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The açaí palm (from Tupi-Guarani asaí; Euterpe oleracea) is a species of palm tree in the genus Euterpe cultivated for its fruit and hearts of palm.
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The Aberdeen Act of 1845 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 8 & 9 Vict c. 122) passed during the reign Queen Victoria on August 9.
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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
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Acarajé or Akara is a dish made from peeled black-eyed peas formed into a ball and then deep-fried in dendê (palm oil).
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Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil.
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An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.
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Adventure travel is a type of tourism, involving exploration or travel with perceived (and possibly actual) risk, and potentially requiring specialized skills and physical exertion.
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The Aerospace Technology and Science Department (Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial; DCTA) is the national military research center for aviation and space flight of Brazil.
Afoxê is an Afro Brazilian genre of music and it is a traditional rhythm of Pernambuco.
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Afro-Brazilian is a term used in the 21st century by some in Brazil to refer to Brazilian people with African ancestry.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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The agriculture of Brazil is historically one of the principal bases of Brazil's economy.Its initial focus was sugar cane.
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Airbus SAS is a division of Airbus Group SE that manufactures civil aircraft.
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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet.
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An airport is an aerodrome with facilities for flights to take off and land.
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Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region.
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Allan Kardec is the pen name of the French educator, translator and author Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail (October 3, 1804 – March 31, 1869).
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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
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The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
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The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge of water in the world, averaging a discharge of about 209,000 cubic meters per second (7,381,000 cu ft/s, 209,000,000 liters or 55,211,960 gallons/sec), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined.
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Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the northwestern corner of the country.
American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.
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The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), the Indignants Movement, and Take the Square #spanishrevolution, is a series of ongoing demonstrations in Spain whose origin can be traced to social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Democracia Real YA) or Youth Without a Future (Juventud Sin Futuro), among other civilian digital platforms and 200 other small associations.
Antonio Candido de Mello e Souza was born in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, on July 24, 1918.
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An Arab Brazilian is a Brazilian citizen of Arab ethnic and/or linguistic heritage or identity.
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The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي) was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings.
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Araucaria is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae.
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The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and historically of the Caribbean.
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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Relations between the Argentine Republic and the Federative Republic of Brazil are both close and historical, and encompasses all possible dimensions: economy, trade, culture, education and tourism.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals with a leathery armour shell.
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Asian Brazilians (or "Amarelos" (yellow)) Brazilian are Brazilian citizens of full or predominantly East Asian, South Asian and in some cases South East Asian ancestry, who remains culturally connected to Asia, or an Asian-born person permanently residing in Brazil.
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Francisco de Assis Chateaubriand Bandeira de Melo (pronounced), best known as Assis Chateaubriand and also nicknamed Chatô (October 4, 1892 – April 4, 1968), was a Brazilian lawyer, journalist, politician and diplomat.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) is a terrestrial biome and region which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
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The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.
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Autódromo José Carlos Pace, also known by its former name Interlagos, is a motorsport circuit located in the city of São Paulo, renamed after Carlos Pace, a Brazilian Formula One driver who had died in a 1977 plane crash.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing or automobile racing) is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
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An autonomous administrative division is an administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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Bahia (local pronunciation) is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the eastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
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The Balaiada was a social revolt that occurred between 1838 and 1841 in the interior of the province of Maranhão, Brazil.
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Banco do Brasil S.A. (Bank of Brazil) is the largest Brazilian and Latin American bank by assets, and the third by market value.
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The Bandeirantes ("those who carry the flag") were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
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Baniwa (Baniva), or Karu, or in older sources Itayaine (Iyaine), is an Arawakan language spoken in Colombia, Venezuela, and Amazonas, Brazil.
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The Bantu languages, technically the Narrow Bantu languages, constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages.
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Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
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The baroque in Brazil was introduced at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Catholic missionaries, especially Jesuits, who brought the new style as an instrument of Christian indoctrination.
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Barsa is a famous encyclopedia from Latin America.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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A beach is a landform along the coast of an ocean or sea, or the edge of a lake or river.
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Beach soccer, also known as beach football or beasal, is a variant of association football played on a beach or some form of sand.
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Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle.
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Beijinho ("Little kiss" in Portuguese), also known as branquinho ("little white one"), is a typical Brazilian birthday party candy prepared with condensed milk, grated desiccated coconut, rolled over caster sugar or grated coconut and topped with a clove.
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Belo Horizonte (Beautiful Horizon) is the sixth largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth largest city in South America and the sixteenth largest city in the Americas.
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The Belo Monte Dam (formerly known as Kararaô) is a hydroelectric dam complex currently under construction on the Xingu River in the state of Pará, Brazil.
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The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.
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The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.
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The BM&F BOVESPA (in full, Bolsa de Valores, Mercadorias & Futuros de São Paulo) is a stock exchange located at São Paulo, Brazil.
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Boa Vista (Good View) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Roraima.
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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets and satellites.
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Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
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Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music, which developed and was popularized in the 1950s and '60s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music genres abroad.
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Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
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Brazil Cost (Custo Brasil) refers to the increased operational costs associated with doing business in Brazil, making Brazilian goods and services more expensive compared to other countries.
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Brazil, during World War I (1914-1918), initially adopted a neutral position, in accordance with the Hague Convention, in an attempt to maintain the markets for its export products, mainly coffee, latex and industrial manufactured items.
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The Brazil men's national volleyball team is the national team of Brazil.
The Brazil national basketball team represents Brazil in FIBA's basketball competitions.
The Brazil national football team (Seleção Brasileira de Futebol) represents Brazil in international men's association football. Brazil is administered by the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), the governing body for football in Brazil. They have been a member of the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) since 1923 and member of the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) since 1916. Brazil is the most successful national football team in the FIFA World Cup with five championships: 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Brazil also has the best overall performance in World Cup history in both proportional and absolute terms with a record of 70 victories in 104 matches played, 119 goal difference, 227 points and only 17 losses. Brazil is the only national team to have played in all FIFA World Cup editions without any absence nor need for playoffs. The seleção is also the most successful national team in the FIFA Confederations Cup with four titles: 1997, 2005, 2009 and 2013, being the holder of the last title of the tournament. Brazil have won a total of 62 official international titles to professional and grassroots level selections, what constitutes an unparalleled world record. Brazil has the all-time highest average Football Elo Ranking in the world with 2013.3, and the third all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2153 in 1962, only behind the Hungary's Golden Team of 1954 and Germany national team of 2014. Many distinguished commentators consider the Brazil team of 1970 to be the greatest association football team ever, although some argue the case for other teams, such as the Brazil team of 1958 or 1962, with honorary mentions being held for the gifted 1982 side. Following the conclusion of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the national team is ranked number 3 in the World Football Elo Ratings and 6 in the FIFA World Ranking. Brazil is the only national team to have won the world cup on four different continents: once in Europe (1958 Sweden), once in South America (1962 Chile), twice in North America (1970 Mexico and 1994 United States) and once in Asia (2002 Korea/Japan). They also share with Spain a record of 35 consecutive official matches undefeated.
Brazilian Academic art was a major art style in Brazil from the early 19th century to the early 20th century, based on European academic art and produced on official institutions of professional art education.
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The Brazilian Air Force (Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB') is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services.
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The Brazilian Army (Exército Brasileiro) is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces.
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The Brazilian Army Aviation Command (Comando de Aviação do Exército) is a component of the Brazilian Army containing the army's helicopter units.
