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The açaí palm (from Tupi-Guarani asaí), Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree (Arecaceae) cultivated for its fruit (açaí berries or simply açaí), hearts of palm (a vegetable), leaves and trunk wood.
The Aberdeen Act of 1845 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 8 & 9 Vict c. 122) passed during the reign Queen Victoria on August 9.
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Award for Best Director (officially known as the Academy Award for Best Directing) is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Acarajé or (Yoruba: àkàrà) is a dish made from peeled beans formed into a ball and then deep-fried in dendê (palm oil).
Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil.
The Acre War, known in Brazil as Acrean Revolution ("Revolução Acreana" in Portuguese) and in Spanish as La Guerra del Acre ("The War of the Acre") was a border conflict between Bolivia and the First Brazilian Republic over the Acre Region, which was rich in rubber and gold deposits.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Adhemar Gonzaga (26 January 1901 – 29 January 1978) was a Brazilian actor, screenwriter, film producer, and director.
Adolfo Celi (27 July 1922 – 19 February 1986) was an Italian film actor and director.
Adventure travel is a type of niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain degree of risk (real or perceived), and which may require special skills and physical exertion.
Afoxê is an Afro Brazilian genre of music and it is a traditional rhythm of Pernambuco.
Afro-Brazilians (afro-brasileiros) are Brazilian people who have African ancestry.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The agriculture of Brazil is historically one of the principal bases of Brazil's economy.
The Ato Institucional Número Cinco – AI-5 (Institutional Act Number Five) was the fifth of seventeen major decrees issued by the military dictatorship in the years following the 1964 coup d'état in Brazil.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region.
Alberto Santos-Dumont (20 July 187323 July 1932, usually referred to as simply Santos-Dumont) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the very few people to have contributed significantly to the development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft.
Aldo Cláudio Felipe Bonadei, also known as Aldo Bonadei (June 17, 1906 in São Paulo – January 16, 1974 in São Paulo) was a Brazilian painter of Italian descent.
In Christianity, All Souls' Day commemorates All Souls, the Holy Souls, or the Faithful Departed; that is, the souls of Christians who have died.
Allan Kardec is the pen name of the French educator, translator and author Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail (3 October 1804 – 31 March 1869).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Geographical Society (AGS) is an organization of professional geographers, founded in 1851 in New York City.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Andreas Pavel is a German-Brazilian cultural producer and media designer who is generally credited with the invention of personal stereo.
Anita Catarina Malfatti (December 2, 1889 – November 6, 1964) is heralded as the first Brazilian artist to introduce European and American forms of Modernism to Brazil.
Antônio Carlos Gomes (Campinas, July 11, 1836 – Belém, September 16, 1896) was the first New World composer whose work was accepted by Europe.
Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927December 8, 1994), also known as Tom Jobim, was a Brazilian composer, pianist, songwriter, arranger and singer.
Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.
Antonio Candido de Mello e Souza (July 24, 1918 – May 12, 2017) was a Brazilian writer, professor, sociologist and literary critic.
Aparecida is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.
Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity.
Araucaria (original pronunciation) is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae.
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Relations between and historical, and encompasses all possible dimensions: economy, trade, culture, education and tourism.
Ariano Vilar Suassuna (June 16, 1927 – July 23, 2014) was a Brazilian playwright and author.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
Arnaldo Jabor (born 12 December 1940) is a Brazilian film director, screenwriter and producer of Lebanese descent.
Artur Avila Cordeiro de Melo (born 29 June 1979) is a Brazilian and French mathematician working primarily on dynamical systems and spectral theory.
Asian Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of full or predominantly East Asian, South Asian and in some cases South East Asian ancestry, or an Asian-born person permanently residing in Brazil.
Francisco de Assis Chateaubriand Bandeira de Melo (pronounced), best known as Assis Chateaubriand and also nicknamed Chatô (October 4, 1892 – April 4, 1968), was a Brazilian lawyer, journalist, politician and diplomat.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
ASTROS II (Artillery Saturation Rocket System) is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher produced in Brazil by the Avibras company.
The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Autódromo José Carlos Pace, also known as Interlagos, is a motorsport circuit located in the city of São Paulo, in the neighborhood of Interlagos.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Avenida Presidente Vargas is one of the main throughways in city of Rio de Janeiro.
Ayrton Senna da Silva (21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994) was a Brazilian racing driver who won three Formula One world championships for McLaren in 1988, 1990 and 1991, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time.
The B3 (in full, B3 - Brasil Bolsa Balcão S.A.), formerly BM&FBOVESPA, is a Stock Exchange located at São Paulo, Brazil.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
The Balaiada was a social revolt between 1838 and 1841 in the interior of the Province of Maranhão, Brazil.
Banco do Brasil S.A. (Bank of Brazil) is the second largest bank by assets in Brazil and all of Latin America.
The Bandeirantes were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
Baniwa (Baniva), or Karu, or in older sources Itayaine (Iyaine), is an Arawakan language spoken in Colombia, Venezuela, and Amazonas, Brazil.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The baroque in Brazil was introduced at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Catholic missionaries, especially Jesuits, who brought the new style as an instrument of Christian indoctrination.
Barsa is a famous encyclopedia from Latin America.
Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (December 1685 – November 18, 1724) was a Portuguese priest and naturalist, who was a pioneer of lighter-than-air airship design.
The Cathedral Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady Aparecida (Catedral Basílica Santuário Nacional de Nossa Senhora Aparecida) is a prominent Roman Rite Catholic basilica in Aparecida, Brazil.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles.
Beach Park is a Brazilian water park and tourist resort, situated on the beach of Porto das Dunas in the municipality of Aquiraz, in the Metropolitan region of Fortaleza.
Beach soccer, also known as beach football or beasal, is a variant of association football played on a beach or some form of sand.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beijinho ("Little kiss" in Portuguese), also known as branquinho ("little white one"), is a typical Brazilian birthday party candy prepared with condensed milk, grated desiccated coconut, rolled over caster sugar or grated coconut and topped with a clove.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.
The Belo Monte Dam (formerly known as Kararaô) is a hydroelectric dam complex currently under construction on the Xingu River in the state of Pará, Brazil.
The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black God, White Devil (Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol; literally, God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun) is a 1964 Brazilian film directed and written by Glauber Rocha.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Boa Vista (Good View) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Roraima.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bolo de rolo (English translation: rollcake) is a typical Brazilian dessert, from Pernambuco state.
Bonito is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul.
Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music, which was developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music genres abroad.
BR-116 is a federal highway of Brazil.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brazil cost (Custo Brasil) refers to the increased operational costs associated with doing business in Brazil, making Brazilian goods and services more expensive compared to other countries.
During World War I (1914–1918), Brazil initially adopted a neutral position, in accordance with the Hague Convention, in an attempt to maintain the markets for its export products, mainly coffee, latex and industrial manufactured items.
The Brazil men's national volleyball team is governed by the Confederação Brasileira de Voleibol (Brazilian Volleyball Confederation) and takes part in international volleyball competitions.
The Brazil national basketball team is governed by the Brazilian Basketball Confederation (Confederação Brasileira de Basketball), abbreviated as CBB.
