280 relations: Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, Amanda Craig, Amsterdam, Andrea Leadsom, Andy Haldane, Angela Merkel, Apportionment in the European Parliament, Arron Banks, Attorney General of Ireland, Australia, Baltic states, Bank of England, Banking union, Banksy, Barry Eichengreen, Belfast Telegraph, Berlin, Bernard Cazeneuve, Better Off Out, Black Wednesday, Boris Johnson, Brexit negotiations, Brexit: The Movie, Britain Stronger in Europe, Britannia, British people, Calais, Canada, CANZUK, CANZUK International, Carol Ann Duffy, Causes of the vote in favour of Brexit, Central European Time, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles de Gaulle, Chief Minister of Gibraltar, Citizenship of the European Union, Clacton (UK Parliament constituency), Clearing (finance), CNN, Coming into force, Common Commercial Policy (EU), Common external tariff, Common Fisheries Policy, Common law, Common Travel Area, Confidence and supply, Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 2016, Continuing United Kingdom relationship with the European Union, ..., Coordinated Universal Time, Council of the European Union, Creative industries, Customs, Cyberwarfare by Russia, Cyprus, Daily Mail, David Boyle (author), David Cameron, David Davis (British politician), Democratic Unionist Party, Department for Exiting the European Union, Department for International Trade, Deutsche Mark, Devil, Die Welt, Documentary film, Donald Tusk, Dover, Dutch withdrawal from the European Union, Economic and Social Research Council, Edward Heath, Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Emmanuel Macron, Enda Kenny, England, Erin O'Toole, EURACTIV, Euratom Treaty, Euro, Euronews, European Atomic Energy Community, European Banking Authority, European Coal and Steel Community, European Communities, European Communities Act 1972 (UK), European Council, European Court of Justice, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, European Exchange Rate Mechanism, European Investment Bank, European Medicines Agency, European Parliament election, 2004 (United Kingdom), European Parliament election, 2009 (United Kingdom), European Parliament election, 2014 (United Kingdom), European Research Area, European Single Market, European Union, European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017, European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, European Union Committee, European Union Customs Union, European Union law, European Union Referendum Act 2015, Europhile, Euroscepticism, Eurozone, Exclusive economic zone, Faust, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, First Minister of Scotland, Fisheries Convention, Flag of Europe, Foreign minister, François Hollande, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Freedom of movement, French legislative election, 2017, French presidential election, 2017, Frexit, General election, George Osborne, German federal election, 2017, Get Britain Out, Gianni Pittella, Gibraltar–Spain border, Good Friday Agreement, Government of the United Kingdom, Grassroots Out, Grayson Perry, Greece, Greek withdrawal from the eurozone, Guy Verhofstadt, Hauts-de-France, Henry VIII of England, House of Commons Library, Humble address, Inner Six, Institute for Fiscal Studies, Institute for Government, International Business Times, International reactions to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Ireland, Ireland–United Kingdom relations, Irish Free State, Islington, James Chapman (journalist), James Goldsmith, James Paterson (Australian politician), Jean-Claude Juncker, Jeremy Corbyn, Joe Bossano, John Armour, John Curtice, John Kerr, Baron Kerr of Kinlochard, John King (author), Jonathan Portes, Juxtaposed controls, Keir Starmer, KPMG, Labour In for Britain, Labour Party (UK), Labour Party (UK) leadership election, 2016, Lancaster House, Law of the United Kingdom, Leave.EU, Legislative Consent Motion, Liam Fox, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Party of Australia, London School of Economics, Lucinda Creighton, Maastricht Treaty, Martin Durkin (television director), Martin McGuinness, Mayor of London, Münchner Merkur, Meaningful vote, Membership of United Kingdom in the European Economic Area, Merger Treaty, Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury, Messina Conference, Michael Paraskos, Michel Barnier, Middle class, Moral hazard, Multi-speed Europe, Multiannual Financial Framework, National Assembly for Wales, New Statesman, New Zealand, Nick Clegg, Nicola Sturgeon, Nigel Farage, Northern Ireland Assembly, Oliver Wyman, Outer Hebrides, Oxford English Dictionary, Paris, Partition of Ireland, Paul Gallagher (barrister), Philip Hammond, Portmanteau, Pound sterling, President of France, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Pro-Europeanism, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum, Quango, R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, Referendum Party, Referendums related to the European Union, Renew Britain, Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, Rex Tillerson, Royal National Theatre, Russian interference in the 2016 Brexit referendum, Saudi Arabia, Scottish Government, Scottish Parliament, Second Thatcher ministry, Secret service, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Secretary of State for International Trade, Serpentine Galleries, Shetland, Simon Wren-Lewis, Single European Act, Single market, Sinn Féin, Stanley Johnson (writer), Stuart Rose, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Switzerland–European Union relations, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Guardian, The Liberal Politics Of Adolf Hitler, The Stationery Office, The Times, Theresa May, Thomas Cromwell, Tim Barrow, Time zone, Trade union, Treaty of Accession 1972, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Paris (1951), Treaty of Rome, UK Independence Party, UK Withdrawal from the European Union (Legal Continuity) (Scotland) Bill, United Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom general election, 1983, United Kingdom general election, 1997, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Kingdom general election, 2017, United Kingdom general election, December 1910, United Kingdom general election, October 1974, United Nations, United States Secretary of State, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, USA Today, Value-added tax, Vince Cable, Vote Leave, Voting in the Council of the European Union, Whitehall, Winter Fuel Payment, Withdrawal from the European Union, Withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities, World Trade Organization, Xavier Bertrand. 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The Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities (EC) – the collective term for the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) – took effect on 1 January 1973.