The creation of art in the geographic area now known as Brazil begins with the earliest records of its human habitation.
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The Carnival of Brazil (Carnaval do Brasil) is an annual festival held between the Friday afternoon (51 days before Easter) and Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter.
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Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro, originally Partido Comunista do Brasil until 1958) is the oldest political party still active in Brazil, founded in 1922.
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Brazilian cuisine has European, African and Amerindian influences.
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The Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, PMDB) is the successor of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB).
The Brazilian Development Bank, also known as National Bank for Economic and Social Development (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social, abbreviated: BNDES) is a federal public company associated with the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Trade.
The Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (in Portuguese, Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica, ANEEL) is an autarchy of the government of Brazil linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy.
The "Brazilian Flag Anthem" (Hino à Bandeira Nacional, literally "National Flag Anthem") is a song dedicated to the Brazilian flag.
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General elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 to elect the President, the National Congress, state governors and state legislatures.
The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 18th century, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil.
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The Brazilian Grand Prix (Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is a Formula One championship race which is currently held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos neighborhood, Socorro district, São Paulo.
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The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ; jiu-jitsu brasileiro) is a martial art, combat sport, and a self defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting.
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Brazilian literature is written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, even if prior to Brazil's independence from Portugal, in 1822.
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The Brazilian Marine Corps (Portuguese: Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais; CFN) is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy.
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The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.
The "Brazilian National Anthem" (Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1831 and had been given at least two sets of unofficial lyrics before a 1922 decree by President Epitácio Pessoa gave the anthem its definitive, official lyrics, by Joaquim Osório Duque-Estrada, after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909.
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Brazilian Naval Aviation (Portuguese: Aviação Naval Brasileira; AvN) is the air arm of the Brazilian Navy operating from ships including the aircraft carrier ''São Paulo'' and from shore installations.
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The Brazilian Navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is the naval service branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces, responsible for conducting naval operations.
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Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
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The real (Brazilian Portuguese:; pl. reais) is the present-day currency of Brazil.
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The Revolution of 1930 was an armed movement led by the states of Minas Gerais, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Sul, culminating in a coup.
Brazilian Sign Language (BSL), also known as "Libras" (from "Língua Brasileira de Sinais") and variously abbreviated as LSB, LGB or LSCB (Brazilian Cities Sign Language),Ferreira-Brito, Lucinda and Langevin, Rémi (1994), The Sublexical Structure of a Sign Language, Mathématiques, Informatique et Sciences Humaines 32:125, 1994, pp.
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The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB, also translated as "Party of Brazilian Social Democracy" or "Brazilian Social Democratic Party") is a centrist political party in Brazil.
The Brazilian Space Agency (Agência Espacial Brasileira; AEB) is the civilian authority in Brazil responsible for the country's burgeoning space program.
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Spanish Brazilians are Brazilian people of full or partial Spanish ancestry.
The breadbasket or the granary of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces an agricultural surplus which is often considered vital for the country as a whole.
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In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
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BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
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The Brigadeiro (Portuguese for Brigadier; also known in some southern Brazilian states as negrinho, literally "blackie") is a common Brazilian delicacy, created in 1940.
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British English is the English language as spoken and written in Great Britain or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles.
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Brown or Brown people is a racial and ethnic classification.
Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America.
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Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown on the Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.
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The Cabanagem (1835–1840) was a social revolt that occurred in the then-state of Grão-Pará, Empire of Brazil.
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A caboclo (also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin") is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent.
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Cachaça is a distilled spirit made from sugarcane juice.
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Caesalpinia echinata is a species of Brazilian timber tree in the pea family, Fabaceae.
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Caipirinha is Brazil's national cocktail, made with cachaça (sugar cane hard liquor), sugar and lime.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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Cambria Press is an independent academic publisher based in Amherst, New York.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Campinas (Plains or Meadows) is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings.
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Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance, acrobatics and music, and is sometimes referred to as a game.
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In capoeira, music sets the rhythm, the style of play, and the energy of a game.
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The Captaincies of Brazil were captaincies of the Portuguese Empire, administrative divisions and hereditary fiefs of Portugal in the colony of Terra de Santa Cruz, later called Brazil, on the Atlantic coast of northeastern South America.
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A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation.
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The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
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Carlos Drummond de Andrade (October 31, 1902 – August 17, 1987) was perhaps the most influential Brazilian poet of the 20th century.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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Caxias do Sul is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, situated in the state's mountainous Serra Gaúcha region.
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Cecília Benevides de Carvalho Meireles (Rio de Janeiro, 1901–1964) was a Brazilian writer and educator, known principally as a poet.
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The Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Eletrônica Avançada S.A (CEITEC - National Center for Advanced Electronic Technology) is a Brazilian technology center specialized in project development and fabrication in microelectronics, i.e. integrated circuits, or "chips".
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The Central Bank of Brazil (Portuguese: Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank.
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The Central-West Region of Brazil (Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated.
The Cerrado (Spanish/archaic Portuguese for “hilly”) is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Goiás and Minas Gerais.
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The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress.
Chapada Diamantina is a region of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil.
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The Chapada Diamantina National Park (Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina in Portuguese) is a 1,520 km² national park in the Chapada Diamantina region of the State of Bahia, Northeast Brazil.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Chinese Brazilians (Sino-brasileiro or Chinês-brasileiro) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Brazil.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla.
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Choro ("cry" or "lament"), popularly called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment.
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The Cisplatine War was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Strip" (roughly present-day Uruguay) in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' emancipation from Spain.
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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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In Brazil, the Civil Police (Polícia Civil) is the name of the investigative state police forces.
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Clarice Lispector (December 10, 1920December 9, 1977) was a Brazilian writer who has been described as possibly the most important Jewish writer since Franz Kafka.
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Classism is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class.
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The coastline of Brazil measures 7,491 km, which makes it the 16th longest national coastline of the world.
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Cocadas are a traditional coconut candy or confectionery found in many parts of Latin America.
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The cocoa bean, also cacao bean or simply cocoa or cacao, is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted.
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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
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Coffee production in Brazil is responsible for about a third of all coffee, making Brazil by far the world's largest producer, a position the country has held for the last 150 years.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.
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Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom alongside Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
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Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
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A comarca (or, pl. comarcas; or, pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in parts of Spain, Portugal, Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
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A 'commodity market' is a market that trades in primary rather than manufactured products.
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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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The Community of Portuguese Language Countries or Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, (EP), (BP); abbreviated as CPLP) is the intergovernmental organization for friendship and cooperation among lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) nations, where Portuguese is an official language.
A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
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The Confederation of the Equator (Confederação do Equador) was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the northeastern region of Brazil after that nation's struggle for independence from Portugal.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
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The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.
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The Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 (sometimes also referred to as Paulista War) (And sometimes also referred to as 1932 civil war) is the name given to the uprising of the population of the Brazilian state of São Paulo against the 1930 coup d'état when Getúlio Vargas forcibly assumed the nation's Presidency; Vargas was supported by the military and the political elites of Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraíba.
Continental Portugal or mainland Portugal (Portugal Continental) is the colloquial term used to distinguish the portion of the Portuguese unitary state located in the Iberian Peninsula (and so in Continental Europe).
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Cora Coralina (Ana Lins dos Guimarães Peixoto) (August 20, 1889 – April 10, 1985) was a Brazilian writer and poet.
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Corned beef is a salt-cured beef product.