The Brazil national football team (Seleção Brasileira de Futebol) represents Brazil in international men's association football.
Brazil–China relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Brazil and China.
Brazilian Academic art was a major art style in Brazil from the early 19th century to the early 20th century, based on European academic art and produced on official institutions of professional art education.
The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) is a state-owned research corporation affiliated with the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.
The Brazilian Air Force (Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services.
NAe São Paulo was a in service with the Brazilian Navy.
The Brazilian Army (Exército Brasileiro) is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces.
The Brazilian Army Aviation Command (Comando de Aviação do Exército) is a component of the Brazilian Army containing the army's helicopter units.
The creation of art in the geographic area now known as Brazil begins with the earliest records of its human habitation.
The Carnival of Brazil (Carnaval do Brasil) is an annual Brazilian festival held between the Friday afternoon before Ash Wednesday and Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter.
Brazilian cuisine is the set of cooking practices and traditions of Brazil, and is characterized by African, European, and Amerindian influences.
The Brazilian Democratic Movement (Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, MDB) is a Brazilian political party.
The National Bank for Economic and Social Development (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social, abbreviated: BNDES) is a federal public company associated with the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Trade of Brazil.
The Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (in Portuguese, Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica, ANEEL) is an autarchy of the government of Brazil linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy.
The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or BEF (Força Expedicionária Brasileira; FEB) consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.
The "Brazilian Flag Anthem" (Hino à Bandeira Nacional, literally "National Flag Anthem") is a Brazilian patriotic song dedicated to the national flag of Brazil.
General elections were held in Brazil on 3 October 1994.
General elections were held in Brazil on 4 October 1998, with a second round on 25 October.
General elections were held in Brazil on 6 October 2002, with a second round on 27 October.
General elections were held in Brazil on 1 October 2006 to elect all seats in the Chamber of Deputies, one-third of the Federal Senate, and members of the Legislative Assemblies of the 26 states and the Federal District.
The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 1690s, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil in the Portuguese Empire.
The Brazilian Grand Prix (Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is a Formula One championship race which is currently held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos neighborhood, Socorro district, São Paulo.
The Brazilian Highway System (Portuguese: Sistema Nacional de Rodovias) is the highway system of Brazil.
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil.
Brazilian integralism (integralismo) was a fascist political movement in Brazil, created in October 1932.
Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ; jiu-jitsu brasileiro) is a martial art and combat sport system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting.
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country’s independence in 1822.
The Brazilian Marine Corps (CFN; Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais, literally "corps of naval riflemen") is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy.
The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.
The "Brazilian National Anthem" (Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1831 and had been given at least two sets of unofficial lyrics before a 1922 decree by President Epitácio Pessoa gave the anthem its definitive, official lyrics, by Joaquim Osório Duque-Estrada, after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909.
Brazilian Naval Aviation (Portuguese: Aviação Naval Brasileira; AvN) is the air arm of the Brazilian Navy operating from ships including the aircraft carrier ''São Paulo'' and from shore installations.
The Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil) is the naval service branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces, responsible for conducting naval operations.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Presidential elections were held in Brazil in 1989.
The Brazilian presidential election was held in 2010 with two rounds of balloting.
The Brazilian real (real, pl. reais; sign: R$; code: BRL) is the official currency of Brazil.
The Revolution of 1930, also known as the 1930 coup d'état or coup of 1930 was an armed movement led by the states of Minas Gerais, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Sul, culminating in a coup.
Brazilian Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used by Deaf communities of urban Brazil.
The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB, also translated as "Party of Brazilian Social Democracy" or "Brazilian Social Democratic Party") is a centrist political party in Brazil.
The Brazilian Space Agency (Agência Espacial Brasileira; AEB) is the civilian authority in Brazil responsible for the country's burgeoning space program.
The Brazilian Special Operations Command (Portuguese: Comando de Operações Especiais - C Op Esp) is a part of the Brazilian Army Commands, specifically the Land Army Command.
The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
The brigadeiro is a traditional Brazilian dessert created in 1940.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Brown or brown people is a racial and ethnic classification.
Bruno Barreto (born March 16, 1955) is a Brazilian film director.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America.
Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown, Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.
The Cabanagem (1835–1840) was a popular revolution and pro-separatist movement that occurred in the then-state of Grão-Pará, Empire of Brazil.
A caboclo (also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin") (English: cabloke) is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent.
Cachaça is a distilled spirit made from fermented sugarcane juice.
Caipirinha is Brazil's national cocktail, made with cachaça (sugarcane hard liquor), sugar and lime.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambria Press is an independent academic publisher based in Amherst, New York.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Campinas (Plains or Meadows) is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candido Torquato Portinari (December 29, 1903 – February 6, 1962) was a Brazilian painter.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Capoeira is an Afro-Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance, acrobatics, and music.
In capoeira, music sets the rhythm, the style of play, and the energy of a game.
The Captaincies of Brazil (Capitanias do Brasil) were captaincies of the Portuguese Empire, administrative divisions and hereditary fiefs of Portugal in the colony of Terra de Santa Cruz, later called Brazil, on the Atlantic coast of northeastern South America.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carlos Drummond de Andrade (October 31, 1902 – August 17, 1987) was a Brazilian poet and writer, considered by some as the greatest Brazilian poet of all time.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
The Cathedral of Brasília (Portuguese: Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora Aparecida, "Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady of Aparecida") is the Roman Catholic cathedral serving Brasília, Brazil, and serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Brasília.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Brazil is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome, and the influential National Conference of Bishops of Brazil (Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil - CNBB), composed by over 400 primary and auxiliary bishops and archbishops.
Cármen Lúcia Antunes Rocha (Montes Claros, 19 April 1954) is a Brazilian jurist and member of the Supreme Federal Court since 2006.
Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes (11 July 1924 – 8 March 2005), also known as Cesar (or César) Lattes, was a Brazilian experimental physicist, one of the discoverers of the pion, a composite subatomic particle made of a quark and an antiquark.
Ceará (locally in Ceará or in Northeast Region of Brazil the pronunciation is) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast.
Cecília Benevides de Carvalho Meireles (7 November 1901 – 9 November 1964) was a Brazilian writer and educator, known principally as a poet.
The Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Eletrônica Avançada S.A (CEITEC - National Center for Advanced Electronic Technology) is a Brazilian technology center specialized in project development and fabrication in microelectronics, i.e. integrated circuits, or "chips".
The Central Bank of Brazil (Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank.
Central Station (Central do Brasil) is a 1998 Brazilian–French drama film set in Brazil.
The Central-West Region of Brazil (Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated.
The Cerrado is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais.
The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil.
Chapada Diamantina (Portuguese for the "Diamond Plateau") is a region of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil.
The Chapada Diamantina National Park (Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina) is a national park in the Chapada Diamantina region of the State of Bahia, Brazil.
Francisco "Chico" Buarque de Hollanda (born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), popularly known simply as Chico Buarque, is a Brazilian singer-songwriter, guitarist, composer, playwright, writer and poet.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Brazilians (Sino-brasileiro or Chinês-brasileiro) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Brazil.
