257 relations: Aachen, Absorption (chemistry), Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani, Acoustics, Aegean Sea, African art, Akan goldweights, Albertus Magnus, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Ammonia, Ammunition, Amphora, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Annealing (metallurgy), Antimony, Aquamanile, Archaeology, Arsenic, Artifact (archaeology), Assyria, Bactericide, Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège, Baritone horn, Bassoon, Bed frame, Belgium, Bell, Bellows, Benin art, Benin Bronzes, Biofouling, Bithynia, Boiler, Brass instrument, Brass rubbing, Bristol, British Indian Army, British Museum, Bronze, Bronze and brass ornamental work, Bronze Head from Ife, Bronze Head of Queen Idia, Button, Byzantine Empire, Cadmia, Cadmium, Calamine, ..., Calamine brass, California Proposition 65 (1986), Canaan, Cartridge (firearms), Casting, Ceramic, Charcoal, Chemical element, China, Chloride, Clarinet, Clay, Clock, Coal, Coin, Commemorative plaque, Condensation, Contrabass, Contrabassoon, Copper, Cornet, Corrosion, Costume jewelry, Crucible, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Cuneiform script, Cupronickel, Cutting fluid, Cymbal, Cyprus, Density, Dinant, Distillation, Dollar coin (United States), Door handle, Dortmund, Dry media reaction, Ductility, Dupondius, Early Modern English, Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Electric guitar, Euphonium, Europe, Evaporation, Ferromagnetism, Firebox (steam engine), Flute, France, Free reed aerophone, French horn, Friction, Full metal jacket bullet, Furnace, Georgia (country), Georgius Agricola, Germans, Germany, Gilding metal, Glass, Gloucester Candlestick, Gold, Gong, Granulation (process), Gunmetal, Handbell, Harmonica, Hindu Kush, Horn (instrument), Hundredweight, Ife, India, Ingot, Iran, Iraq, Iron, Islam, Italians, Jews, Jingle Bells, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Kalmykia, King James Version, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Northumbria, Latin, Latten, Lead, List of copper alloys, London, Lost-wax casting, Low Countries, Lyon, Manganese, Marco Polo, Melting point, Metal, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mineral, Monetary reform, Mouthpiece (brass), Muntz metal, Musical instrument, Muslim world, Nickel, Nickel silver, Nidda, Hesse, Nigeria, Nordic Gold, Ore, Orichalcum, Pathogen, Pedanius Dioscorides, Percussion instrument, Phosphorus, Phrygia, Piccolo, Piping and plumbing fitting, Plato, Pliny the Elder, Pound sterling, Prehistory, Prill, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Raisin, Rammelsberg, Recycling, Redox, Reed pipe, Renaissance, Residual stress, Resonator, Reverberatory furnace, Rifle, Rivet, Roman Empire, Romanesque art, Sarrusophone, Saxhorn, Saxophone, Scandinavia, Schwerte, Scientific instrument, Scotland, Screw, Season cracking, Seawater, Selective leaching, Semi-finished casting products, Sestertius, Silicon, Silicon tombac, Silver, Slag, Smelting, Snare drum, Soest, Germany, Soft water, Solid-state chemistry, Spain, Spark (fire), Spelter, Spring (device), Strabo, Stress corrosion cracking, Sublimation (phase transition), Surface area, Syria, Tenor horn, Theophilus Presbyter, Theopompus, Tin, Tombac, Trombone, Trumpet, Tuba, Tubular bells, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ultimate tensile strength, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Vannoccio Biringuccio, Vapor, Warmley, Wear and tear, Western Asia, Western Europe, Western India, Westphalia, William Andrew Oddy, William Champion (metallurgist), Wind instrument, Woodwind instrument, Work hardening, X-ray fluorescence, Xanten, Yemen, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zipper, Zwickau. Expand index (207 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
(279/280-333/334 A.H. / 893-945 A.D; أبو محمد الحسن بن أحمد بن يعقوب الهمداني) was an Arab Muslim geographer, chemist, poet, grammarian, historian, and astronomer, from the tribe of Banu Hamadan, western 'Amran/Yemen.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
African art describes the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture from native or indigenous Africans and the African continent.