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There is no globally accepted definition of corruption.
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Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2 The CPI currently ranks 177 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).".
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
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In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are interdependent harmonically (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
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In higher education in Canada and the United States, a course is a unit of teaching that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors (teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students.
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Coxinha (little thigh) is a popular food in Brazil consisting of chopped or shredded chicken meat, covered in dough, molded into a shape resembling a chicken leg, battered and fried.
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A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.
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Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture.
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Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.
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The culture of Portugal is the result of a complex flow of different civilizations during the past millennia.
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Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.
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A currency crisis is when, serious doubt exists as to whether a country's central bank has sufficient foreign exchange reserves to maintain the country's fixed exchange rate.
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Daylight saving time in Brazil (called horário de verão—"summer time"—in Portuguese) was first adopted in 1931.
Deaf culture is the set of social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities that are influenced by deafness and which use sign languages as the main means of communication.
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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...
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The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.
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The Democrats (Democratas, DEM) is a political party in Brazil, which is considered the main party within the right-wing spectrum.
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Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
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A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
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A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
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Dilma Vana Rousseff (born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician currently serving as the 36th President of Brazil.
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A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor, or hard liquor is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of a mixture produced from alcoholic fermentation.
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Dom is an honorific prefixed to the given name.
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The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
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The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
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In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by either wind or water flow.
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In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
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Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1581 and 1654.
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The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
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East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.
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Brazil has the eighth largest economy by nominal GDP in the world as of 2015, and seventh largest by purchasing power parity.
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Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism.
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Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Eduardo Consentino da Cunha (September 20, 1958) is a Brazilian politician and radio host, born in Rio de Janeiro.
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Education in Brazil is regulated by the Cabinet of Brazil, through the Ministry of Education, which defines the guiding principles for the organization of education programs.
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Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.
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Elementary school is for students at the ages of 4-12 to receive primary education.
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Elio Gaspari (Naples, Italy, 1944) is a Brazilian journalist and writer resident in São Paulo, Brazil.
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Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services.
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The Embraer KC-390 is a medium-size, twin-engine jet-powered military transport aircraft under development by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer, able to perform aerial refuelling and to transport cargo and troops.
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An emerging power or rising power is a term used as recognition of the rising, primarily economic, influence of a nation—or union of nations—which has steadily increased their presence in global affairs.
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An empanada (also called pastel in Portuguese and pate in Haitian Creole) is a stuffed bread or pastry baked or fried in many countries in Latin Europe, Latin America, the Southwestern United States, and parts of Southeast Asia.
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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire." An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire.
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The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay.
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The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) is a state-owned research corporation affiliated with the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply.
The Encilhamento was an economic bubble that boomed in the late 1880s and early 1890s in Brazil, bursting during the provisional government of Deodoro da Fonseca (1889–1891) leading to financial crisis.
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Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in South America.
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The environment of Brazil is characterised by high biodiversity with a population density that decreases away from the coast.
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An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles.
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Equinoctial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before "tropical" had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin "of equal nights", i.e., on the Equator, where the duration of days and nights is nearly the same year round.
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Ernesto Beckmann Geisel 3 August 1907 – 12 September 1996) was a Brazilian military leader and politician, who was President of Brazil from 1974 to 1979, during the Brazilian military government.
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Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation "ES".
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Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
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The Espinhaço Mountains are a mountain range in Brazil.
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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.
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Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.
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The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, each generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
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European Portuguese (Português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (Português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (Português de Portugal) in Brazil, refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
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Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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Exame is a fortnightly magazine specializing in economics and business, published by Editora Abril, São Paulo, Brazil.
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Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
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Farofa is a toasted cassava flour mixture, though variants are made with manioc flour (farinha de mandioca), and flavors can vary.
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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
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A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, under the direct control of a federal government.
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The Federal District (Distrito Federal) is one of 27 federative units of Brazil.
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The Federal Government of Brazil, legally known as the Union (União), is the national central government of the Federative Republic of Brazil established by the Federal Constitution to share sovereignty over the national territory with the other federating units – the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities.
The Brazilian Federal Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Federal or PRF) is a federal highway patrol, subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main function is fighting crime on Brazilian federal roads and highways, as well as monitoring and supervising vehicular traffic, although it has also taken on duties that go beyond its original authority, such as action within Brazilian cities and forests in conjunction with other public safety agencies.
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The Brazilian Federal Police Department, in Portuguese Departamento de Polícia Federal, is one of Brazil's three federal police forces.
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The Brazilian Federal Railroad Police (US English) or Federal Railway Police (British English) (Polícia Ferroviária Federal) is a police agency founded in 1852 which is responsible for patrols and security on federal railways in Brazil.
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The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil.
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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
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A federated state (which may be referred to as a state, a province, a canton, a Land, etc.) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federal union (federation).
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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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Feijoada is a stew of beans with beef and pork, which is a typical Portuguese dish.
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Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (born August 12, 1949) was the 32nd President of Brazil from 1990 to 1992, when he resigned in a failed attempt to stop his trial of impeachment by the Brazilian Senate.
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Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.
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Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born 18 June 1931), also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as President of Brazil from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2003.
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The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération Internationale de Basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
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The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Argentina.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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The FIVB Volleyball World Championship is an international men's and women's indoor volleyball competition.
The FIVB Volleyball World Cup is an international men's and women's volleyball competition.
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The FIVB Volleyball World Grand Champions Cup is an international men's and women's volleyball competition.
The FIVB Volleyball World League is an international men's volleyball competition.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an aeroplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
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Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
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Florianópolis is the capital city and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil.
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Folha de S.Paulo, also known as Folha de São Paulo, or simply Folha (Sheet), is a Brazilian daily newspaper founded in 1921 under the name Folha da Noite and published in São Paulo by Empresa Folha da Manhã.
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Footvolley (Futevôlei, in Brazil, Futevólei in Portugal) is a sport which combines aspects of beach volleyball and association football (also known as soccer in some English-speaking countries).
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Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment.
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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
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The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized market for the trading of currencies.
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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit.
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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
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The Formula One Group is a group of companies responsible for the promotion of the FIA Formula One World Championship and exploitation of the sport's commercial rights.
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Fortaleza (locally in the city, Ceará state or Northeast Region,, Portuguese for Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil.
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Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the Canidae family.
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Foz do Iguaçu (Iguazu River Mouth) is the Brazilian city on the border of Iguaçu Falls.
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France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
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The Free Economic Zone of Manaus (Zona Franca de Manaus, - ZFM) is a free economic zone in the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane française), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America.
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Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation) or FUNAI is a Brazilian governmental protection agency for Indian interests and their culture.
Futsal is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller field and mainly played indoors.
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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
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G1 is a Brazilian news portal maintained by the Rede Globo and is considered the biggest news site in the country.
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Gê are the people who spoke Ge languages of the northern South American Caribbean coast and Brazil.
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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers or letters.
A German Brazilian (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiro) is a Brazilian person of ethnic German ancestry or origin.
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Germania (Germanía) was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region inhabited mainly by the Germanic people.
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Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) served as President of Brazil, first as dictator, from 1930 to 1945, and in a democratically elected term from 1951 until his suicide in 1954.
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Goiabada (from goiaba, guava) is a popular dessert throughout the Portuguese-speaking countries of the world, dating back to the colonial days in Brazil, where guavas were used as a substitute for the quinces used to make marmelada (quince cheese).