Francisca Edwiges Neves Gonzaga, famously known as Chiquinha Gonzaga (October 17, 1847, Rio de Janeiro – February 28, 1935, Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian composer, pianist and the first woman conductor in Brazil.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Choro ("cry" or "lament"), also popularly called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro.
Christ the Redeemer (Cristo Redentor, standard) is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with French engineer Albert Caquot.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cinema Novo is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s.
Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment.
Cisplatina Province or Cisplatine Province (Província Cisplatina) was a Brazilian province in existence from 1821 to 1828 created by the Luso-Brazilian annexation of the Oriental Province.
The Cisplatine War, also known as the Argentine-Brazilian War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Strip (roughly present-day Uruguay) in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (as Argentina was then called) and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain.
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
City of God (Cidade de Deus) is a 2002 Brazilian crime film directed by Fernando Meirelles and co-directed by Kátia Lund, released in its home country in 2002 and worldwide in 2003.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
In Brazil, the Civil Police (Polícia Civil) is the name of the investigative state police forces.
Clarice Lispector (December 10, 1920December 9, 1977) was a Brazilian writer acclaimed internationally for her innovative novels and short stories.
Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class.
The coastline of Brazil measures 7,491 km, which makes it the 16th longest national coastline of the world.
Cocadas are a traditional coconut candy or confectionery found in many parts of Latin America.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Coffee production in Brazil is responsible for about a third of all coffee, making Brazil by far the world's largest producer, a position the country has held for the last 150 years.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A comarca (or, pl. comarcas; or, pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Communist uprising of 1935, (Portuguese: Intentona Comunista), was a military revolt by leftist low-rank military against Getúlio Vargas' government, in the name of the National Liberation Alliance and with the support of the Brazilian Communist Party, which was back then called the Communist Party of Brazil, the uprising also had the support of the Comintern.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
The Confederation of the Equator (Confederação do Equador) was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the northeastern region of Brazil after that nation's struggle for independence from Portugal.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 (sometimes also referred to as Paulista War or Brazilian Civil War) is the name given to the uprising of the population of the Brazilian state of São Paulo against the 1930 coup d'état when Getúlio Vargas forcibly assumed the nation's Presidency; Vargas was supported by the military and the political elites of Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraíba.
Continental Portugal (Portugal continental) or mainland Portugal are terms used for the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe; having approximately 95% of the total population and 96.6% of the country's land.
Cora Coralina is the pseudonym of the Brazilian writer and poet Anna Lins dos Guimarães Peixoto Bretas (August 20, 1889 – April 10, 1985).
Corned beef is a salt-cured beef product.
Corruption in Brazil exists on all levels of society from the top echelons of political power to the smallest municipalities.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
In higher education in Canada and the United States, a course is a unit of teaching that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors (teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students.
Coxinha (little thigh) is a popular food in Brazil consisting of chopped or shredded chicken meat, covered in dough, molded into a shape resembling a chicken leg, battered and fried.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a traveler's engagement with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.
The culture of Portugal is the result of a complex flow of different civilizations during the past millennia.
Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.
A currency crisis is a situation in which serious doubt exists as to whether a country's central bank has sufficient foreign exchange reserves to maintain the country's fixed exchange rate.
Daylight saving time (DST) in Brazil (called horário de verão — "summer time" — in Portuguese) starts on the first Sunday of November (beginning in 2018) and ends on the third Sunday of February, with an average duration of 15 weeks.
Deaf culture is the set of social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities that are influenced by deafness and which use sign languages as the main means of communication.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
The Democrats (Democratas, DEM) is a political party in Brazil, which is considered the main party within the right-wing spectrum.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
The Brazilian Department of Aerospace Science and Technology (Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial; DCTA) is the national military research center for aviation and space flight.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dilma Vana Rousseff (often known mononymously as Dilma; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016, becoming the first democratically-elected female President in the world to be impeached and removed.
The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Economy of Brazil is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth largest by purchasing power parity.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Education in Brazil has had many changes.
Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education.
Elio Gaspari (Naples, Italy, 1944) is a Brazilian journalist and writer resident in São Paulo, Brazil.
Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services.
The Embraer KC-390 is a medium-size, twin-engine jet-powered military transport aircraft under development by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer, able to perform aerial refuelling and to transport cargo and troops.
Emiliano Augusto Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Melo (September 6, 1897 – October 26, 1976), known as Di Cavalcanti, was a Brazilian painter who sought to produce a form of Brazilian art free of any noticeable European influences.
An empanada is a type of pasty baked or fried in many countries of the Americas and in Spain.
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
The Encilhamento was an economic bubble that boomed in the late 1880s and early 1890s in Brazil, bursting during the 1st Brazilian military dictatorship (1889-1894), leading to an institutional and a financial crisis.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in South America.
Entranced Earth (Terra em Transe, "World in a Trance", also called Land in Anguish or Earth Entranced) is a 1967 Brazilian Cinema Novo drama film directed by Glauber Rocha.
The environment of Brazil is characterized by high biodiversity with a population density that decreases away from the coast.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Equinoctial France (French France équinoxiale) was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before "tropical" had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin "of equal nights", i.e., on the Equator, where the duration of days and nights is nearly the same year round.
Ernesto Beckmann Geisel August 3, 1907 – September 12, 1996) was a Brazilian Army officer and politician, who was President of Brazil from 1974 to 1979, during the Brazilian military government.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
The Espinhaço Mountains are a mountain range in Brazil.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Eunício Lopes de Oliveira (born September 30, 1952) is a Brazilian politician and businessman.
Eurico Gaspar Dutra (May 18, 1883 – June 11, 1974) was a Brazilian military leader and politician who served as 16th President of Brazil from 1946 to 1951.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Evaristo Conrado Engelberg (26 October 1853 – 1932) was a Brazilian mechanical engineer and inventor.
Exame is a fortnightly magazine specializing in economics and business, published by Editora Abril, São Paulo, Brazil.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
Farofa is a toasted cassava flour mixture.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fábio Barreto (born June 6, 1957) is a Brazilian filmmaker, actor, screenwriter, and film producer.
A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body.
The Federal District (Distrito Federal) is one of 27 federative units of Brazil.
The federal government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district.
The Brazilian Federal Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Federal or PRF) is a federal highway patrol, subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main function is fighting crime on Brazilian federal roads and highways, as well as monitoring and supervising vehicular traffic, although it has also taken on duties that go beyond its original authority, such as action within Brazilian cities and forests in conjunction with other public safety agencies.
The Federal Police of Brazil (Portuguese: Polícia Federal) is a federal law enforcement agency of Brazil and one of its three federal police forces.
The Brazilian Federal Railroad Police (US English) or Federal Railway Police (British English) (Polícia Ferroviária Federal) is a police agency founded in 1852 which is responsible for patrols and security on federal railways in Brazil, however the organisation does not exist formally.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feijoada is a stew of beans with beef and pork of Portuguese origin.
Arlette Pinheiro Esteves Torres ONM (born October 16, 1929) better known by her stage name Fernanda Montenegro, is a Brazilian stage, television and film actress.
Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (born August 12, 1949) is a Brazilian politician who served as the 32nd President of Brazil from 1990 to 1992, when he resigned in a failed attempt to stop his impeachment trial by the Brazilian Senate.
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931), also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003.