Akan goldweights, (locally known as mrammou), are weights made of brass used as a measuring system by the Akan people of West Africa, particularly for weighing gold dust which was currency until replaced by paper money and coins.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
An amphora (Greek: ἀμφορεύς, amphoréus; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
In modern usage, an aquamanile (plural aquamanilia or simply aquamaniles) is a ewer or jug-type vessel in the form of one or more animal or human figures.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
The baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is a Romanesque brass or bronze baptismal font made between 1107 and 1118 now in St Bartholomew's church in Liège, Belgium.
The baritone horn, or sometimes just called baritone, is a low-pitched brass instrument in the saxhorn family.
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.
A bed frame or bedstead is the part of a bed used to position the mattress and base (foundation), and may include means of supporting a canopy above.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.
Benin art is the art from the Kingdom of Benin or Edo Empire (1440–1897), a pre-colonial African state located in what is now known as the South-South region of Nigeria.
The Benin Bronzes are a group of more than a thousand metal plaques and sculptures that decorated the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin in what is now modern-day Nigeria.
Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
Brass rubbing was originally a largely British enthusiasm for reproducing onto paper monumental brasses – commemorative brass plaques found in churches, usually originally on the floor, from between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The use of bronze dates from remote antiquity.
The Bronze Head from Ife, or Ife Head, is one of eighteen copper alloy sculptures that were unearthed in 1938 at Ife in Nigeria, the religious and former royal centre of the Yoruba people.
The Bronze Head of Queen Idia is a commemorative bronze head from mediaeval Benin that probably represents Queen Idia, who was a powerful monarch during the early sixteenth century at the Benin court.
In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most commonly made of plastic, but also frequently made of metal, wood or seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
In alchemy, cadmia (Latin for cadmium) is an oxide of zinc (tutty) which collects on the sides of furnaces where copper or brass was smelted, and zinc sublimed.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness.
Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using the zinc ore calamine directly, rather than first refining it to metallic zinc.
Proposition 65 (formally titled The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) is a California law passed by direct voter initiative in 1986 by a 63%–37% vote.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Contrabass (from contrabbasso) refers to a musical instrument of very low pitch—generally one octave below bass register instruments.
The contrabassoon, also known as the double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon, sounding an octave lower.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Costume jewelry, trinkets, fashion jewelry, junk jewelry, fake jewelry, or fallalery is jewelry manufactured as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garmentBaker, Lillian.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
Cutting fluid is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse, in the Belgian province of Namur.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
The dollar coin is a United States coin worth one United States dollar.
A door handle is an attached object or mechanism used to manually open or close a door.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A dry media reaction or solid-state reaction or solventless reaction is a chemical reaction system in the absence of a solvent.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
The dupondius (Latin two-pounder) was a brass coin used during the Roman Empire and Roman Republic valued at 2 aes (1/2 of a sestertius or 1/8 of a denarius).
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.
The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced" (εὖ eu means "well" or "good" and φωνή phōnē means "sound", hence "of good sound").
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
In a steam engine, the firebox is the area where the fuel is burned, producing heat to boil the water in the boiler.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound as air flows past a vibrating reed in a frame.
The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
A full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet is a small-arms projectile consisting of a soft core (often lead) encased in a shell of harder metal, such as gilding metal, cupronickel, or less commonly a steel alloy.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gilding metal is a copper alloy, a brass, comprising 95% copper and 5% zinc.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Gloucester Candlestick is an elaborately decorated English Romanesque gilt-bronze candlestick, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gong (from Malay: gong;; ra; គង - Kong; ฆ้อง Khong; cồng chiêng) is an East and Southeast Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
Granulation is the act or process of forming into grains or granules.
Gunmetal, also known as red brass in the United States, is a type of bronze – an alloy of copper, tin, and zinc.
A handbell is a bell designed to be rung by hand.
The harmonica, also known as a French harp or mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, jazz, country, and rock and roll.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
A horn is any of a family of musical instruments made of a tube, usually made of metal and often curved in various ways, with one narrow end into which the musician blows, and a wide end from which sound emerges.