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Golbery do Couto e Silva (August 21, 1911 – September 18, 1987) was a Brazilian General of the Army, who developed the Brazilian National Security Doctrine.
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A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled.
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The Governorate General of Brazil (Portuguese: Governo-Geral do Brasil) was a colonial administration of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil.
Graciliano Ramos de Oliveira (October 27, 1892 – March 20, 1953) was a Brazilian post-modernist writer, politician and journalist.
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The Grande Seca, the Great Drought, or the Brazilian drought of 1877–78 is the largest and most devastating drought in Brazilian history.
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.
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The Metropolitan area of Porto Alegre is the 4th most populous in Brazil, with an estimated population of 4.0 million inhabitants.
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Greater Rio de Janeiro (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.
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Green-water navy is terminology created to describe a naval force that is designed to operate in its nation's littoral zones and has the competency to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
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Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
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Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani subfamily of the Tupian languages.
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Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
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The Guiana Shield is one of the three cratons of the South American Plate.
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Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti, is a country in the western hemisphere, and is located on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean.
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Hearing, auditory perception, or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
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A highway is any public road or other public way on land.
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The history of the Jews in Brazil is a rather long and complex one, as it stretches from the very beginning of the European settlement in the new continent.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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Hydropower or water power (from the ύδρω, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
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Iberian Union is the historical designation of the political union of the Crown of Portugal with the Spanish Crown - through a dynastic union, under the Spanish Habsburgs, after the War of the Portuguese Succession - that included all the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, from 1580 to 1640.
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Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a frozen food, typically eaten as a snack or dessert, usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours.
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An ice pop is a water-based frozen snack.
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Ideology, in the Althusserian sense, is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence." It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's goals, expectations, and motivations.
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Iguazu Falls, Iguazú Falls, Iguassu Falls, or Iguaçu Falls (Cataratas do Iguaçu; Cataratas del Iguazú; Chororo Yguasu) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.
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The Iguazu River (br, Río Iguazú; also called Rio Iguassu) is a river in Brazil and Argentina.
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Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently.
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Inclusion in education describes an approach wherein students with special educational needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students.
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Brazil has been tackling problems of income inequality despite high rates of growth.
Inconfidência Mineira ("Minas Gerais Conspiracy") was an unsuccessful Brazilian separatist movement in 1789.
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Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
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The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
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The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil).
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas no Brasil), or Native Brazilians (nativos brasileiros), comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited what is now the country of Brazil prior to the European exploration around 1500.
Brazilian industry has its earliest origin in workshops dating from the beginning of the 19th century.
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Instituto Butantan is a Brazilian biomedical research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health.
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An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by borrowers (debtors) for the use of money that they borrow from lenders (creditors).
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The International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation (IBJJF) is a for-profit company that hosts several of the biggest Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) tournaments in the world, including the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship, Nogi World Jiu-Jitsu Championship, Pan Jiu-Jitsu Championship and European Open Jiu-Jitsu Championship.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations and peoples.
Iracema (in portuguese: Iracema - A Lenda do Ceará) is one of the three indigenous novels by José de Alencar.
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) (Japanese:, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks.
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ISDB-T International, ISDB-Tb or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital (Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television broadcast used in Brazil, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Honduras, Venezuela, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Philippines, Bolivia, Nicaragua and Uruguay, based on the Japanese ISDB-T standard.
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Islam in Brazil was first practiced by African slaves.
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The Itaipu Dam (Presa Itaipu, Barragem de Itaipu, Represa de Itaipú) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.
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An Italian Brazilian (Italobrasiliano, Ítalo-brasileiro) is a person or resident born in Brazil of Italian descent.
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Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco (28 June 19302 July 2011) was a Brazilian politician who served as President of Brazil from December 29, 1992, to January 1, 1995.
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The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas.
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A is a Brazilian citizen, national or natural of Japanese ancestry, or a Japanese immigrant living in Brazil.
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Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African American communities in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.
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Jânio da Silva Quadros (January 25, 1917 — February 16, 1992) was a Brazilian politician who served as President of Brazil from 31 January to 25 August 1961, when he resigned from office.
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Joaquim Manuel de Macedo (June 24, 1820 – April 11, 1882) was a Brazilian novelist, doctor, teacher, poet, playwright and journalist, famous for the romance A Moreninha.
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João Cabral de Melo Neto (January 9, 1920 – October 9, 1999) was a Brazilian poet and diplomat under the aesthetics of modernism.
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João Belchior Marques Goulart (gaúcho, or in the standard Fluminense dialect; March 1, 1918 – December 6, 1976) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 24th President of Brazil until a military coup d'état deposed him on April 1, 1964.
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João Guimarães Rosa (27 June 1908 – 19 November 1967) was a Brazilian novelist, considered by many to be one of the greatest Brazilian novelists born in the 20th century.
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John III (Portuguese: João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
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Dom John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –) was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822, and, although de facto the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist, he remained so de jure from 1822 to 1825; after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826.
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Jorge Leal Amado de Faria (10 August 1912 – 6 August 2001) was a Brazilian writer of the modernist school.
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José Martiniano de Alencar (May 1, 1829 – December 12, 1877) was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Juice is a liquid (drink) that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables.
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Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976), known also by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kibbeh or Kubbah, kibbe, or kebbah (also kubbeh, kubbi) (كبة) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur (cracked wheat), minced onions and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
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A kindergarten (German), literally children's garden, is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
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Not to be confused with Empire of Brazil The Kingdom of Brazil (Reino do Brasil) was a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.
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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
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Labor Day in the United States is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September.
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A laborer or labourer—see variation in English spelling—is a person who does one of the construction trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor, as opposed to skilled labor.
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There are 1,250 to 2,100 and by some counts over 3,000 languages spoken natively in Africa, in several major language families.
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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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The Latin Union is a defunct international organization of nations that use Romance languages, with the aim of protecting, projecting, and promoting the common cultural heritage of Latin peoples and unifying identities of the Latin, and Latin-influenced, world.
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The Língua Geral Paulista (São Paulo General language), or Tupí Austral (Southern Tupi), was a Tupi-based trade language of São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River.
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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill, regarding the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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The legal recognition of sign languages differs widely.
The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that abolished slavery in Brazil.
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Leisure, or free time, is time spent away from business, work, domestic chores and education.
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Leslie Michael Bethell"".
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The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.
The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers, or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.
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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km².
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This is a list of aircraft carriers which are currently in service, reserve, under construction, or being rebuilt.
This is a list of Brazilians, people in some way notable that were either born in Brazil or immigrants to Brazil (citizens or permanent residents), grouped by their area of notability.
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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on the The World Factbook of the CIA.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of countries by Total Primary Energy consumption and production.
This is a list of earthquakes in Haiti.
The following is a list of the islands of Brazil.
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Production (and consumption) of agricultural plant commodities has a diverse geographical distribution.
This is a list of the daily newspapers in the world by average circulation.
This is a list of protected areas of Brazil according to the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC), a formal, unified system for federal, state and municipal parks created in 2000.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
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Luíz Inácio da Silva (born 27 October 1945), known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician who served as President of Brazil from 1 January 2003 to 1 January 2011.
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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
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Luzia Woman is the name for an Upper Paleolithic period skeleton of a Paleo-Indian woman who was found in a cave in Brazil.
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Macaronesia is a collection of four archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the continents of Europe and Africa.
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Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.
