brain tumor, Neoplasia of the brain, Tumors of the brain.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_tumor

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