Fernando Ferreira Meirelles (born November 9, 1955) is a Brazilian film director, producer and screenwriter.
Festa Junina (June Festival), also known as the festa de São João for their part in celebrating the nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24), are the annual Brazilian celebrations adapted from European Midsummer that take place in the southern midwinter.
The Gramado Film Festival (Festival de Gramado) is an international film festival held annually in the Brazilian city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, since 1973.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Germany.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha ("Old Republic") is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB Volleyball World Grand Champions Cup is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's and women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB Volleyball World League was an annual international men's volleyball competition.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag.
Flixster was an American social movie site for discovering new movies, learning about movies, and meeting others with similar tastes in movies.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil.
Folha de S.Paulo, also known as Folha de São Paulo, or simply Folha (Sheet), is a Brazilian daily newspaper founded in 1921 under the name Folha da Noite and published in São Paulo by the Folha da Manhã company.
Footvolley (Futevôlei, in Brazil, Futevólei in Portugal) is a sport which combines aspects of beach volleyball and association football Footvolley was created by Octavio de Moraes in 1965 in Brazil.
Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The Formula One Group is a group of companies responsible for the promotion of the FIA Formula One World Championship, and the exercising of the sport's commercial rights.
Forró (*) is a genre of Brazilian music that originated in Northeastern Brazil.
Forró and Redemptive Regionalism from the Brazilian Northeast: Popular Music in a Culture of Migration is a book by professor of Portuguese Jack A. Draper III, published by Peter Lang in 2011.
Fortaleza (locally, Portuguese for Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil.
Four Days in September (O Que É Isso, Companheiro?) is a 1997 Brazilian thriller film directed by Bruno Barreto and produced by his parents Lucy and Luiz Carlos Barreto.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Foz do Iguaçu (Iguazu River Mouth) is the Brazilian city on the border of Iguaçu Falls.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
The Free Economic Zone of Manaus (Zona Franca de Manaus, - ZFM) is a free economic zone in the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil.
French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
A fried egg is a cooked dish made from one or more eggs which are removed from their shells and placed into a pan, usually without breaking the yolk, and fried with minimal accompaniment.
Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller (31 March 1821 – 21 May 1897), better known as Fritz Müller, and also as Müller-Desterro, was a German biologist who emigrated to southern Brazil, where he lived in and near the German community of Blumenau, Santa Catarina.
Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation) or FUNAI is a Brazilian governmental protection agency for Indian interests and their culture.
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Ganga Bruta (literally translated as "Brutal Gang"; also known as Rough Diamond) is a 1933 Brazilian drama film directed by Humberto Mauro.
Gê are the people who spoke Ge languages of the northern South American Caribbean coast and Brazil.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Glauber de Andrade Rocha (14 March 1939 – 22 August 1981), better known as Glauber Rocha, was a Brazilian film director, actor and screenwriter.
Goiabada (from goiaba, guava) is a popular dessert throughout the Portuguese-speaking countries of the world, dating back to the colonial days in Brazil, where guavas were used as a substitute for the quinces used to make marmelada (quince cheese).
Golbery do Couto e Silva (August 21, 1911 – September 18, 1987) was a Brazilian General of the Army, who developed the Brazilian National Security Doctrine.
The golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia, mico-leão-dourado), also known as the golden marmoset, is a small New World monkey of the family Callitrichidae.
Antônio Gonçalves Dias (August 10, 1823November 3, 1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist.
The Good Neighbor policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt towards Latin America.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Governorate General of Brazil (Portuguese: Governo-Geral do Brasil) was a colonial administration of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil.
Graciliano Ramos de Oliveira (October 27, 1892 – March 20, 1953) was a Brazilian modernist writer, politician and journalist.
The Grande Seca, the Great Drought, or the Brazilian drought of 1877–78 is the largest and most devastating drought in Brazilian history.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Metropolitan area of Porto Alegre is the 4th most populous in Brazil, with an estimated population of 4.0 million inhabitants.
Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.
Green-water navy is terminology created to describe a naval force that is designed to operate in its nation's littoral zones and has the competency to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Combat Divers Group (Portuguese: Grupamento de Mergulhadores de Combate), abbreviated to GRUMEC, is a special operations unit of the Brazilian Navy.
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
The Guiana Shield is one of the three cratons of the South American Plate.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, described as "the single most significant creative figure in 20th-century Brazilian art music".
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
The history of the Jews in Brazil is a rather long and complex one, as it stretches from the very beginning of the European settlement in the new continent.
HMS Ocean is an amphibious assault ship, formerly the UK's helicopter carrier and the fleet flagship of the Royal Navy.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Hyundai Group is a multinational (conglomerate) headquartered in Seoul, South Korea.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
An ice pop is a water-based frozen snack.
Iguazú Falls or Iguaçu Falls (Cataratas del Iguazú; Chororo Yguasu; Cataratas do Iguaçu) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.
The Iguazu River (br, Río Iguazú; also called Rio Iguassu) is a river in Brazil and Argentina.
Il Guarany (The Guarany) is an opera ballo composed by Antônio Carlos Gomes, based on the novel O Guarani by José de Alencar.
Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently.
The impeachment of Dilma Rousseff, the 36th President of Brazil, began on 2 December 2015 with a petition for her impeachment accepted by Eduardo Cunha, then president of the Chamber of Deputies, and continued into late 2016.
The Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (Academia Imperial de Belas Artes) was an institution of higher learning in the arts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established by King João VI.
The Imperial Brazilian Army (Portuguese: Exército Imperial Brasileiro) was the name given to the land force of the Empire of Brazil.
Inclusion, in education refers to the a model wherein special needs students spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs students.
Brazil has been tackling problems of income inequality despite high rates of growth.
Inconfidência Mineira ("Minas Gerais Conspiracy") was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil).
Indianism (in Indianismo) is a Brazilian literary and artistic movement that reached its peak during the first stages of Romanticism, though it had been present in Brazilian literature since the Baroque period.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas no Brasil), or Indigenous Brazilians (indígenas brasileiros), comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500.
Brazilian industry has its earliest origin in workshops dating from the beginning of the 19th century.
Instituto Butantan (in modern Portuguese, Instituto Butantã) is a Brazilian biologic research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretariat of Health.
The Instituto Militar de Engenharia (Military Institute of Engineering, IME) is an engineering institute maintained by the Brazilian Army with Federal support.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation (IBJJF) is a for-profit company that hosts several of the biggest Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) tournaments in the world, including the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship, Nogi World Jiu-Jitsu Championship, Pan Jiu-Jitsu Championship and European Open Jiu-Jitsu Championship.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
Internet Group do Brasil (iG) is a Brazilian Internet service provider that owns and operates web portals and provides a variety of services including online banking, shopping, stock information, chat rooms, and free e-mail.
Iracema (in Portuguese: Iracema - A Lenda do Ceará) is one of the three indigenous novels by José de Alencar.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) (Japanese:, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks.
ISDB-T International, ISDB-Tb or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital (Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television broadcast used in Brazil, Botswana, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Honduras, Venezuela, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Philippines, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Uruguay, based on the Japanese ISDB-T standard.
Islam is a minority religion in Brazil, first brought by African slaves and then by Lebanese and Syrian immigrants.