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The Madeira River (Rio Madeira) is a major waterway in South America, approximately long.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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The Malê Revolt (also known as The Great Revolt) is perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil.
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The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit.
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The Mantiqueira Mountains (Portuguese: Serra da Mantiqueira) are a mountain range in Southeastern Brazil, with parts in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.
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Manuel Carneiro de Sousa Bandeira Filho (Recife, Pernambuco, April 19, 1886 – Rio de Janeiro, October 13, 1968) was a poet, literary critic, and translator.
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The Manueline (estilo manuelino), or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral.
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Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
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Maracatu is a performance found in Pernambuco state in northeastern Brazil.
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Dona Maria I (English: Mary I) (17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.
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Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as mental, physical, and spiritual development.
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The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.
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Mercosur or Mercosul (Mercado Común del Sur, Mercado Comum do Sul, Ñemby Ñemuha, Southern Common Market) is a sub-regional bloc.
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Mergers and acquisitions are both aspects of strategic management, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture.
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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Mexico City (Ciudad de México, officially known as México, D. F., or simply D. F.) is the federal district (distrito federal), capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the union.
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Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (born September 23, 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician who has been Vice President of Brazil since January 2011.
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A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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In Brazil, the Military Firefighters Corps (Port:Corpo de Bombeiros Militar) is a military organization with the mission of civil defense, firefighting, and search and rescue inside the States of the Federation.
Military Police (Polícia Militar,, also known as PM) are a type of preventive state police in every state of Brazil.
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Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are typically fixed wing and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to airlift troops, weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet, usually outside of the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace.
Minas Gerais is one of the 26 states of Brazil.
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A mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.
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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.
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Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
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Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
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The Modern Art Week (or Semana de Arte Moderna, in Portuguese) was an arts festival in São Paulo, Brazil, that ran from February 11 to February 18, 1922.
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In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.
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Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
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A monopoly (from Greek monos μόνος (alone or single) + polein πωλεῖν (to sell)) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity (this contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few entities dominating an industry).
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Moqueca (or depending on the dialect, also spelled muqueca) is a Brazilian recipe based on salt water fish stew in coconut milk, tomatoes, onions, garlic, coriander and some palm oil (dendê).
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Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
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The Free Fare Movement (Movimento Passe Livre) is a Brazilian social movement that advocates the adoption of free fares in mass transit.
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Mulatto is a term originally used to refer to a person who is born from one black parent and one white parent; or to persons of two Mulatto parents.
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In international relations, multilateralism is multiple countries working in concert on a given issue.
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The municipalities of Brazil (Municípios do Brasil) are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states.
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A municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction.
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The music of Brazil encompasses various regional music styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms.
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A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.
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The Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis - ANP) is the federal government agency linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy responsible for the regulation of the oil sector.
The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.
The National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE) is a research unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology, whose main goals are fostering scientific research and technological applications and qualifying personnel in the fields of space and atmospheric sciences, space engineering, and space technology.
The National Public Security Force (Força Nacional de Segurança Pública) was created in 2004 and with headquartered in Brasília, in the Federal District, as a joint cooperation of various Brazilian Public Safety forces, co-ordinated by the National Secretariat of Public Security (Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Pública - SENASP), of the Ministry of Justice.
The National Seal of Brazil is one of Brazil's national symbols, displayed on several official documents, such as graduation diplomas, consular and diplomatic papers, military conscription forms, etc.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in Central and South America and portions of Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
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New Year's Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
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The Nheengatu language (Tupi), often spelled Nhengatu, is an Amerindian language of the Tupi–Guarani family.
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Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations, but still retain diplomacy, and avoid all wars not related to direct self-defense.
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The Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation – NPSGlobal is a private, non-profit institution with the goal of reducing risks derived from proliferation and use of arms.
Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") is a region in the northern part of Portugal.
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The North Region of Brazil (Região Norte do Brasil) is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory.
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The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is the third largest of five geopolitical regions of Brazil composed of nine of Brazil's twenty-six states: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, and the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (formerly the federal territory of Fernando de Noronha, now part of Pernambuco state).
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O Estado de S. Paulo (The State of São Paulo) is a daily newspaper published in the Metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, and distributed mainly nationally.
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Occupy Wall Street (OWS) is the name given to a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
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The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), also known as the dwarf leopard, is a wild cat distributed extensively within South America including the islands of Trinidad and Margarita, Central America, and Mexico.
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Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor, also known as Plan Cóndor, Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repression and state terror involving intelligence operations and assassination of opponents, officially implemented in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships of the Southern Cone of South America.
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The opossums, also known by their scientific name Didelphimorphia), make up the largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, including 103 or more species in 19 genera. Of South American ancestry, they entered North America following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions.
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Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking selfish advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles, or with what the consequences are for others.
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In politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the government (or, in American English, the administration), party or group in political control of a city, region, state or country.
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The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
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Orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree.
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The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
The Orinoco is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
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The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Portuguese Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, also known as FIOCRUZ) is a scientific institution for research and development in biomedical sciences located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, it is considered one of the world's main public health research institutions.
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188px An enlargeable relief map of the Federative Republic of Brazil The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Brazil: Brazil – largest country in both South America and the Latin America region.
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The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Paçoca is a Brazilian candy made out of ground peanuts, sugar and salt.
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Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a fugitive community of escaped slaves and others in colonial Brazil that developed from 1605 until its suppression in 1694.
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Pamonha is a traditional Brazilian food.
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Pan-Americanism is a movement that seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation among the states of the Americas, through diplomatic, political, economic, and social means.
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Panela (rapadura) is unrefined whole cane sugar, typical of Central and of Latin America in general, which is a solid form of sucrose derived from the boiling and evaporation of sugarcane juice.
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The Pantanal is a natural region encompassing the world's largest tropical wetland area.
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The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw (is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, and is one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighbouring Central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit - long and in diameter. The fruit is a type of berry. It is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.
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Paraíba (Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad for navigation") is a state of Brazil.
