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Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
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Abolitionism in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United Kingdom, the British Empire and worldwide, including ending the Atlantic slave trade.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
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The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841.
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The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes falsely referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.
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Aden (عدن Yemeni pronunciation) is a seaport city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.
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Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Ακρωτήρι και Δεκέλεια,; Ağrotur ve Dikelya), officially the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.
The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Berber: Tagrawla Tadzayrit; الثورة الجزائرية Al-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.
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The All Red Line was an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked much of the British Empire.
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The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
An All-Red Route was, originally, a steamship route used by Royal Mail Ships during the heyday of the British Empire.
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The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.
The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.
The Anglo-American Loan Agreement was a post World War II loan made to the United Kingdom by the United States on 15 July 1946, and paid off in 2006.
The Anglo-Dutch Wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes.
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Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) referred to the manner by which Sudan was administered between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, but in practice the structure of the Condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt; it is officially (but seldom) known as The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Irish representatives that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
The first was signed in London at what is now the Lansdowne Club, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London).
Signed on August 31, 1907, in St. Petersburg, Russia, the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 brought shaky British-Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.
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Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
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Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served." Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Some Canadian soldiers, who had signed up for service with the United Kingdom, were among the British forces at Gallipoli.
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The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951 collective security agreement which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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The Asiento was the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell people as slaves to the Spanish colonies, between the years 1543 and 1834.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued on 14 August 1941, that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
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The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The Australia Act 1986 is the name given to a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf.
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The Balfour Declaration (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named for Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.
Barbados is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles.
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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
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The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Plassey (Bengali: পলাশীর যুদ্ধ, Pôlashir Juddho) was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
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The of 8–9 February 1904 (Monday February 8 - Tuesday February 9) marked the commencement of the Russo-Japanese War.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement fought primarily as part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Belgian colonial empire (Empire colonial belge; Belgische koloniale rijk) comprised three colonies controlled by Belgium between 1885 and 1962: Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), Ruanda-Urundi and a concession in China.
Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central America.
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The Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute is an unresolved binational territorial dispute between the states of Belize and Guatemala, neighbours in Central America.
Bengal (বাংলা /baŋla/ or বঙ্গ Bônggo /bɔŋɡo/) is a geographical and ethno-linguistic region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.
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Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British Conservative politician and writer, who twice served as Prime Minister.
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The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
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Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as, fully, "the Bermudas or Somers Isles", is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of North America.
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Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans word for farmer, which came to denote the descendants of the Dutch-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th century, as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Orange Free State, Transvaal (which are together known as the Boer Republics), and to a lesser extent Natal.
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The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were fiercely independent, Protestant, self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Province and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.
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Botany, also called plant science(s) or plant biology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
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Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, south of the Sydney central business district.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
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Bristol is a city, unitary authority and county in South West England with an estimated population of 442,500 in 2015.
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English America, and later British America, refers to the English, and later British territories in the Americas (including Bermuda), Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
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The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories and is the largest.
The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.
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British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa.
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British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland before the Acts of Union, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire Exhibition was a colonial exhibition held at Wembley, Middlesex in 1924 and 1925.
The British Empire has often been portrayed in fiction.
British Guiana (also spelled Guyana) was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, since 1966 known as the independent nation of Guyana.
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British Honduras was the name of a territory on the east coast of Central America, south of Mexico, after it became a British crown colony in 1862.
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The Indian Army was the principal army of India before independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.
The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.
The British Nationality Act 1981 was an Act of Parliament passed by the parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality.
The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.
The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
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The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
The Virgin Islands, commonly referred to as the British Virgin Islands (or BVI), is a British overseas territory located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
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Bunce Island (also spelled "Bence," "Bense," or "Bance" at different periods) is the site of an 18th-century British slave castle, or trading site, located in the Sierra Leone River in the present-day Republic of Sierra Leone in West Africa.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was passed at the request of the Canadian federal government to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the country to request certain types of amendment to the Constitution of Canada to be made by the British parliament.
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The Cape of Good Hope, colloquially also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa and Namibia, named for the Cape of Good Hope.
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The Cape to Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail.
Cape Town (Kaapstad; Ikapa) ranks third among the most populous urban areas in South Africa, after Johannesburg, and has roughly the same population as the Durban Metropolitan Area.
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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century on the Indian subcontinent.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Cayman Islands are a British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
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Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British imperialist, businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa.
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The Chanak Crisis, also called the Chanak Affair and the Chanak Incident, was a war scare in September 1922 between Britain and Republic of Turkey.
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Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles II (Carlos II) (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700) was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II.
The East India Company Act 1813, also known as the Charter Act of 1813, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company, and continued the Company's rule in India.