Amanda Craig (born 1959) is a British novelist, critic and journalist.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Andrea Jacqueline Leadsom (born 13 May 1963) is a British Conservative Party politician and Cabinet Minister who became Leader of the House of Commons on 11 June 2017, and a Cabinet Minister in July 2016.
Andrew G. "Andy" Haldane, FAcSS (born on 18 August 1967) is the chief economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
The apportionment of seats within the European Parliament to each member state of the European Union is set out by the EU treaties.
Arron Fraser Andrew Banks (born 22 March 1966) is a British businessman and political donor.
The Attorney General (An tArd-Aighne) is a constitutional officer who is the official adviser to the Government of Ireland in matters of law.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The banking union in the European Union is the transfer of responsibility for banking policy from the national to the EU level in several countries of the European Union, initiated in 2012 as a response to the Eurozone crisis.
Banksy is an anonymous England-based graffiti artist, political activist and film director.
Barry Julian Eichengreen (born 1952) is an American economist who holds the title of George C. Pardee and Helen N. Pardee Professor of Economics and Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1987.
The Belfast Telegraph is a daily newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland, by Independent News & Media.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernard Guy Georges Cazeneuve (born 2 June 1963) is a French politician and lawyer who served as Prime Minister of France from December 2016 to May 2017.
Better Off Out (BOO) is the name of a non-party campaign which called for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
The Brexit negotiations are the negotiations currently taking place between the United Kingdom and the European Union for the prospective withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, following the UK's referendum on EU membership in June 2016.
Brexit: The Movie is a 2016 British documentary film written and directed by Martin Durkin, advocating for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, commonly called Brexit (a portmanteau of British and exit).
Britain Stronger in Europe (formally The in Campaign Ltd.) was an advocacy group which unsuccessfully campaigned in favour of the United Kingdom continuing membership of the European Union in the 2016 British referendum.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
CANZUK refers to the personal union and the proposal for increased ties between the nations of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
CANZUK International, formerly known as The Commonwealth Freedom of Movement Organisation (commonly abbreviated as the "CFMO") is a non-profit international organisation which aims to achieve the free movement of citizens, free trade agreements and foreign policy cooperation between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom through intergovernmental action and the formation of a proposed personal union known as CANZUK.
Dame Carol Ann Duffy HonFBA HonFRSE (born 23 December 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright.
The result of the United Kingdom European Union Referendum of 2016 was a victory for the 'Leave' campaign, amassing a total of 51.9% of the vote.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the head of Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar who is elected by the Gibraltar Parliament, and formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Monarch.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
Clacton is a constituency in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament, represented since 2017 by Giles Watling of the Conservative Party.
In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect.
The European Union's (EU) Common Commercial Policy or EU Trade Policy is the policy whereby EU member states delegate authority to the European Commission to negotiate their external trade relations, with the aim of increasing trade amongst themselves and their bargaining power vis-à-vis the rest of the world.
A common external tariff must be introduced when a group of countries forms a customs union.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The 2016 Conservative Party leadership election occurred as a result of David Cameron's resignation as leader following the European Union membership referendum, in which the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU.
The United Kingdom's post-Brexit relationship with the remaining European Union members could take several forms.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
Cyberwarfare by Russia includes denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
David Courtney Boyle, born 1958, is a British author and journalist who writes mainly about history and new ideas in economics, money, business, and culture.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Michael Davis (born 23 December 1948) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union since 2016 and Member of Parliament (MP) for Haltemprice and Howden since the general election of 1997.