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The Paraíba Valley (Vale do Paraíba) is located in the eastern part of the state of São Paulo along the Presidente Dutra Highway (BR-101), between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay, Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
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The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was an international military conflict in South America fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. It caused approximately 400,000 deaths, one of the highest ratios of fatalities to combatants of any war in South America in modern history. It was the longest and bloodiest inter-state war in the Latin American history. It particularly devastated Paraguay, which suffered catastrophic losses in population—almost 70% of its adult male population died—and was forced to cede territory to Argentina and Brazil. There are several theories regarding the origins of the war. The traditional view emphasizes the aggressive policy of Paraguayan president Francisco Solano López to gain control in the Platine basin. See also Fortress of Humaitá. Conversely, popular belief in Paraguay, and Argentine revisionism since the 1960s, blames the influence of the British Empire (though the academic consensus shows little or no evidence for this theory).Kraay, Hendrik; Whigham, Thomas L. (2004). "I die with my country:" Perspectives on the Paraguayan War, 1864–1870. Dexter, Michigan: Thomson-Shore. ISBN 978-0-8032-2762-0, p. 16 Quote: "During the 1960s, revisionists influenced by both left-wing dependency theory and, paradoxically, an older, right-wing nationalism (especially in Argentina) focused on Britain’s role in the region. They saw the war as a plot hatched in London to open up a supposedly wealthy Paraguay to the international economy. With more enthusiasm than evidence revisionists presented the loans contracted in London by Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil as proof of the insidious role of foreign capital... Little evidence for these allegations about Britain’s role has emerged, and the one serious study to analyze this question has found nothing in the documentary base to confirm the revisionist claim." The war has also been attributed to the after-effects of colonialism in South America; the struggle for physical power among neighboring nations over the strategic Río de la Plata region; Brazilian and Argentine meddling in internal Uruguayan politics; Solano López's efforts to help allies in Uruguay (previously defeated by Brazilians), as well as his presumed expansionist ambitions. Paraguay had recurring boundary disputes and tariff issues with Argentina and Brazil for many years; its aid to allies in Uruguay in the period before the war worsened its relations with those countries. The war began in late 1864 with combat operations between Brazil and Paraguay. Argentina and Uruguay entered in 1865, and it became the "War of the Triple Alliance." The outcome of the war was the utter defeat of Paraguay. After it lost in conventional warfare, Paraguay conducted a drawn-out guerrilla-style resistance, a disaster that resulted in the destruction of the Paraguayan military and much of the civilian population. The guerrilla war lasted until López was killed by Brazilian forces on 1 March 1870. Estimates of total Paraguayan losses range from 300,000 to 1,200,000. It took decades for Paraguay to recover from the chaos and demographic imbalance. In Brazil, the war helped bring about the end of slavery, moved the military into a key role in the public sphere and caused a ruinous increase of public debt, which took a decade to pay off, severely reducing the country's growth. It has been argued the war played a key role in the consolidation of Argentina as a nation-state. That country became South America's wealthiest nation, and one of the wealthiest in the world, by the early 20th century. It was the last time that Brazil and Argentina took such an interventionist role in Uruguay's internal politics.
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Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
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The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina for some.
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Pardo is a word used in the Spanish colonies in America that refers to the descendants of Europeans and Amerindians who mixed with black people that formed persons who were neither mestizo nor mulatto.
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In Brazil, Pardo is a race/skin color category used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in Brazilian censuses.
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Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina.
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Pastel is the name given to different typical dishes of many countries of Hispanic or Portuguese origin.
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Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
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Pão de queijo ("Cheese Bread" in Portuguese) is a small, baked, cheese-flavored roll, a popular snack and breakfast food in Brazil.
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Pé de moleque (Literally "boy's foot" in Portuguese) is a traditional candy from the Brazilian cuisine made of peanuts and jaggery or molasses.
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Pêro Vaz de Caminha (c.1450 – 15 December 1500;; also spelled Pedro Vaz de Caminha), was a Portuguese knight that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral to India in 1500, as a secretary to the royal factory.
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Peacebuilding is an intervention that is designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace.
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Peacekeeping refers to activities that tend to create conditions that favor lasting peace.
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A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs) in the suborder Suina along with the Old World pigs, Suidae.
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Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
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Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
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Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
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Pedro Leopoldo is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of Minas Gerais.
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The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
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The Pernambucan Revolt of 1817 occurred in the province of Pernambuco in the Northeastern region of Brazil, and was sparked mainly by the decline of sugar cane production and the influence of the Freemasonry in the region.
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Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.
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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
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Pico da Neblina (Mist Peak) is the highest mountain in Brazil, above sea level, in the Serra da Neblina, Serra do Imeri, a section of the Guiana Highlands on the Brazil–Venezuela border.
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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.
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The Plano Real ("Real Plan", in English) was a set of measures taken to stabilize the Brazilian economy in 1994, during the presidency of Itamar Franco.
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A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
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The Platine War (18 August 1851 – 3 February 1852) was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes.
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Pluricontinentalism (Portuguese: Pluricontinentalismo) was a geopolitical concept that Portugal was a unified nation-state that spread multiple continents.
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Polenta (polente or poleinte in France) is a Central European dish made by boiling cornmeal into a thick, solidified porridge,OED 2nd ed.: a. maize flour, especially as used in Northern Italian cookery.
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A Polish Brazilian is a Brazilian person of full or partial Polish ancestry, who is aware of such ancestry and remains connected, in some degree, to Polish culture, or a Polish-born person permanently residing in Brazil.
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A political agenda is a set of issues and policies laid out by ideological or political groups; as well as topics under discussion by a governmental executive, or a cabinet in government that tries to influence current and near-future political news and debate.
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In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
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A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.
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Porto, also known as Oporto in English, is the second-largest city in Portugal, after Lisbon, and one of the major urban areas in Southwestern Europe.
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Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbour) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
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Porto Velho (Old Port) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Rondônia, in the upper Amazon River basin.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.
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Portuguese Angola or Portuguese West Africa are the common terms by which Angola is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory in southwestern Africa.
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Portuguese Brazilians (or Luso-brasileiros) are Brazilian citizens whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Portugal.
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The Invasion of Cayenne was a combined military operation by an Anglo-Portuguese-Brazilian expeditionary force against Cayenne, capital of the French South American colony of French Guiana in 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
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The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português), was the first global empire in history.
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Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
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The Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) is an international treaty whose purpose is to create a unified orthography for the Portuguese language, to be used by all the countries that have Portuguese as their official language.
Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up potterywares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
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The Praieira revolt, also known as the Beach rebellion, was a movement in the Pernambuco region of Brazil that lasted from 1848 to 1849.
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The Pre-salt layer is a geological formation on the continental shelves.
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The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil), or simply the President of the Republic, is both head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
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The President of the Chamber of Deputies is elected by his peers for a two-year term.
The President of the Federal Senate, sometimes referred to as the President of the Senate, is elected from among their number by the members of the Brazilian Federal Senate.
A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
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Primary education or elementary education often in primary school or elementary school is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education.
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A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
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A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
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The Proclamation of the Republic was a significant event in the history of Brazil.
Protestantism in Brazil began in the 19th century, and grew in the 20th century after restrictions against Protestants were abolished throughout Latin America.
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Public float or free float represents the portion of shares of a corporation that are in the hands of public investors as opposed to locked-in stock held by promoters, company officers, controlling-interest investors, or government.
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Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
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Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number of goods or services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.
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Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Americans, with the influx of Portuguese colonizers,Jansen, Roberta.
Racism consists of ideologies and practices that seek to justify, or cause, the unequal distribution of privileges, rights, or goods amongst, or otherwise exhibit hatred or prejudice towards, different racial groups.
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Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
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The Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835.
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Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles running on rails.
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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between.
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Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
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Recife is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in Brazil with 3,743,854 inhabitants, the largest metropolitan area of the North/Northeast Regions, the 5th-largest metropolitan influence area in Brazil, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco.
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Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
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The red-bellied piranha or red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) is a species of piranha native to South America, found in the Amazon River Basin, coastal rivers of northeastern Brazil, and the basins of the Paraguay and Paraná.
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Rede Tupi (also known as TV Tupi or formally as Rádio Difusora São Paulo S.A. was the first television network in South America. The network was owned by Diários Associados, who formed the Rede de Emissoras Associadas. Rede Tupi was founded and launched on September 18, 1950 by Assis Chateaubriand in São Paulo, initially broadcasting on Tupi Television Channel 3, whose first broadcast was on September 20 of that year. Rede Tupi was later broadcast in 1960 on Tupi Television Channel 4 after the inauguration of TV Cultura (Culture TV), Channel 2, Rede Associada (Associated Network), and also a TV Station from Associadas. Their competitors were Rede Record, Channel 7, and Rede Excelsior (Network Excelsior). In Rio de Janeiro, TV Tupi was broadcast on Tupi Channel 6, and had its own station and studios there. In Brasília, TV Tupi was retransmitted by TV Brasília on Channel 6. In Salvador, TV Tupi was retransmitted by TV Itapoan, on Channel 5. Other TV Stations were formed by the Rede de Emissoras Associadas (Network of Associated Broadcasters), all Tupi affiliates and directly operated stations.