Chauri Chaura Shahid Samarak The Chauri Chaura incident occurred at Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province, British India on 5 February 1922, when a large group of protesters participating in the Non-cooperation movement turned violent, leading to police opening fire.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo; Cristóbal Colón; Cristóvão Colombo; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, Genoa; died 20 May 1506, Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest or civil strife, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe unrest caused by a group of people.
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Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
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A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
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Colonial war is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
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Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.
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The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original English Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America.
The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia or Most Ancient Colloney and Dominion of Virginia) was the first English colony in the world.
Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is one of 16 sovereign states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, have Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning constitutional monarch, and have in common the same royal line of succession.
The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies, also called the Scottish Darien Company, was an overseas trading company created by an act of the Parliament of Scotland in 1695.
The British South Africa Company's administration of what became Rhodesia was chartered in 1889 by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and began with the Pioneer Column's march north-east to Mashonaland in 1890.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which two or more sovereign powers formally agree to share equally dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it up into 'national' zones.
The Congo River (also known as the Zaire River) is a river in Africa.
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Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitution.
The Constitution Act, 1867 (originally enacted as The British North America Act, 1867, and referred to as the BNA Act), is a major part of Canada's Constitution.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of Ireland.
The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent (particularly by Britons, Azores and Madeira Portuguese, Balearic and Canary Spaniards, Icelanders and other European island nations, and peninsular Scandinavians), is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding the islands of Europe.
The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease and unequal treaty signed between Qing China and the United Kingdom in 1898.
The Convention of Constantinople was a treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on October 29, 1888.
Between 1788 and 1868, approximately 162,000 convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government.
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.
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The Crimean Peninsula (Кры́мский полуо́стров, Кри́мський піво́стрів, Къырым ярымадасы), also known simply as Crimea (Крым, Крим, Къырым), is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by water.
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The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
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A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire.
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The Crown Colony of North Borneo was a British Crown colony established in 1946 shortly after the dissolution of British Military Administration.
The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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The Darien Scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called "Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s.
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David Crystal, OBE, FBA, FLSW (born 6 July 1941) is a British linguist, academic and author.
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David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British Liberal politician and statesman.
Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland) was the revolutionary, unicameral parliament of the Irish Republic from 1919 to 1922.
Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
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Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917) is a retired British Labour politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979.
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A dependent territory, dependent area, dependency or autonomous territory is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside of the controlling state's integral area.
Diplomacy (from the Greek δίπλωμα, meaning making a deal with other countries) is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.
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Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
The United East Indian Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.
The Dutch Empire (Nederlands-koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and, later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th century to the mid-1950s.
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The Dutch Republic, also known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën), was a republic in Europe existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule, until 1795.
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Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (pronounced,; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961, and the last U.S. President to have been born in the 19th century.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.
The phrase East of Suez is used in British military and political discussions in reference to interests beyond the European theatre, and east of Suez Canal—most notably its military base in Singapore—and may or may not include the Middle East.
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The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Egyptian revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, began on 23 July 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.
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Emancipation is any of various efforts to procuring economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally in discussion of such matters.
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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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English law means the legal system of England and Wales.
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The English overseas possessions comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonized, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union between England and the Kingdom of Scotland.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France, marking the start of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
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EOKA was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece.
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The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
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The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands (and, the following day, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentinian territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and favour British sovereignty. Neither state, however, officially declared war (both sides did declare the Islands areas a war zone and officially recognised that a state of war existed between them) and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie. The conflict has had a strong impact in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, where it remains a continued topic for discussion. Relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two countries' governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution.
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Famine had been a recurrent feature of life in the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and reached its numerically deadliest peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
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The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898.
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The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Fiji (Viti; फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी Ripablik ăph Phījī), is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
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The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Auckland's Folly) was fought between the British East India Company and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.
The First French Empire (Empire Français), also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Opium War (1839–42), also known as the Opium War and as the Anglo-Chinese War, was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Empire over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals.
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The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS ''Endeavour'', from 1768 to 1771.
During the time of the British Empire the dominions, many of the colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories carried their own flags, mostly under the blue ensign, although some territories and colonies did also use other ensigns for their flags.
The diplomatic foreign relations of the United Kingdom are implemented by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again), Fort William Henry, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan that was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626 until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.
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During the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence; 1775–1783), France recognized and allied itself with the United States in 1778, declared war on Great Britain, and sent its armies and navy to fight Britain while providing money and matériel to arm the new republic.
Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral (– 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era.
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (his own pronunciation, or) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.
Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
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French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are a major North American ethnic group of Canadian citizens who trace their French ancestry from the descendants of colonists from France who arrived in New France (Canada) in the 17th and 18th centuries.