Ismael Nery (October 9, 1900 - April 6, 1934) was a Brazilian artist.
It's All True is an unfinished Orson Welles feature film comprising three stories about Latin America.
The Itaipu Dam (Barragem de Itaipu, Represa de Itaipú) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.
Italian Brazilians (Italobrasiliani, Ítalo-brasileiros) are Brazilian citizens of full or partial Italian descent.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco (June 28, 1930July 2, 2011) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 33rd President of Brazil from December 29, 1992 to January 1, 1995.
Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian industrial vehicle manufacturing company based in Turin, Italy, and entirely controlled by CNH Industrial Group.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
are Brazilian citizens who are nationals or naturals of Japanese ancestry, or Japanese immigrants living in Brazil.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jânio da Silva Quadros (January 25, 1917 – February 16, 1992) was a Brazilian politician who served as 22nd President of Brazil from 31 January to 25 August 1961, when he resigned from office.
Jean-Baptiste Debret (18 April 1768 – 28 June 1848) was a French painter, who produced many valuable lithographs depicting the people of Brazil.
Joaquim Manuel de Macedo (June 24, 1820 – April 11, 1882) was a Brazilian novelist, doctor, teacher, poet, playwright and journalist, famous for the romance A Moreninha.
João Cabral de Melo Neto, (January 9, 1920 – October 9, 1999) was a Brazilian poet and diplomat, and one of the most influential writers in late Brazilian modernism.
João Belchior Marques Goulart (gaúcho, or in the standard Fluminense dialect; March 1, 1918 – December 6, 1976) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 24th President of Brazil until a military coup d'état deposed him on April 1, 1964.
João Guimarães Rosa (27 June 1908 – 19 November 1967) was a Brazilian novelist, short story writer and diplomat.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
Jorge Leal Amado de Faria (10 August 1912 – 6 August 2001) was a Brazilian writer of the modernist school.
Jorge Manuel Almeida Gomes de Andrade, OIH (born 9 April 1978) is a former Portuguese footballer who played as a central defender, and a current manager.
José Martiniano de Alencar (May 1, 1829 – December 12, 1877) was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist.
José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior (8 May 1850, Itu - 13 November 1899, Piracicaba), commonly known as Almeida Júnior, was a Brazilian artist and designer; one of the first there to paint in the Realistic tradition of Gustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet.
José Leite Lopes (October 28, 1918 – June 12, 2006), noted Brazilian theoretical physicist in the field of quantum field theory and particle physics.
Giuseppe Giannini Pancetti, better known as José Pancetti (Campinas, June 18, 1902 - Rio de Janeiro, February 10, 1958) was a Brazilian modernist painter.
José Sarney de Araújo Costa (born April 24, 1930 as José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa) is a Brazilian politician, lawyer, and writer who served as 31st President of Brazil from March 15, 1985 to March 15, 1990.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976), known also by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
Not to be confused with Empire of Brazil The Kingdom of Brazil (Reino do Brasil) was a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Labor Day in the United States is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Lasar Segall (July 21, 1891 – August 2, 1957) was a Brazilian Jewish painter, engraver and sculptor born in Lithuania.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Língua Geral Paulista (São Paulo General language), or Tupí Austral (Southern Tupi), was a Tupi-based trade language of São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lear's macaw (Anodorhynchus leari), also known as the indigo macaw, is a large all-blue Brazilian parrot, a member of a large group of neotropical parrots known as macaws.
The legal recognition of sign languages differs widely.
The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that abolished slavery in Brazil.
Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, work, job hunting, domestic chores, and education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping.
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The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.
The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Limite (Portuguese for "limit" or "border") is a film by Brazilian director and writer Mário Peixoto (1908–92), filmed in 1930 and first screened in 1931.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
The under-five mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants and children under five years old per 1000 live births.
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of countries by Total Primary Energy consumption and production.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
The following is a list of the islands of Brazil.
Brazil has a high level of urbanization: 82 out of every 100 Brazilians live in cities.
Production (and consumption) of agricultural plant commodities has a diverse geographical distribution.
This is a list of paid daily newspapers in the world by average circulation.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.
This is a list of the busiest airports in Latin America.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luzia Woman is the name for an Upper Paleolithic period skeleton of a Paleo-Indian woman who was found in a cave in Brazil.
The M41 Walker Bulldog, officially 76-mm Gun Tank, M41, was an American light tank developed for armed reconnaissance purposes.
Macaronesia is a collection of four archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the continents of Europe and Africa.
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.
The Madeira River (Rio Madeira) is a major waterway in South America, approximately long.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
The Malê revolt (Revolta dos Malês,,, also known as The Great Revolt) is perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Manuel da Costa Ataíde, better known as Mestre Ataíde (1762 to 1830), was a Brazilian painter, sculptor, gilder and teacher.
The Mantiqueira Mountains (Portuguese: Serra da Mantiqueira) are a mountain range in Southeastern Brazil, with parts in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.
Manuel Carneiro de Sousa Bandeira Filho (Recife, Pernambuco, April 19, 1886 – Rio de Janeiro, October 13, 1968) was a poet, literary critic, and translator.
Manuel Dias de Abreu (January 4, 1894 – January 30, 1962) was a Brazilian physician and scientist, the inventor of abreugraphy, a rapid radiography of the lungs for screening tuberculosis.
The Manueline (estilo manuelino), or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
The term maracatu denotes any of several performance genres found in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.
The Marajoara or Marajó culture was a pre-Columbian era society that flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River.
Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil.
Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Luís Carlos Martins Pena (November 5, 1815 – December 7, 1848) was a Brazilian playwright, famous for introducing to Brazil the "comedy of manners", winning the epithet of "the Brazilian Molière".
Massarosa is a city and comune in the province of Lucca, Tuscany, Italy.
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil.
Mário Schenberg (var. Mário Schönberg, Mario Schonberg, Mário Schoenberg; July 2, 1914 – November 10, 1990) was a Jewish Brazilian electrical engineer, physicist, art critic and writer.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician serving as the 37th and current President of Brazil.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
In Brazil, the Military Firefighters Corps (Port:Corpo de Bombeiros Militar) is a military organization with the mission of civil defense, firefighting, and search and rescue inside the States of the Federation.
Military Police (Polícia Militar,, also known as PM) are a type of preventive state police in every state of Brazil.
A military reserve, reserve formation, or simply reserve, is a group of military personnel or units which are initially not committed to a battle by their commander so that they are available to address unforeseen situations or exploit sudden opportunities.
Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are typically fixed wing and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to airlift troops, weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet, usually outside the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The French Artistic Mission in Brazil (Missão Artística Francesa) was a group of French artists and architects that came to Rio de Janeiro, then the capital city of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, in March 1816, under the auspices of the royal court of Portugal, which had been transferred to Brazil since 1808 due to Portugal's invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte.
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
The Modern Art Week (or Semana de Arte Moderna, in Portuguese) was an arts festival in São Paulo, Brazil, that ran from February 10 to February 17, 1922.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
Moqueca (or depending on the dialect, also spelled muqueca) is a Brazilian recipe based on salt water fish stew, tomatoes, onions, garlic and coriander.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
The various cultures collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
The municipalities of Brazil (Municípios do Brasil) are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Museu da Inconfidência or Museum of the Inconfidência is a history museum dedicated to those who died in a failed rebellion movement Inconfidência Mineira for Brazilian independence from Portugal.