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A regent (from the Latin regens, " ruling") is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency.
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In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
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Brazil is geopolitically divided into five regions (also called macroregions) by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE); each region is composed of three or more states.
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A regulation is a legal norm intended to shape conduct that is a byproduct of imperfection.
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Religion in Brazil has a higher adherence level compared to other Latin American countries, and is more diverse.
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José Renan Vasconcelos Calheiros (born in Murici, Alagoas, on September 16, 1955) is a Brazilian politician and current President of the Senate of Brazil, for the fourth time.
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Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN) is located near Resende, state of Rio de Janeiro, comprising three units, and has a production capacity of 280 tons of uranium per year.
The Brazilian Naval Revolts, or the Revoltas da Armada (in Portuguese), were armed mutinies promoted mainly by Admirals Custódio José de Melo and Saldanha Da Gama and their fleet of Brazilian Navy ships against the unconstitutional staying in power of the central government in Rio de Janeiro.
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Enrique Ricardo Lewandowski (born May 11, 1948, in the city of Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian judge and the current president of the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil.
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Beans and rice are a staple food in many cultures around the world.
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The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro is a world famous festival held before Lent every year and considered the biggest carnival in the world with two million people per day on the streets.
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Rio de Janeiro (January River), or simply Rio, is the second-largest city in Brazil, the sixth-largest city in the Americas, and the world's thirty-fifth-largest city by population.
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Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.
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Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
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The Rio Negro (br; Río Negro "Black River") is the largest left tributary of the Amazon, the largest blackwater river in the world, and one of the world's ten largest rivers in average discharge.
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Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense, Hunsrik, Hunsriker or Rio Grande Hunsriker), spoken in parts of Brazil, is a Moselle Franconian variety derived primarily from the Hunsrückisch dialect of the German language.
The Rocas Atoll (Atol das Rocas) is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte.
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The Roman Catholic Church in Brazil is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, curia in Rome, and the very influential Brazilian Conference of Bishops (Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil - CNBB), composed by over 400 primary and auxiliary bishops and archbishops.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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Russian Brazilian (Russo-brasileiro, Русский бразилец Russkiy brazilets) is a Brazilian person of full, partial, or predominantly Russian national background or descent or a Russian-born person residing in Brazil.
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The Sabinada (1837-1838) was a revolt by military officer Francisco Sabino that occurred in Brazil's Bahia state between 6 November 1837 and 16 March 1838.
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The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo) is a group of 15 small islets and rocks in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
A salad is a dish consisting of small pieces of food, which may be mixed with a sauce or salad dressing.
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Salvador, formerly São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos ("Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints") and known colloquially as Bahia or Salvador da Bahia, is the largest city and the third-largest urban agglomeration on the northeast coast of Brazil; it is the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia.
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Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style originating in Brazil, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly Angola and the Congo.
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Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in southern Brazil.
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Santarém is a municipality in the western part of the state of Pará in Brazil.
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Santos (Saints) is a municipality in the São Paulo state of Brazil, founded in 1546 by the Portuguese nobleman Brás Cubas.
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The São Francisco is a river in Brazil.
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São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Saint Gabriel of the Waterfall) is a municipality located on the northern shore of the Rio Negro River, in the region of Cabeça do Cachorro, Amazonas state, Brazil.
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São Paulo (Saint Paul) is a municipality, metropolis and global city located in southeastern Brazil.
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São Paulo is a state in Brazil.
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The São Paulo Metrô (Metropolitano de São Paulo), commonly called the Metrô, is the main rapid transit system in the city of São Paulo and the largest in Brazil.
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São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport, popularly known locally as Cumbica Airport after the district where it is located and the Brazilian Air Force base that still exists at the airport complex, is the main international airport serving São Paulo, Brazil.
In the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university that is devoted to scholarship in the field of education, which is an interdisciplinary branch of the social sciences encompassing sociology, psychology, linguistics, economics, political science, public policy, history, and others, all applied to the topic of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education.
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A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
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Secondary education normally takes place in secondary schools, taking place after primary education and may be followed by higher education or vocational training.
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The right of nations to self-determination (from) is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms.
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A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely.
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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass.
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In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.
The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).
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Serra do Mar (Portuguese for Sea's ridge or Sea ridge) is a 1,500 km long system of mountain ranges and escarpments in Southeastern Brazil.
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Settler colonialism is a form of colonial formation whereby foreign people move into a region.
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The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Seymour Drescher is an American historian and a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, known for his studies on Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery.
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Sfiha (صفيحة sfīḥah), is a pizza-like dish originating from the Levant, but it is also known in Turkey as pide.
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A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another.
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Sloths are medium-sized mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae (two-toed sloth) and Bradypodidae (three-toed sloth), classified into six species.
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Snow occurs in Brazil occasionally, but virtually every year in some cities of the high plains of the southern states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, that account for approximately, and where there are the coldest cities in the country, where snow can happen when polar air masses reach the region: São Joaquim, Urubici, Urupema and São José dos Ausentes, among other cities bordering those, such as Bom Jesus, Bom Jardim da Serra and Cambará do Sul.
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A soap opera, soapie, or soap is a serial drama on television or radio which features related story lines about the lives of many characters.
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The term social apartheid has been used to describe various aspects of economic inequality in Brazil, drawing a parallel with the legally enforced separation of whites and blacks in South African society for several decades during the 20th-century apartheid regime.
Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.
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Brazil ranks 49.3 in the Gini coefficient index, with the richest 10% of Brazilians receiving 42.7% of the nation's income, while the poorest 34% receive less than 1.2%.
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Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
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The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions, immortal essence of a living thing.
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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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A naval arms race among Argentina, Brazil and Chile—the most powerful and wealthy countries in South America—began in the early twentieth century when the Brazilian government ordered three "dreadnoughts", formidable battleships whose capabilities far outstripped older vessels in the world's navies.
The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.
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The Southeast Region of Brazil (Região Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
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Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.
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Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a Speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders and swallowing disorders.
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Spiritism is a spiritualistic doctrine codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec, later called the Kardecist Spiritualism Doctrine, it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
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Spondias is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.
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A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.
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Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.
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The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of twenty-seven Federative Units (Unidades Federativas (UF)): twenty-six states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal), where the federal capital, Brasília, is located.
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Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.
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A stock exchange is an exchange or stock market where stock brokers and traders can buy and/or sell stocks (also called shares), bonds, and other securities.
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.
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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, is one of the several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
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The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal,, abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country.
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Suriname (or, also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
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Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
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Sustainable energy is the form of energy obtained from non-exhaustible resources, such that the provision of this form of energy serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
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A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the guiding magnetic field (bending the particles into a closed path) is time-dependent, being synchronized to a particle beam of increasing kinetic energy (see image).
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In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
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Talian (or Brazilian Venetian) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.
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Tambaba is an official nudist beach in Brazil, located on the Atlantic coast south of João Pessoa and north of Recife, at.
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The Tapajós (Rio Tapajós) is a river in Brazil.
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Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).
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A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile snout.
