159 relations: Acetone, Acid–base homeostasis, Aerobic exercise, Agonal respiration, Altitude sickness, Ambient pressure, Ammonia, Analgesic, Anapanasati, Anatomical terms of location, Aortic body, Apnea, Argon, Asthma, Ataxic respiration, Atmosphere (unit), Atmospheric pressure, Bad breath, Bar (unit), Basal metabolic rate, Biot's respiration, Brainstem, Breath gas analysis, Breath test, Breathing gas, Breathing performance of regulators, Bucket handle movement, Buddhist meditation, Buteyko method, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carotid body, Cellular respiration, Central chemoreceptors, Central sleep apnea, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervical vertebrae, Chemoreceptor, Cheyne–Stokes respiration, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Circular breathing, Circulatory system, Clavicle, Cough reflex, Dead space (physiology), Decompression sickness, Diaphragmatic breathing, Diffusion, Diving cylinder, ..., Diving reflex, Diving regulator, Ethanol, Eupnea, Exercise, Exhalation, Extracellular fluid, Freediving, Functional residual capacity, Gas exchange, Gautama Buddha, Helium, Homeostasis, Human voice, Hydrogen, Hyperpnea, Hyperventilation, Hypopnea, Hypoventilation, Hypoxia (medical), Inhalation, Intercostal muscle, Kussmaul breathing, Labored breathing, Larynx, Latin, Laughter, Liquid breathing, List of diving hazards and precautions, Lung, Mammal, Mana, Meditation, Medulla oblongata, Methanol, Milieu intérieur, Mount Everest, Mouse, Mouth breathing, Mucous membrane of nose, Mucus, Muscles of respiration, Nasal cavity, Nasal concha, Nasal cycle, Nasal septum, Neon, Nephesh, Nitrogen, Nitrogen narcosis, Nitrogen washout, Nose, Nostril, Obstructive sleep apnea, Oxygen, Oxygen toxicity, Partial pressure, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Peripheral chemoreceptors, Perspiration, PH, Pharynx, Phrenic nerve, Pons, Prana, Pranayama, Pressure gradient, Psyche (psychology), Pulmonary alveolus, Pump handle movement, Qi, Reflex, Respiratory adaptation, Respiratory alkalosis, Respiratory center, Respiratory rate, Respiratory tract, Rhinomanometry, Rib cage, Shallow breathing, Shortness of breath, Singing, Sleep apnea, Sneeze, Snoring, Space suit, Speech, Spirit, Sternum, Stridor, Sweat gland, Swimming, Tai chi, Tanakh, Technical diving, Thermoregulation, Thoracic diaphragm, Underwater diving, Vapour pressure of water, Venturi effect, Vertebrate, Viscosity, Vital signs, Volatile organic compound, Water vapor, Wind instrument, Yawn, Yoga. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Agonal respiration, gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and myoclonus.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
The ambient pressure on an object is the pressure of the surrounding medium, such as a gas or liquid, in contact with the object.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ānāpānasati (Pali; Sanskrit ānāpānasmṛti), meaning "mindfulness of breathing" ("sati" means mindfulness; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation), is a form of Buddhist meditation originally taught by Gautama Buddha in several suttas including the Ānāpānasati Sutta.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The aortic body is one of several small clusters of peripheral chemoreceptors known as glomus cells, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Ataxic respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by complete irregularity of breathing, with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Breath gas analysis is a method for gaining non-invasive information on the clinical state of an individual by monitoring volatile organic compounds present in the exhaled breath.
A breath test is a type of test performed on air generated from the act of exhalation.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
A diving regulator is a device that reduces the high pressure in a diving cylinder to the same pressure as the scuba diver's surroundings.
Bucket-handle is a movement of ribs that results in change in transverse diameter of the thorax.
Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy.
The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises primarily as a treatment for asthma and other respiratory conditions.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.
Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Cheyne–Stokes respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Circular breathing is a technique used by players of some wind instruments to produce a continuous tone without interruption.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components.
In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
Diaphragmatic breathing, or deep breathing, is breathing that is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diving cylinder, scuba tank or diving tank is a gas cylinder used to store and transport the high pressure breathing gas required by a scuba set.