The music of Brazil encompasses various regional musical styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis - ANP) is the federal government agency linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy responsible for the regulation of the oil sector.
The National Congress of Brazil (Congresso Nacional do Brasil) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.
The National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE) is a research unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, whose main goals are fostering scientific research and technological applications and qualifying personnel in the fields of space and atmospheric sciences, space engineering, and space technology.
The National Public Security Force (Força Nacional de Segurança Pública) was created in 2004 and with headquartered in Brasília, in the Federal District, as a joint cooperation of various Brazilian Public Safety forces, co-ordinated by the National Secretariat of Public Security (Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Pública - SENASP), of the Ministry of Justice.
The National Seal of Brazil is one of Brazil's national symbols, displayed on several official documents, such as graduation diplomas, consular and diplomatic papers, military conscription forms, etc.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nelson Pereira dos Santos (22 October 1928 21 April 2018) was a Brazilian film director.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
The Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation – NPSGlobal is a private, non-profit institution with the goal of reducing risks derived from proliferation and use of arms.
Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.
The North Region of Brazil (Região Norte do Brasil) is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory.
The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
O Estado de S. Paulo (The State of São Paulo), also known as O Estadão or simply Estadão, is a daily newspaper published in the Metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, and distributed mainly nationally.
O Globo (The Globe) is a Brazilian newspaper based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
O Quatrilho is a 1995 Brazilian drama film directed by Fábio Barreto.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America.
Operation Car Wash (Operação Lava Jato) is an ongoing criminal investigation being carried out by the Federal Police of Brazil, Curitiba Branch, and judicially commanded by Judge Sérgio Moro since March 17, 2014.
Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor,also known as Plan Cóndor, Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repression and state terror in Latin American countries involving intelligence operations and assassination of opponents, mainly civilians, originally planned by the CIA.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles, or with what the consequences are for others.
The political party that has the majority is called ruling party and all other parties or their members are called the Opposition.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Orange juice is the liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film.
Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (December 15, 1907 – December 5, 2012), known as Oscar Niemeyer, was a Brazilian architect considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture.
The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Portuguese Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, also known as FIOCRUZ) is a scientific institution for research and development in biological sciences located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, it is considered one of the world's main public health research institutions.
Our Lady of Aparecida (Nossa Senhora Aparecida or Nossa Senhora da Conceição Aparecida) a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the traditional form associated with the Immaculate Conception associated with a clay statue bearing the same title.
188px An enlargeable relief map of the Federative Republic of Brazil The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Brazil: Brazil – largest country in both South America and the Latin America region.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Paçoca is a candy made out of ground peanuts, sugar and salt.
Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a quilombo, a fugitive community of escaped slaves and others, in colonial Brazil that developed from 1605 until its suppression in 1694.
Pamonha is a traditional Brazilian food.
The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.
Panela or rapadura) is unrefined whole cane sugar, typical of Mexico, Central, and of Latin America in general, which is a solid form of sucrose derived from the boiling and evaporation of sugarcane juice. Panela is known by other names in Latin America, such as chancaca in Peru, piloncillo in Mexico (where "panela" refers to a type of cheese, queso panela). The name piloncillo means little loaf, because of the traditional shape in which this smoky, caramelly and earthy sugar is produced. It has far more flavor than brown sugar, which is generally just white sugar with a small amount of molasses added back to it. Just like brown sugar, there are two varieties of piloncillo; one is lighter (blanco) and one darker (oscuro). Unrefined, it is commonly used in Mexico, where it has been around for at least 500 years. Made from crushed sugar cane, the juice is collected, boiled and poured into molds, where it hardens into blocks. Panela is also known as rapadura in Portuguese. In Australia the locals have aptly named it "Uluru Dust" due to its brown colour, dusty texture and dirt-like taste. Elsewhere in the world, the word jaggery describes a similar foodstuff. Both of them are considered non-centrifugal cane sugars. Panela is sold in many forms, including liquid, granulated, and solid blocks, and is used in the canning of foods as well as in confectionery, soft drinks, baking, and vinegar- and wine-making.
The Pantanal is a natural region encompassing the world's largest tropical wetland area.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
The Brazilian Paratroopers Brigade is an airborne brigade of the Brazilian Army.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.
Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
In Brazil, Pardo is an ethnic/skin color category used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the Brazilian censuses.
Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina.
Pastel is the name given to different typical dishes of many countries of Hispanic or Portuguese origin.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Paubrasilia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Paulo César Saraceni (5 November 1933 – 14 April 2012) was a Brazilian film director and screenwriter.
Pão de queijo ("Cheese Bread" in Portuguese) or Brazilian cheese bread is a small, baked cheese roll, a popular snack and breakfast food in Brazil.
Pé de moleque (literally "boy's foot" in Portuguese) is a traditional candy from the Brazilian cuisine made of peanuts and jaggery or molasses.
Pêro Vaz de Caminha (c. 1450 – 15 December 1500;,; also spelled Pedro Vaz de Caminha) was a Portuguese knight that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral to India in 1500 as a secretary to the royal factory.
Peacebuilding is an intervention technique or method that is designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs) in the suborder Suina along with the Old World pigs, Suidae.
Pedro Américo de Figueiredo e Melo (29 April 1843 – 7 October 1905) was a Brazilian novelist, poet, scientist, art theorist, essayist, philosopher, politician and professor, but is best remembered as one of the most important academic painters of Brazil.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Pedro Leopoldo is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of Minas Gerais.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
The Pernambucan revolt of 1817 occurred in the province of Pernambuco in the Northeastern region of Brazil, and was sparked mainly by the decline of sugar production rates and the influence of the Freemasonry in the region.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Pico da Neblina (Mist Peak) is the highest mountain in Brazil, above sea level, in the Serra da Neblina, part of the Serra do Imeri, a section of the Guiana Highlands on the Brazil–Venezuela border.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
The Piquirí River (Rio Piquirí) is a river of Mato Grosso state in western Brazil.
The Plano Real ("Real Plan", in English) was a set of measures taken to stabilize the Brazilian economy in 1994, during the presidency of Itamar Franco.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
The Platine War (18 August 1851 – 3 February 1852) was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes.
Pluricontinentalism (Portuguese: Pluricontinentalismo) was a geopolitical concept, positing that Portugal was a transcontinental country and a unitary nation-state consisting of continental Portugal and its overseas provinces.
Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (Reserva Biológica Poço das Antas) is a biological reserve located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
Polenta is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
Polish Brazilians (polono-brasileiros) refers to Brazilians of full or partial Polish ancestry who are aware of such ancestry and remain connected, to some degree, to Polish culture, or Polish-born people permanently residing in Brazil.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Santos (in Portuguese: Porto de Santos) is located in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbor) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Porto Velho (Old Port) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Rondônia, in the upper Amazon River basin, and a Catholic Metropolitan Archbishopric.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
Portuguese Brazilians (luso-brasileiros) are Brazilian citizens whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Portugal.
