77 relations: Absolute value, Acceleration, Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic units, Beta decay, Beta particle, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Characteristic X-ray, Cherenkov radiation, Conservation of energy, Continuous spectrum, Cyclotron radiation, Duane–Hunt law, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Euler–Mascheroni constant, Evanescent field, EXOSAT, Exponential integral, Fine-structure constant, Free-electron laser, Gamma ray, Gaunt factor, H II region, International Linear Collider, International X-ray Observatory, Intracluster medium, Kinetic energy, Kramers' law, Large Hadron Collider, Larmor formula, Lead, List of plasma physics articles, Lorentz factor, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Momentum, Neutrino, Nuclear fusion, Nucleon, Optical depth, Pair production, Photon, Physical constant, Picometre, ..., Planck constant, Plasma (physics), Plastic, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Positron, Radiation length, Radiation protection, Radiative cooling, Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, ROSAT, Speed of light, Steradian, Suzaku (satellite), Synchrotron, Synchrotron light source, Synchrotron radiation, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Thermal de Broglie wavelength, Virtual particle, Volt, Voltage, Water, Wavelength, Wood, X-ray generator, X-ray tube, XMM-Newton. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA, formerly named ASTRO-D) was the fourth cosmic X-ray astronomy mission by JAXA, and the second for which the United States provided part of the scientific payload.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic units (au or a.u.) form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.
Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.
The Duane–Hunt law, named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt, gives the maximum frequency of X-rays that can be emitted by Bremsstrahlung in an X-ray tube by accelerating electrons through an excitation voltage V into a metal target.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
The Euler–Mascheroni constant (also called Euler's constant) is a mathematical constant recurring in analysis and number theory, usually denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma.
In electromagnetics, an evanescent field, or evanescent wave, is an oscillating electric and/or magnetic field that does not propagate as an electromagnetic wave but whose energy is spatially concentrated in the vicinity of the source (oscillating charges and currents).
The European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT), originally named HELOS, was an X-ray telescope operational from May 1983 until April 1986 and in that time made 1780 observations in the X-ray band of most classes of astronomical object including active galactic nuclei, stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, clusters of galaxies, and supernova remnants.
In mathematics, the exponential integral Ei is a special function on the complex plane.
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Gaunt factor (or Kramers-Gaunt factor) is used as a multiplicative correction to the continuous absorption or emission results when calculated using classical physics techniques.
An H II region or HII region is a region of interstellar atomic hydrogen that is ionized.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a cancelled X-ray telescope that was to be launched in 2021 as a joint effort by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Kramers' law is a formula for the spectral distribution of X-rays produced by an electron hitting a solid target.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
The Larmor formula is used to calculate the total power radiated by a non relativistic point charge as it accelerates or decelerates.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
This is a list of plasma physics topics.
The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiative cooling is the process by which a body loses heat by thermal radiation.
Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI, originally High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager or HESSI) is a NASA solar flare observatory.
ROSAT (short for Röntgensatellit, in German X-rays are called Röntgenstrahlen, in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen) was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Suzaku (formerly ASTRO-EII) was an X-ray astronomy satellite developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science at JAXA to probe high energy X-ray sources, such as supernova explosions, black holes and galactic clusters.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation (EM) usually produced by a storage ring, for scientific and technical purposes.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.
In physics, the thermal de Broglie wavelength (\lambda_) is roughly the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket.
Braking radiation, Breaking radiation, Brehmsstrahlung, Brehmstrahlung, Brehmstralung, Bremsstrahlung Effect, Bremsstrahlung effect, Bremsstrahlung radiation, Bremsstralung, Bremstrahlung, Bremstralung radiation, Continuous x-ray, Free-free, Free-free absorption, Free-free emission, Free-free radiation, Free-free transition, Free–free transition, Thermal bremsstrahlung.