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The Brazilian telephone numbering plan uses a two-digit area code plus eight-digit local phone numbers (nine digits for mobile lines in some area codes from a few states).
A television station is a business, organisation or other enterprise, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits (broadcasts) content over terrestrial television.
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In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.
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Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Teresina is the capital and most populous municipality in the Brazilian state of Piauí.
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The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.
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The Guarani: Brazilian Novel (O Guarani: Romance Brasileiro) is a 1857 Brazilian novel written by José de Alencar.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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Thomas Elliot Skidmore (Troy, 22 July 1932) is a noted historian and scholar specialized in Brazilian history.
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The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
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Time in Brazil is calculated using standard time, and the country (including its offshore islands) is divided into four standard time zones – UTC-02, UTC-03, UTC-04 and UTC-05.
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A time zone is a region that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
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Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes (November 12, 1746 – April 21, 1792), was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira whose aim was full independence from the Portuguese colonial power and to create a Brazilian republic.
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Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
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Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family or business purposes, usually for a limited duration.
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The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil refers to the escape of the Queen Maria I of Portugal, Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
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The Treaty of Rio de Janeiro is the treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Empire of Brazil, signed August 29, 1825, which recognized Brazil as an independent nation, formally ending Brazil’s war of independence.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
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Trindade and Martim Vaz (Trindade e Martim Vaz) is an archipelago located about 1,200 kilometers (740 mi) east of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the State of Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil.
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TripAdvisor, Inc. is an American travel website company providing reviews of travel-related content.
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Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are grassland terrestrial biomes located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as Jungle.
A tropical climate is a climate typically found within the Tropics, while a few locations outside the Tropics are considered to have a tropical climate.
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A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.
The Tupí people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
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Tupí–Guaraní is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
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The Tupinambá were one of the various Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited present-day Brazil before the conquest of the region by Portuguese colonial settlers.
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Tupiniquim (also Tupinã-ki, Topinaquis, Tupinaquis, Tupinanquins, Tupiniquins) are an indigenous peoples of Brazil, who now live in three Indigenous Territories (Terras Indígenas in Portuguese).
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TV Brasil Internacional is an international television station based in the city of Brasília in Brazil and also via Maputo in Mozambique.
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Twitter is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short 140-character messages called "tweets".
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Ubirajara is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil.
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Ukrainians of Brazil (Ucraino-brasileiro, Ucraniano-brasileiro; Українці Бразилії, Ukrayintsi Brazylii) are Brazilian citizens born in Ukraine, or Brazilians of Ukrainian descent who remain connected, in some degree, to Ukrainian culture.
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Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (peoples living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with globalized civilization.
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The Union of South American Nations, USAN; (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.
The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
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The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, US dollar or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its overseas territories.
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The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
The University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP) is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uruguay, officially the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America.
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The Uruguayan War (10 August 1864 – 20 February 1865) was fought between Uruguay's governing Blanco Party and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil and the Uruguayan Colorado Party, covertly supported by Argentina.
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USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.
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UTC−02:00 is a time offset that subtracts 2 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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UTC−04:00 is a time offset that subtracts 4 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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UTC−05:00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational diversified metals and mining corporation and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil.
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The Vale do Aço Metropolitan Region (Região Metropolitana do Vale do Aço in Portuguese) is a metropolitan area in Minas Gerais, Brazil, comprising only the four municipalities of Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga, Santana do Paraíso and Timóteo, but have an influence area of 22 other municipalities.
Vale do Itajaí also known as Vale Europeu (or "European Valley") is a mesoregion located in the Northeastern part of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina.
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Vale Canada Limited (formerly Vale Inco, CVRD Inco and Inco Limited; for corporate branding purposes simply known as "Vale" and pronounced "vah-lay" in English) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brazilian mining company Vale.
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Vale Tudo (anything goes) are full-contact unarmed combat events, with a limited number of rules, that became popular in Brazil during the 20th century.
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The Vargas Era (Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the leadership of Getúlio Dornelles Vargas.
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Vatapá is a Brazilian dish made from bread, shrimp, coconut milk, finely ground peanuts and palm oil mashed into a creamy paste.
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Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people,Ethnologue.
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Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.
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The Vice President of Brazil is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of Brazil, preceded only by the president.
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Marcus Vinicius da Cruz e Mello Moraes (October 19, 1913 – July 9, 1980), also known as Vinícius de Moraes and nicknamed O Poetinha ("The little poet"), was a Brazilian poet, lyricist, essayist and playwright who wrote the lyrics for many now-classic Brazilian songs and became a seminal figure in modern Brazilian music.
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Viral phenomena are objects or patterns able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them.
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The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
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Vitória (Victory), spelled Victória until the 1940s, is the capital of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
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Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
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In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
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The War of Independence of Brazil (also known as the Brazilian War of Independence) was waged between Brazil and Portugal.
The War of the Emboabas ("newcomers′ war"), was a war waged in the early 18th century between two generations of Portuguese settlers in the viceroyalty of Brazil - then the Capitaincy of São Vicente.
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A waterway is any navigable body of water.
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West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.
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White Brazilian (brasileiros brancos) is a Brazilian citizen from European, or Levantine descent.
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The wildlife of Brazil comprises all naturally occurring animals, fungi and plants in this South American country.
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The Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is a Left-wing political party in Brazil.
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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
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The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.
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The World Food Programme (WFP; French: Programme Alimentaire Mondial; Italian: Programma Alimentare Mondiale; Spanish: Programa Mundial de Alimentos) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The Xingu River (Rio Xingu) is a river in north Brazil.
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Youth in Brazil includes Brazilians age 15 to 24.
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YouTube is a video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California, United States.
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Zambo or cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, considered a slur, is sambo).
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.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil.
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The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup.
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The 1954 FIBA World Championship (also called the 2nd World Basketball Championship – 1954) was an international basketball tournament held by the International Basketball Federation in Ginásio do Maracanãzinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 23 to November 5, 1954.
The 1963 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Brazil.
The 4th Pan American Games were held from April 20 to May 5, 1963 in São Paulo, Brazil.
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The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état (Golpe de estado no Brasil em 1964 or, more colloquially, Golpe de 64) was a series of events in Brazil, from March 31 to April 1, that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by part of the Armed Forces, supported by the United States.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 2007 Pan American Games, officially known as the XV Pan American Games, were a major continental multi-sport event that took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007.
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The 2013 protests in Brazil, or 2013 Confederations Cup riots, also known as the V for Vinegar Movement, Brazilian Spring, or June Journeys, are ongoing public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre (Free Fare Movement), a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.
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The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
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The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, are the thirty-first Summer Olympic Games, the world's largest international multi-sport event that is held every four years.
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The 2016 Summer Paralympics (Brazilian Portuguese: Jogos Paralímpicos de Verão de 2016), the fifteenth Summer Paralympic Games are an upcoming major international multi-sport event for disabled athletes governed by the International Paralympic Committee, to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from September 7 to September 18, 2016 making them the first Summer Paralympics to be held during the host city's wintertime.
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The meridian 28° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Azores, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 34th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 6th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 6 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 74° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Barzil, Brasil, Brassil, Brazil (country), Brazilian Federative Republic, Brazilian Republic, Brazilo, Bresil, Brzil, Brésil, Etymology of Brazil, Federal Republic of Brazil, Federative Republic of Brazil, ISO 3166-1:BR, Republic of Brazil, Republica Federativa do Brasil, República Federativa do Brasil.