Portuguese colonial architecture refers to the various styles of architecture that the Portuguese built across the Portuguese Empire.
The Portuguese conquest of French Guiana was an 1809 military operation against Cayenne, capital of the South American colony of French Guiana, in the scope of the Napoleonic Wars.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) is an international treaty whose purpose is to create a unified orthography for the Portuguese language, to be used by all the countries that have Portuguese as their official language.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be – or to have the potential to soon become – a superpower.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
The Praieira revolt, also known as the Beach rebellion, was a movement in the Pernambuco region of Brazil that lasted from 1848 to 1849.
The pre-salt layer is a diachronous series of geological formations on the continental shelves of extensional basins formed after the break-up of Gondwana, characterised by the deposition of thick layers of evaporites, mostly salt.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of the Chamber of Deputies is the speaker of the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil, elected by his peers for a two-year term.
The President of the Federal Senate, sometimes referred to as the President of the Senate, is elected from among their number by the members of the Brazilian Federal Senate.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Private healthcare or private medicine is healthcare and medicine provided by entities other than the government.
The Proclamation of the Republic (Proclamação da República do Brasil) was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic on 15 November 1889.
Protected areas of Brazil included various classes of area according to the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC), a formal, unified system for federal, state and municipal parks created in 2000.
Protestantism in Brazil began in the 19th century, and grew in the 20th century after restrictions against Protestants were abolished throughout Latin America.
Public float or free float represents the portion of shares of a corporation that are in the hands of public investors as opposed to locked-in stock held by promoters, company officers, controlling-interest investors, or government.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influence of Portuguese colonists,Jansen, Roberta.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
The Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Raso da Catarina is an ecoregion in the caatinga biome of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
The red-bellied piranha, also known as the red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri), is a species of piranha native to South America, found in the Amazon, Paraguay, Paraná and Essequibo basins, as well as coastal rivers of northeastern Brazil.
Rede Tupi (also known as TV Tupi or formally as Rádio Difusora São Paulo S.A.) was the first television network in South America.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Brazil is geopolitically divided into five regions (also called macroregions) by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE); each region is composed of three or more states.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Religion in Brazil is more diverse compared to other Latin American countries.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN) is located near Resende, state of Rio de Janeiro, comprising three units, and has a production capacity of 280 tons of uranium per year.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Brazilian Naval Revolts, or the Revoltas da Armada (in Portuguese), were armed mutinies promoted mainly by Admirals Custódio José de Melo and Saldanha Da Gama and their fleet of Brazilian Navy ships against the unconstitutional staying in power of the central government in Rio de Janeiro.
Ricardo do Pilar (1635–1700) was a Brazilian monk and painter.
Rice and beans or beans and rice is type of dish made from a combination of staple foods in many cultures around the world.
The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese: Carnaval do Rio de Janeiro) is a festival held every year before Lent and considered the biggest carnival in the world with two million people per day on the streets.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
The Festival do Rio is an international film festival in Rio de Janeiro.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
The Rio Negro (br; Río Negro "Black River") is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the largest blackwater river in the world (accounting for about 14% of the water in the Amazon basin), and one of the world's ten largest rivers by average discharge.
The Rio–São Paulo High-Speed Rail (Abbreviation: TAV RJ-SP) is a planned high-speed rail project to connect São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, spoken in parts of Brazil, is a Moselle Franconian variety derived primarily from the Hunsrückisch dialect of West Central German.
Father Roberto Landell de Moura (January 21, 1861 – June 30, 1928), commonly known as Roberto Landell, was a Brazilian Roman Catholic priest and inventor.
The Rocas Atoll (Atol das Rocas) is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Rodrigo Felinto Ibarra Epitácio Maia (born June 12, 1970) is a Brazilian politician who has been the President of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil since July 2016.
Roger Joseph Ebert (June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American film critic, historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television.
Russian Brazilians (Russo-brasileiros, Русские бразильцы Russkiye Brazil'tsy) are Brazilian citizens of full, partial, or predominantly Russian national background or descent, or Russian-born people residing in Brazil.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: "griffin") is a light single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab.
The Sabinada (1837–1838) was a revolt by military officer Francisco Sabino that occurred in Brazil's Bahia state between 6 November 1837 and 16 March 1838.
The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo) is a group of 15 small islets and rocks in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.
Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.
Santarém is a city and municipality in the western part of the state of Pará in Brazil.
Santos (Saints) is a municipality in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, founded in 1546 by the Portuguese nobleman Brás Cubas.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
The São Francisco River or Rio São Francisco is a river in Brazil.
São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Saint Gabriel of the Waterfall) is a municipality located on the northern shore of the Rio Negro River, in the region of Cabeça do Cachorro, Amazonas state, Brazil.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
The São Paulo International Film Festival (Mostra Internacional de Cinema de São Paulo), also known internationally as Mostra, is an annual film festival held in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
The São Paulo Metro (Metropolitano de São Paulo), commonly called the Metro or Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (CMSP), is one of the rapid transit companies that serves the city of São Paulo, alongside São Paulo Metropolitan Trains Company (CPTM) and ViaQuatro, forming the largest metropolitan rail transport network of Latin America.
São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport, often referred to as GRU Airport, or simply GRU, is the primary international airport serving São Paulo.
In the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university that is devoted to scholarship in the field of education, which is an interdisciplinary branch of the social sciences encompassing sociology, psychology, linguistics, economics, political science, public policy, history, and others, all applied to the topic of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Serra do Mar (Portuguese for Sea's ridge or Sea ridge) is a 1,500 km long system of mountain ranges and escarpments in Southeastern Brazil.
Serra dos Órgãos National Park (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos: "Organs Range") is a national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Seymour Drescher is an American historian and a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, known for his studies on Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery.
Sfiha (صفيحة sfīḥah), is a pie-like dish originating from the Levant.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
The Sistema Único de Saúde (Single Health System), better known by the acronym SUS, is Brazil's publicly funded health care system.
A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another.
Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.
Snow in Brazil occurs yearly in the high plains of the country's South Region, while it is considered a rare phenomenon elsewhere in the country.
A soap opera or soaper is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction presented in serial format on television, radio and in novels, featuring the lives of many characters and focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama.
The term social apartheid has been used to describe various aspects of economic inequality in Brazil by drawing a parallel with the South African apartheid regime.
Brazil ranks 49.3 in the Gini coefficient index, with the richest 10% of Brazilians receiving 42.7% of the nation's income, while the poorest 34% receive less than 1.2%.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
A naval arms race among Argentina, Brazil and Chile—the most powerful and wealthy countries in South America—began in the early twentieth century when the Brazilian government ordered three "dreadnoughts", formidable battleships whose capabilities far outstripped older vessels in the world's navies.
The South American jaguar is a population of the jaguar in South America.
The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.
The Southeast Region of Brazil (Região Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spanish Brazilians are Brazilians of full or partial Spanish ancestry.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
Spondias is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 Federative Units (Unidades Federativas, UF): 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal), where the federal capital, Brasília, is located.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories" or "...any distinctive, and therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made".
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal,, abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
Talian (or Brazilian Venetian,,, but) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.
The Tapajós (Rio Tapajós) is a river in Brazil.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).