The hundredweight (abbreviation: cwt), formerly also known as the centum weight or quintal, is an English, imperial, and US customary unit of weight or mass of various values.
Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
"Jingle Bells" is one of the best-known and commonly sung American songs in the world.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The term latten referred loosely to the copper alloys such as brass or bronze that appeared in the Middle Ages and through to the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.
On brass instruments the mouthpiece is the part of the instrument placed on the player's lips.
Muntz metal is a form of alpha-beta brass with about 60% copper, 40% zinc and a trace of iron.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, or electrum is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc.
Nidda is a town in the district Wetterau, in Hesse, Germany.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nordic gold is the gold-coloured copper alloy from which the middle three denominations of euro coins, 50 cent, 20 cent, and 10 cent coins are made.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Orichalcum or aurichalcum is a metal mentioned in several ancient writings, including the story of Atlantis in the Critias of Plato.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The piccolo (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments.
A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A prill is a small aggregate or globule of a material, most often a dry sphere, formed from a melted liquid.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
A raisin is a dried grape.
The Rammelsberg is a mountain, high, on the northern edge of the Harz range, south of the historic town of Goslar in the North German state of Lower Saxony.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reed pipe (also referred to as a lingual pipe) is an organ pipe that is sounded by a vibrating brass strip known as a reed.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Residual stresses are stresses that remain in a solid material after the original cause of the stresses has been removed.
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others.
A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
The sarrusophones are a family of transposing woodwind musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856.
The saxhorn is a family of valved brass instruments that have conical bores and deep cup-shaped mouthpieces.
The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schwerte is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A scientific instrument is, broadly speaking, a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
Season cracking is a form of stress-corrosion cracking of brass cartridge cases originally reported from British forces in India.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Selective leaching, also called dealloying, demetalification, parting and selective corrosion, is a corrosion type in some solid solution alloys, when in suitable conditions a component of the alloys is preferentially leached from the material.
Semi-finished casting products are intermediate castings produced in a steel mill that need further processing before being a finished good.
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon tombac (German word origin: Siliziumtombak) is an alloy made of copper (80%), zinc (16%) and silicon (4%).
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
Soest (as if it were 'Sohst'; Westphalian: Saust) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Soft water is surface water that contains low concentrations of ions and in particular is low in ions of calcium and magnesium.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spark is an incandescent particle.
Spelter, while sometimes used merely as a synonym for zinc, is often used to identify a zinc alloy.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The tenor horn (British English; alto horn in American English, Althorn in Germany; occasionally referred to as E horn) is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family, and is usually pitched in E. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and baritone horn, and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece.
Theophilus Presbyter (fl. c. 1070–1125) is the pseudonymous author or compiler of a Latin text containing detailed descriptions of various medieval arts, a text commonly known as the Schedula diversarum artium ("List of various arts") or De diversis artibus ("On various arts"), probably first compiled between 1100 and 1120.
Theopompus (Θεόπομπος; c. 380 BC – c. 315 BC) was a Greek historian and rhetorician.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tombac, as it is spelled in French, or tombak, is a brass alloy with high copper content and 5–20% zinc content.
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.
Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vannoccio Biringuccio, sometimes spelt Vannocio Biringuccio (c. 1480 – c. 1539), was an Italian metallurgist.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Warmley is a village in South Gloucestershire, England.
Wear and tear is damage that naturally and inevitably occurs as a result of normal wear or aging.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
William Andrew Oddy, (born 6 January 1942) is a former Keeper of Conservation at the British Museum, notable for his publications on artefact conservation and numismatics, and for the development of the Oddy test.
William Champion (1709–1789) is credited with patenting a process in Great Britain to distill zinc metal from calamine using charcoal in a smelter.
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
A zipper, zip, fly, or zip fastener, formerly known as a clasp locker, is a commonly used device for binding the edges of an opening of fabric or other flexible material, such as on a garment or a bag.
Zwickau (Sorbian (hist.): Šwikawa, Czech Cvikov) is a town in Saxony, Germany, it is the capital of the district of Zwickau.
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