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The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was De Faye, who was adjoined two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Ispahan, Persia.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane française), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America.
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French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony on the Indian subcontinent.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
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The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.
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The Ghadar Mutiny (Hindustani: ग़दर राज्य-क्रान्ति, غدر ریاست - کرانتی Ġadara Rājya-krānti), also known as the Ghadar Conspiracy, was a plan to initiate a pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army in February 1915 to end the British Raj in India.
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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
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The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England, VII of Scotland and II of Ireland by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa that became the independent nation of Ghana in 1957.
A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled.
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Government House is the name given to some of the residences of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the British Empire.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
The Government of India Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of Ireland Bill 1886, commonly known as the First Home Rule Bill, was the first major attempt made by a British government to enact a law creating home rule for part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Bill 1893 (known generally as the Second Home Rule Bill) was the second attempt made by William Ewart Gladstone, as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, to enact a system of home rule for Ireland.
The Governor-General of India or the Viceroy and Governor-General of India (commonly shortened to Viceroy of India), from 1858 to 1947, was originally the titular and executive head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian monarch and head of state.
Gozo (Għawdex) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
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The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.
The Great Trek (Die Groot Trek; De Grote Trek) was an eastward and north-eastward emigration away from British control in the Cape Colony during the 1830s and 1840s by Boers (Dutch/Afrikaans for "farmers").
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Grenada (La Grenade) is an island country consisting of Grenada itself and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea.
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Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department, located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
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Guangzhou (Mandarin 廣州 Guǎngzhōu, also known as Canton, and less commonly as Kwangchow)"".
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Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
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Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
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Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative politician and statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 January 1957 to 18 October 1963.
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James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 191624 May 1995) was a British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England, ruled the Principality of Wales (until 29 November 1489) and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to study the history of the British Empire.
The history of capitalism can be traced back to early forms of merchant capitalism practiced in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The history of slavery spans nearly every culture, nationality and religion, and from ancient times to the present day.
India has a rich maritime history dating back 5,000 years.
The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Home rule is the power of a constituent part (administrative division) of a state to exercise such of the state's powers of governance within its own administrative area that have been decentralized to it by the central government.
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The handover ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997 officially marked the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China.
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
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The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson), commonly referred to as "The Bay" ("La Baie" in French), is a Canadian retail business group.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. 1539 – 9 September 1583) of Devon in England was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh (they had the same mother, Catherine Champernowne), and cousin of Sir Richard Grenville.
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Hussein bin Ali, GCB (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 18544 June 1931) was the Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself King of the Hejaz.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) comprises the countries in the Americas that are former colonies of Portugal and Spain.
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Imperial Conferences (Colonial Conferences before 1907) were periodic gatherings of government leaders from the self-governing colonies and dominions of the British Empire between 1887 and 1937, before the establishment of regular Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in 1944.
The Imperial German Navy was the Imperial Navy – the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
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The Imperial War Cabinet was the British Empire's wartime coordinating body.
Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
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Impressment, colloquially, "the press" or the "press gang", refers to the act of taking men into a navy by force and with or without notice.
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The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to June 1858.
The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term that has been used to describe the lands of South and South East Asia,Oxford Dictionary of English 2e, Oxford University Press, 2003, East Indies/East India occupying all of the present India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, most of Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Brunei, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, and Malaysia.
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Indirect rule is a system of governance used by the British and French to control parts of their colonial empires, particularly in Africa and Asia, through pre-existing local power structures.
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Informal Empire describes the spheres of influence which an empire may develop that translate into a degree of influence over a region or country, which is not a formal colony in the empire, as a result of the extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire.
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International relations (IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science or an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was the state established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed by British and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand.
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The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.
The Irish Home Rule movement was a political movement which sought to achieve home rule for Ireland and reduce the political control of the British state over the island.
Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
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The Republic of Ireland has been neutral in international relations since the 1930s.
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The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is any of several armed movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
An Islamic state (الدولة الإسلامية) is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is the enforcement of shari'a, dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
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Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.
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The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
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The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when a crowd of nonviolent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab were fired upon by troops of the British Indian Army under the command of General Reginald Dyer.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, comprising the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles.
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Captain James Cook, FRS, RN (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
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James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.
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The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Located directly east of the Korle Lagoon, Jamestown and Usshertown are the oldest districts in the city of Accra, Ghana and emerged as communities around the 17th century British James Fort and Ussher Fort on the Gulf of Guinea coast.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ) is an island of Indonesia.
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Jebel Akhdar War.
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Jewish insurgency in Palestine refers to a violent campaign carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine between 1944 and 1947.
In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracized by various local authorities and have sought asylum from antisemitism numerous times.