A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk.
Tarsila do Amaral, (September 1, 1886 – January 17, 1973), known simply as Tarsila, is considered one of the leading Latin American modernist artists, described as "the Brazilian painter who best achieved Brazilian aspirations for nationalistic expression in a modern style."Lucie-Smith, Edward.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
The Brazilian telephone numbering plan uses a two-digit area code plus eight-digit local phone numbers for landlines and nine digits for mobile lines.
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Teresina is the capital and most populous municipality in the Brazilian state of Piauí.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organisation.
The Guarani: Brazilian Novel (O Guarani: Romance Brasileiro) is a 1857 Brazilian novel written by José de Alencar.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Theatro Municipal (Municipal Theatre) is an opera house in the Centro district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Municipal Theatre of São Paulo is a theatre in São Paulo, Brazil.
Thomas Elliot Skidmore (Troy, 22 July 1932 – 11 June 2016) was an American historian and scholar who specialized in Brazilian history.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
In use from 21 February 2016, to 16 October 2016.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (November 12, 1746 – April 21, 1792), known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty of Petrópolis, signed on November 11, 1903 in the Brazilian Imperial city of Petrópolis, near Rio de Janeiro, ended tensions between Bolivia and Brazil over the then-Bolivian territory of Acre (today the Acre state), a desirable territory during the contemporary rubber boom.
The Treaty of Rio de Janeiro is the treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Empire of Brazil, signed August 29, 1825, which recognized Brazil as an independent nation, formally ending Brazil’s war of independence.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
Trindade and Martin Vaz (Trindade e Martim Vaz) is an archipelago located in the Southern Atlantic Ocean about east of the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which it constitutes a part of.
TripAdvisor, Inc. is an American travel and restaurant website company providing hotel and restaurant reviews, accommodation bookings and other travel-related content.
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
The Tupinambá were one of the various Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited present-day Brazil before the conquest of the region by Portuguese colonial settlers.
Tupiniquim (also Tupinã-ki, Topinaquis, Tupinaquis, Tupinanquins, Tupiniquins) are an indigenous people of Brazil, who now live in three indigenous territories (Terras Indígenas in Portuguese).
TV Brasil Internacional is an international television station based in the city of the Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and also via Maputo in Mozambique.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Ubirajara is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil.
Ukrainian Brazilians (Ucraino-brasileiro, Ucraniano-brasileiro; Українські бразильці, Ukrayins'ki Brazyl'tsi) are Brazilian citizens born in Ukraine, or Brazilians of Ukrainian descent who remain connected, in some degree, to Ukrainian culture.
Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Campinas (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), commonly called Unicamp, is a public research university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
The University of Missouri (also, Mizzou, or MU) is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
The Uruguayan War (10 August 1864 – 20 February 1865) was fought between Uruguay's governing Blanco Party and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil and the Uruguayan Colorado Party, covertly supported by Argentina.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
UTC−02:00 is a time offset that subtracts 2 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−03:00 is a time offset that subtracts 3 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−04:00 is a time offset that subtracts 4 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−05:00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Vale S.A. is a Brazilian multinational corporation engaged in metals and mining and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil.
Vale Canada Limited (formerly Vale Inco, CVRD Inco and Inco Limited; for corporate branding purposes simply known as "Vale" and pronounced in English) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brazilian mining company Vale.
Vale tudo (anything goes) is an unarmed, full-contact combat sport with relatively few rules.
The Vargas Era (Portuguese: Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas.
Vatapá (Yoruba: vata'pa) is a Afro-Brazilian dish made from bread, shrimp, coconut milk, finely ground peanuts and palm oil mashed into a creamy paste.
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vice President of Brazil (Vice-presidente do Brasil), officially the Vice President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Vice Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil), or simply the Vice President of the Republic (Vice Presidente da República) is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of Brazil, preceded only by the president.
Vicente do Rego Monteiro (December 19, 1899 — June 5, 1970), born in Recife, was a Brazilian painter, sculptor, and poet, born to a rich family.
Victor Meirelles de Lima (18 August 1832, Florianópolis – 22 February 1903, Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian painter who is best known for his works relating to his nation's culture and history.
Marcus Vinicius da Cruz e Mello Moraes (19 October 1913 – 9 July 1980), also known as Vinícius de MoraesAccording to current Portuguese orthography, the name would be spelled Vinícius de Morais.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Vitória (Victory), spelled Victória until the 1940s, is the capital of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Walter Moreira Salles, Jr. (born 12 April 1956) is a Brazilian filmmaker and film producer of international prominence.
In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
The War of Independence of Brazil (also known as the Brazilian War of Independence) was waged between the newly independent Brazilian Empire and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820.
The War of the Emboabas ("newcomers′ war") was a conflict in colonial Brazil waged in 1706-1707 and 1708-1709 over newly discovered gold fields, which had set off a rush to the region.between two generations of Portuguese settlers in the viceroyalty of Brazil - then the Captaincy of São Vicente.
Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa (26 October 1869 – 4 August 1957) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 13th President of Brazil, the last of the First Brazilian Republic.
A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, water playgrounds, and lazy rivers, as well as areas for bathing, swimming, and other barefoot environments.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
White Brazilians (brasileiros brancos) refers to Brazilian citizens of European or Levantine descent.
The wildlife of Brazil comprises all naturally occurring animals, fungi and plants in the South American country.
The Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is a political party in Brazil.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xingu River (Rio Xingu) is a river in north Brazil.
Youth in Brazil includes Brazilians aged 15 to 24 or 29, depending on the definition of youth.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil.
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup.
The 1954 FIBA World Championship (also called the 2nd World Basketball Championship – 1954) was an international basketball tournament held by the International Basketball Federation in Ginásio do Maracanãzinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 23 to November 5, 1954.
The 1963 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Brazil.
The 4th Pan American Games were held from April 20 to May 5, 1963, in São Paulo, Brazil.
The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état (Golpe de estado no Brasil em 1964 or, more colloquially, Golpe de 64) was a series of events in Brazil from March 31 to April 1 that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by members of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup was the ninth FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 2007 Pan American Games, officially known as the XV Pan American Games, were a major continental multi-sport event that took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.
The 2013 protests in Brazil, or 2013 Confederations Cup riots, also known as the V for Vinegar Movement, Brazilian Spring, or June Journeys, were public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre (Free Fare Movement), a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.
Brazil is experiencing an economic crisis, which started in mid 2014 and ended in 2016.
The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
In 2015 and 2016, a series of protests in Brazil denounced corruption and the government of President Dilma Rousseff, triggered by revelations that numerous politicians, many from Brazil's Workers' Party, allegedly accepted bribes connected to contracts at state-owned energy company Petrobras between 2003 and 2010, while Rousseff chaired the company's board of directors.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The meridian 28° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Azores, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 34th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 6th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 6 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 74° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Barzil, Brasil, Brazil (country), Brazilian Federative Republic, Brazilian Republic, Brazl, Bresil, Brzil, Brésil, Federal Republic of Brazil, Federative Republic of Brazil, Federative republic of Brazil, ISO 3166-1:BR, Political system of Brazil, Republic of Brazil, Republica Federativa do Brasil, República Federativa do Brasil.