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Department for Exiting the European Union (DExEU) is the government department of the United Kingdom responsible for overseeing negotiations relating to the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union and establishing the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU.
The Department for International Trade (DIT) is a United Kingdom government department responsible for striking and extending trade agreements between the United Kingdom and non EU states (however the UK Government is not legally permitted to negotiate any trade deals with third party countries before it has exited the EU).
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Die Welt ("The World") is a German national daily newspaper, published as a broadsheet by Axel Springer SE.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
A hypotheticised Dutch withdrawal from the European Union, sometimes referred to as a "Nexit" (based on "Brexit", the common name for a British withdrawal from the European Union), is a proposal with limited support in the Netherlands.
The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) is one of the seven Research Councils in the United Kingdom.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
Enda Patrick Kenny (born 24 April 1951) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 2011 to 2017, Leader of Fine Gael from 2002 to 2017, Minister for Defence from May 2014 to July 2014 and 2016 to 2017, Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2011, Minister for Tourism and Trade from 1994 to 1997 and Minister of State for Youth Affairs from 1986 to 1987.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Erin Michael O'Toole, (born January 22, 1973) is a Canadian politician, who was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a by-election on November 26, 2012.
EURACTIV is a European media platform specialising in the online publication of articles focusing on European policymaking, founded in 1999 by Christophe Leclercq.
The Euratom Treaty, officially the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, established the European Atomic Energy Community.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is the European Union's nonprofit long-term lending institution established in 1958 under the Treaty of Rome.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Parliament election, 2004 was the United Kingdom's part of the wider European Parliament election, 2004 which was held between 10 and 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union.
The European Parliament election was the United Kingdom's component of the 2009 European Parliament election, the voting for which was held on Thursday 4 June 2009.
The United Kingdom's component of the 2014 European Parliament election was held on Thursday 22 May 2014, coinciding with the 2014 local elections in England and Northern Ireland.
The European Research Area (ERA) is a system of scientific research programs integrating the scientific resources of the European Union (EU).
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017 (c. 9) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to empower the Prime Minister to give to the Council of the European Union the formal notice – required by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union – for starting negotiations for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.
The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (c. 16) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that provides for repealing the European Communities Act 1972, and for Parliamentary approval of the withdrawal agreement being negotiated between the government and the European Community.
The European Union Committee is a select committee of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European Union Referendum Act 2015 (c. 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made legal provision for a non-binding referendum to be held in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Gibraltar, on whether it should remain a member state of the European Union or leave it.
A Europhile is a person who is fond of, admires, or loves European culture, society, history, food, etc.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
Faust is the protagonist of a classic German legend, based on the historical Johann Georg Faust (c. 1480–1540).
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the leader of the Scottish Government.
The Fisheries Convention or the London Fisheries Convention is an international agreement signed in London in relation to fishing rights across the coastal waters of Western Europe, in particular the fishing rights in the North Sea, in the Skagerrak, in the Kattegat and on the European Atlantic coast.
The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Legislative elections were held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (with different dates for voters overseas) to elect the 577 members of the 15th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic.
The 2017 French presidential election was held on 23 April and 7 May 2017.
"Frexit" is a portmanteau word for a hypothetical French withdrawal from the European Union.
A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.
George Gideon Oliver Osborne (born 23 May 1971) is a British Conservative Party politician, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Tatton from June 2001 until he stood down on 3 May 2017.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 24 September 2017 to elect the members of the 19th Bundestag.
Get Britain Out, formerly the Anti-Common Market League (ACML), is a British Eurosceptic organisation.
Giovanni Saverio Furio Pittella (born 19 November 1958) is an Italian politician who has served as Leader of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats Group since July 2014 and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Italy since June 1999.
The Gibraltar–Spain border is the international boundary between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and the Kingdom of Spain.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Grassroots Out (GO) was an organisation that campaigned in favour of EU withdrawal in the 2016 referendum on EU membership in the United Kingdom.
Grayson Perry (born 24 March 1960) is an English contemporary artist.
A Greek withdrawal from the eurozone is a hypothetical scenario in which Greece withdraws from the Eurozone, likely to allow for the country to deal with its government-debt crisis.
Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt (born 11 April 1953) is a Belgian politician who has served as the Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Belgium since 2009.
Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament.
In Westminster parliamentary procedure, a humble address is a communication from a house of parliament to the monarch.
The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
The Institute for Fiscal Studies is an economic research institute based in London, United Kingdom, which specialises in UK taxation and public policy.
