226 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Action theory (sociology), Addison-Wesley, Analysis of algorithms, Analytic philosophy, Analytical chemistry, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Anthropology, Anthrozoology, Applied mathematics, Applied physics, Arachnology, Archaeology, Argument, Argumentation theory, Astronomy, Atmosphere, Atom, Atomic theory, Basic research, Benedikt Löwe, Biochemistry, Biolinguistics, Biology, Biomass, Biophysics, Business administration, Cetology, Chemical composition, Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemical substance, Chemistry, Chronology, Climate change, Communication, Computer science, Cosmos, Criminology, Critical theory, Data, David Van Nostrand, Decision theory, Definition, Demarcation problem, Design of experiments, Discipline (academia), Earth, Earth science, ..., Economics, Ecosystem, Education, Embryology, Empirical evidence, Empirical research, Energy, Engineering, Engineering physics, Entomology, Environment (biophysical), Epistemology, Ethics, Etymology of chemistry, Evolutionary history of life, Exact sciences, Fact, Fallacy, Feedback, Flux, Force, Formal language, Formal science, Formal system, Francis Bacon, Genetics, Geography, Geology, Geology of Mars, Geology of the Moon, Geotechnical engineering, Government, Greek language, Hard and soft science, Helminthology, Herpetology, Histology, History, History of Earth, History of scientific method, Holism, Human behavior, Human condition, Human science, Humanities, Hydrocarbon, Ichthyology, Immunology, Index of branches of science, Indus Valley Civilisation, Inference, Information theory, Interdisciplinarity, International relations, James Clerk Maxwell, John Wiley & Sons, Law, Life, Linguistics, List of fields of application of statistics, Logic, Logos, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Malacology, Mammalogy, Marine life, Mathematical statistics, Mathematics, Matter, Matthew Sands, Mean, Median, Medicine, Metaphysics, Meteorology, Methodology, Microbiology, Mineral, Molecule, Morphology (biology), Motion (physics), Natural environment, Natural hazard, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Nature, Nematology, Nervous system, Neurochemistry, Neurology, Neuroscience, Niklas Luhmann, Novum Organum, Observation, Ocean current, Ophthalmology, Organism, Ornithology, Outer space, Outline of physical science, Outline of science, Paleozoology, Pathology, Pattern, Phenomenon, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Physical chemistry, Physicalism, Physics, Physiology, Physis, Planet, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Political science, Primatology, Principle, Protozoology, Psychology, Public health, Quantum chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Reality, Reason, Reductionism, Research and development, Richard Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, Rock (geology), Rule of inference, Scholarly method, Science, Scientific method, Scientific modelling, Scientific Revolution, Scientific theory, Semantics, Semantics (computer science), Social, Social psychology, Social science, Society, Sociology, Southern Illinois University Press, Space archaeology, Space exploration, Space medicine, Space research, Spaceflight, Spacetime, Statistician, Statistics, Sumer, Survey methodology, System, Systems science, Systems theory, Talcott Parsons, Taxonomy (biology), Technology, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Theology, Theoretical computer science, Theoretical linguistics, Thermodynamics, Transdisciplinarity, Umbrella term, Universe, Water resources, Weather forecasting, Wind wave, World, Zooarchaeology, Zoogeography. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
In sociology, action theory is the theory of social action presented by the American theorist Talcott Parsons.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anthrozoology (also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use.
Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Argumentation theory, or argumentation, is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Benedikt Löwe (born 1972) is a German mathematician and logician, and Professor at the University of Hamburg, known for initiating the interdisciplinary conference "Foundations of the Formal Sciences" (FotFS) in 1999.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biolinguistics is the study of the biology and evolution of language.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Business administration is management of a business.
Cetology (from Greek κῆτος, kētos, "whale"; and -λογία, -logia) or Whalelore is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
The cosmos is the universe.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
David Van Nostrand (December 5, 1811, New York City – June 14, 1886, New York City) was a New York City publisher.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs.
The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Engineering physics or engineering science refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics and engineering, particularly computer, nuclear, electrical, electronic, materials or mechanical engineering.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
In the history of science, the etymology of the word chemistry is debatable.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences.
A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars.
The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.
Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms (helminths), while helminthiasis describes the medical condition of being infected with helminths.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The history of scientific method considers changes in the methodology of scientific inquiry, as distinct from the history of science itself.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (19 September 1901 – 12 June 1972) was an Austrian biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory (GST).
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, as opposed to techniques for collecting statistical data.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Matthew Linzee Sands (October 20, 1919 – September 13, 2014) was an American physicist and educator best known as a co-author of the Feynman Lectures on Physics.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 – November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, philosopher of social science, and a prominent thinker in systems theory, who is considered one of the most important social theorists of the 20th century.
The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.
Palaeozoology, also spelled as Paleozoology (Greek: παλαιόν, palaeon "old" and ζῷον, zoon "animal"), is the branch of paleontology, paleobiology, or zoology dealing with the recovery and identification of multicellular animal remains from geological (or even archeological) contexts, and the use of these fossils in the reconstruction of prehistoric environments and ancient ecosystems.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
A pattern is a discernible regularity in the world or in a manmade design.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Primatology is the scientific study of primates.
A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.
Protozoology is the study of protozoa, the "animal-like" (i.e., motile and heterotrophic) protists.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Robert Benjamin Leighton (September 10, 1919 – March 9, 1997) was a prominent American experimental physicist who spent his professional career at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions).
The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Southern Illinois University Press or SIU Press, founded in 1956, is a university press located in Carbondale, Illinois, owned and operated by Southern Illinois University.
In archaeology, space archaeology is the research-based study of various human-made items found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in outer space whereas astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health.
Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in outer space.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, and science itself.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".
The Logic of Scientific Discovery is a 1959 book about the philosophy of science by Karl Popper.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.
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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
Zooarchaeology (or archaeozoology) is the branch of archaeology that studies faunal remains related to ancient people.
Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.