The diving reflex, also known as the diving response and mammalian diving reflex, is a set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes, and is found in all air-breathing vertebrates studied to date.
A diving regulator is a pressure regulator that reduces pressurized breathing gas to ambient pressure and delivers it to the diver.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In the mammalian respiratory system, eupnea or eupnoea is normal, good, unlabored breathing, sometimes known as quiet breathing or resting respiratory rate.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Freediving, free-diving, free diving, breath-hold diving, or skin diving is a form of underwater diving that relies on breath-holding until resurfacing rather than the use of breathing apparatus such as scuba gear.
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
hypopnoea is overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall.
Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.
Labored respiration or labored breathing is an abnormal respiration characterized by evidence of increased effort to breathe, including the use of accessory muscles of respiration, stridor, grunting, or nasal flaring.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.
Divers face specific physical and health risks when they go underwater with scuba or other diving equipment, or use high pressure breathing gas.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mana, in Austronesian languages, means "power", "effectiveness", and "prestige".
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organism.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Mouth breathing (also termed open-mouth breathing or a mouth breathing habit) is breathing through the mouth rather than the nose.
The nasal mucous membrane lines the nasal cavities, and is intimately adherent to the periosteum or perichondrium of the nasal conchae.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
The muscles of respiration are those muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity.
The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.
In anatomy, a nasal concha, plural conchae, also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals.
The nasal cycle is the often unnoticed alternating partial congestion and decongestion of the nasal cavities in humans and other animals.
The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Nephesh (nép̄eš) is a Biblical Hebrew word which occurs in the Hebrew Bible.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
Nitrogen washout (or Fowler's method) is a test for measuring anatomic dead space in the lung during a respiratory cycle, as well as some parameters related to the closure of airways.
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
In Hindu philosophy including yoga, Indian medicine, and martial arts, Prana (प्राण,; the Sanskrit word for "life force" or "vital principle") comprises all cosmic energies that permeate the Universe on all levels.
Prāṇāyāma (प्राणायाम) is a Sanskrit word alternatively translated as "extension of the prāṇa (breath or life force)" or "breath control." The word is composed from two Sanskrit words: prana meaning life force (noted particularly as the breath), and either ayama (to restrain or control the prana, implying a set of breathing techniques where the breath is intentionally altered in order to produce specific results) or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw out (as in extension of the life force).
In atmospheric science (meteorology, climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air, more generally of any fluid) is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure increases the most rapidly around a particular location.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Pump-handle is a movement of ribs that results in change in anteroposterior diameter of the thorax.
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Respiratory adaptation is the specific changes that the respiratory system undergoes in response to the demands of physical exertion.
Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Rhinomanometry is a form of manometry used in evaluation of the nasal cavity.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
Shallow breathing, or chest breathing is the drawing of minimal breath into the lungs, usually by drawing air into the chest area using the intercostal muscles rather than throughout the lungs via the diaphragm.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Stridor (Latin for "creaking or grating noise") is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Technical diving (also referred to as tec diving or tech diving) is scuba diving that exceeds the agency-specified limits of recreational diving for non-professional purposes.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
The vapour pressure of water is the pressure at which water vapour is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed state.
The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.
A yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath. Yawning (oscitation) most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality. It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, sleepiness, or even boredom and hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by others yawning (e.g. seeing a person yawning, talking to someone on the phone who is yawning) and is a typical example of positive feedback. This "contagious" yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles, and can occur across species. Approximately 20 psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by scholars, but there is little agreement on the primacy of any one. During a yawn, the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear contracts, creating a rumbling noise from within the head. Yawning is sometimes accompanied, both in humans and animals, by an instinctive act of stretching several parts of the body, including arms, neck, shoulders and back.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Alveolar ventilation, Breath, Breathing Mechanism, Breathing control, Breathing exercise, Breathing mechanism, Exhaled air, Expired Air, Expired air, Forced ventilation, Inhaling, Long breath, Long breathing, Lung ventilation, Nasal breathing, Normal breathing, Nose breathing, Pulmonary ventilation, Unbreathable, Ventilation (physiology).