The Institute for Government (IfG) is a UK independent think tank which aims to improve government effectiveness through research and analysis, it was founded as a charity in 2008.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum of 2016 are the reactions to the decision to leave the European Union by the United Kingdom.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Ireland–United Kingdom relations, also referred to as Irish–British relations, or Anglo-Irish relations, are the relations between the states of Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
Islington is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington.
James Chapman (born 1977) is a British public relations executive, a former UK Government adviser, and former political editor of the Daily Mail.
Sir James Michael Goldsmith (26 February 1933 – 18 July 1997), a member of the prominent Jewish Goldsmith family, was an Anglo-French financier, tycoonBillionaire: The Life and Times of Sir James Goldsmith by Ivan Fallon and politician.
James William Paterson (born 21 November 1987) is an Australian politician who has been a Senator for Victoria since 2016, representing the Liberal Party.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (born 26 May 1949).
Sir Joseph John Bossano KCMG (born 10 June 1939) is a Gibraltarian politician, and the former leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party.
John Hamish Armour, FBA (born 24 December 1971) is a British legal scholar.
Sir John Kevin Curtice, (born 10 December 1953) is a political scientist who is currently Professor of Politics at the University of Strathclyde and Senior Research Fellow at NatCen Social Research.
John Olav Kerr, Baron Kerr of Kinlochard (born 22 February 1942), is a former diplomat, now Deputy Chairman of Scottish Power and a crossbench member of the House of Lords.
John King is an English novelist who has written a number of books which, for the most part, deal in the more rebellious elements driving the country’s culture.
Jonathan Portes (born 18 April 1966) is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the School of Politics & Economics of King's College, London.
Juxtaposed controls (in bureaux à contrôles nationaux juxtaposés, or "BCNJ"; in kantoren waar de nationale controles van beide landen naast elkaar geschieden) are an arrangement between Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom whereby immigration checks on certain cross-Channel routes take place before boarding the train or ferry, rather than upon arrival after disembarkation.
Sir Keir Starmer (born 2 September 1962) is a barrister, a Labour Member of Parliament for Holborn and St Pancras and Shadow Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union.
KPMG is a professional service company and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
Labour In for Britain (or Labour In) was the Labour Party campaign to put forward a "progressive" case for Remain during the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The 2016 Labour Party leadership election was called when a challenge to Jeremy Corbyn as Leader of the Labour Party arose following criticism of his approach to the Remain campaign in the referendum on membership of the European Union and questions about his leadership of the party.
Lancaster House (previously known as York House and Stafford House) is a mansion in the St James's district in the West End of London.
The United Kingdom has three legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area.
Leave.EU is an organization that campaigned for Brexit in the June 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
A Legislative Consent Motion (also known as a Sewel motion in Scotland) is a motion passed by either the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, or Northern Ireland Assembly, in which it agrees that the Parliament of the United Kingdom may pass legislation on a devolved issue over which the devolved body has regular legislative authority.
Liam Fox (born 22 September 1961) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as Secretary of State for International Trade and President of the Board of Trade since 2016.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP).
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Lucinda Creighton (born 20 January 1980) is a former Irish politician and leader of the party she helped found, Renua Ireland.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Martin Richard Durkin (born 23 January 1962) is a television producer and director, particularly on Britain's Channel 4.
James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; 23 May 1950 – 21 March 2017) was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician who was the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from May 2007 to January 2017.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
The Münchner Merkur (literally "Munich Mercury") is a German Bavarian daily subscription newspaper, which is published from Monday to Saturday.
A meaningful vote is being debated in terms of the UK Parliament's input on the final exit deal negotiated with the European Union (EU) as described in Clause 9 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill.
After Brexit the UK could seek to continue to be a member the European Economic Area (EEA) as a member of EFTA.
The Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) was a European treaty which combined the three executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure.
Mervyn Allister King, Baron King of Lothbury, (born 30 March 1948) is a British economist and public servant who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2003 to 2013.
The Messina Conference of 1955 was a meeting of the the six member states of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
Michael Paraskos, FHEA, FRSA (born 1969) is a novelist, lecturer and writer on art, and is the son of the Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos.
Michel Bernard Barnier (born 9 January 1951) is a French politician serving as European Chief Negotiator for the United Kingdom Exiting the European Union since December 2016.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
In economics, moral hazard occurs when someone increases their exposure to risk when insured.
Multi-speed Europe or two-speed Europe (called also "variable geometry Europe" or "Core Europe" depending on the form it would take in practice) is the idea that different parts of the European Union should integrate at different levels and pace depending on the political situation in each individual country.
The Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) of the European Union, also called the financial perspective, is a seven-year framework regulating its annual budget.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2015 and as Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 2007 to 2015.
Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician who is the current First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP), in office since November 2014.
Nigel Paul Farage (While Farage himself pronounces it thus, he has stated that he does not mind if the alternative pronunciation of is used by others –, Newsnight (YouTube – UKIP webmaster's channel), 18 April 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2013. born 3 April 1964) is a British politician, broadcaster and political analyst who was the leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) from 2006 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2016.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
Oliver Wyman is an international management consulting firm with a large focus on banking and financial services.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
Paul Gallagher SC (born 20 March 1955) is an Irish barrister who served as the Attorney General of Ireland from 2007 to 2011.
Philip Anthony Hammond (born 4 December 1955) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Chancellor of the Exchequer since 13 July 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Runnymede and Weybridge since 1997.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Pro-Europeanism is a political position that favours European integration and membership of the European Union (EU).
The Scottish Government has proposed holding a second referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom (UK).
A quango or QUANGO (less often QuANGO or QANGO) is a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation.
R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union is a legal case decided by the United Kingdom Supreme Court on 24 January 2017, which ruled that the UK Government (the executive) may not initiate withdrawal from the European Union by formal notification to the Council of the European Union as prescribed by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union without an Act of the UK Parliament permitting the government to do so.
Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.
The Referendum Party was a Eurosceptic, single-issue political party that was active in the United Kingdom from 1994 to 1997.
This is a list of referendums related to the European Union, or referendums related to the European Communities, which were predecessors of the European Union.
Renew is a centrist pro-European political party in the United Kingdom.
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, also known as the Irish border, runs for Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999MFPP Working Paper No.
Rex Wayne Tillerson (born March 23, 1952) is an American former government official and former energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump.
The Royal National Theatre in London, commonly known as the National Theatre (NT) is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House.
Russian interference in the 2016 Brexit referendum concerns the evidence and ongoing investigation by the UK Electoral Commission, the UK Parliament's Culture Select Committee, and the US Senate, on alleged Russian interference in the "Brexit" poll of 23 June 2016.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government.
A secret service is a government agency, intelligence agency, or the activities of a government agency, concerned with the gathering of intelligence data.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, or informally Brexit Secretary, is the Secretary of State responsible for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, informally referred to as "Brexit".
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for International Trade (International Trade Secretary) is a cabinet ministerial position in the government of the United Kingdom.
The Serpentine Galleries are two contemporary art galleries in Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Central London.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Simon Wren-Lewis is a British economist.
The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Stanley Patrick Johnson (born 18 August 1940) is a British politician and author, and an expert on environmental and population issues.
Stuart Alan Ransom Rose, Baron Rose of Monewden (born 17 March 1949) is an English businessman and life peer, who was the executive chairman of the British retailer Marks & Spencer.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The relations between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) are framed by a series of bilateral treaties whereby the Swiss Confederation has adopted various provisions of European Union law in order to participate in the Union's single market, without joining as a member state.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Liberal Politics Of Adolf Hitler is a novel by the author John King, published in 2016.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Sir Timothy Earle Barrow (born 15 February 1964) is a British diplomat who is the current Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the European Union.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Treaty of Accession 1972 was the international agreement which provided for the accession of Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom to the European Communities.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
The UK Withdrawal from the European Union (Legal Continuity) (Scotland) Bill, colloquially known as the Continuity Bill is a pending legislation passed by the Scottish Parliament with a view to prepare the law of Scotland in view of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.
United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, also known as the Referendum on the European Community (Common Market), the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum took place on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Communities (EC)—often known at the time as the "European Community” and the "Common Market" which it had entered on 1 January 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983.
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The December 1910 United Kingdom general election was held from 3 to 19 December.
The October 1974 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 10 October 1974 to elect 635 members of the British House of Commons.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Sir John Vincent Cable (born 9 May 1943) is a British politician serving as Leader of the Liberal Democrats and Member of Parliament for Twickenham since 2017.
Vote Leave is an organisation that successfully campaigned for a "Leave" vote in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016.
The procedures for voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the European Union.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
The Winter Fuel Payment is a state benefit paid once per year in the United Kingdom to qualifying individuals.
Withdrawal from the European Union is the legal and political process whereby a member state of the European Union ceases to be a member of the union.
The withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities took place in 1985.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Xavier René Louis Bertrand (born 21 March 1965) is a French politician.
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