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John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto, Zuan Chabotto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European exploration of the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings' visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
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John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, imperialist and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy.
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Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was an English naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder, privateer and slave trader.
John Smith (c. January 1580 – 21 June 1631), Admiral of New England, was an English soldier, explorer, and author.
A joint-stock company is a business entity where different stocks can be bought and owned by shareholders.
Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
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The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom.
Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.
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The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".
The Kingdom of Scotland (Kinrick o Scotland; Rìoghachd na h-Alba) was a state in north-west Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.
, the largest Japanese publisher, produces the manga magazines Nakayoshi, Afternoon, Evening, and Weekly Shonen Magazine, as well as more literary magazines such as Gunzō, Shūkan Gendai, and the Japanese dictionary Nihongo Daijiten. The company has its headquarters in Bunkyō, Tokyo.
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Kunta Kinteh Island, formerly James Island, is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffureh in the country of the Gambia.
Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan; Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia.
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The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
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The negotiations which led to the Lancaster House Agreement brought recognised independence to Rhodesia following Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965.
The United Kingdom has three legal systems.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League.
In finance, leverage (sometimes referred to as gearing in the United Kingdom and Australia) is any technique to multiply gains and losses.
This is a list of topics related to the British Empire.
The monarchy of the Kingdom of England began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707.
The monarchs of France ruled from the establishment of Francia in 486 to 1870.
This is a list of islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups.
Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England, on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The London and Bristol Company came about in the early 17th century when English merchants had begun to express an interest in the Newfoundland fishery.
The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
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Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; by 1879, La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
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Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War.
The Mahdist War (1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century, which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese, of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, the Mahdi (the “Guided One”), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
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Malacca (Melaka), dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia and located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Straits of Malacca.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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The Malay Archipelago (Kepulauan Melayu, Kepulauan Melayu or Nusantara) is the archipelago between mainland Southeast Asia and Australia.
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The Malayan Campaign was fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
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The Malayan Emergency (Darurat) was a Malayan guerrilla war fought between Commonwealth armed forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), from 1948–60.
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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.
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The Maldives (or;, officially the Republic of Maldives; ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya) is a sovereign island country and archipelago in the Indian Ocean.
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Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Malta Protectorate was the political term for Malta because it was officially part of the Kingdom of Sicily, while under British protection.
A referendum on integration with the United Kingdom was held in Malta on 11 and 12 February 1956.
The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was created in 1921 following the 1920 Iraqi Revolt against the proposed British Mandate of Mesopotamia, and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
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Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael" (Land of Israel)) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (Roberts, 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
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The Mau Mau Uprising, also known as the Mau Mau Revolt, Mau Mau Rebellion or Kenya Emergency, was a military conflict that took place in British Kenya between 1952 and 1960.
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Mauritius (Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
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The Māori (Eng. pron.; N.Z. Eng.) are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
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A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Mercantilism was an economic theory and practice, dominant in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century, that promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.
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The metropole (from the Greek metropolis for "mother city") is the British metropolitan centre of the British Empire; i.e., the United Kingdom itself.
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Michael Jonathan Braddick, FBA, FRHistS (born 29 August 1962) is a British historian and academic specialising in Early modern Britain.
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The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
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Military aid is aid which is used to assist a country or its people in its defense efforts, or to assist a poor country in maintaining control over its own territory.
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A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
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A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a nation to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.
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Minorca or Menorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
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A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development.
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Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World War II and the Korean War.
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Antigua and Barbuda is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch since 1 November 1981.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign.
The monarchy of Belize (the Belizean monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Belize; the incumbent is Queen Elizabeth II, officially called Queen of Belize, who has reigned since 21 September 1981.
The monarchy of Canada is the core of both Canada's federalism and its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the federal and each provincial government.
The monarchy of Grenada (the Grenadian monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Grenada.
The Monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Jamaica, forming the core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
The monarchy of New Zealand—also referred to as the Crown in Right of New Zealand, Her Majesty in Right of New Zealand, or the Queen in Right of New Zealand—is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand, forming the core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
The monarchy of Papua New Guinea is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Papua New Guinea.
The Monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis (the Kittitian and Nevisian monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
The monarchy of Saint Lucia (the Saint Lucian monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary, constitutional monarch is the sovereign of Saint Lucia.
The monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, forming the core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The monarchy of Solomon Islands is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Solomon Islands.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.
The monarchy of Tuvalu (the Tuvaluan monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Tuvalu.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island—specifically in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the British West Indies.
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Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
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The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.
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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.
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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), and formerly German South-West Africa and then South West Africa, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the only President (1848–52) of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor (1852–70) of the Second French Empire.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.
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Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the Central Pacific.
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Navigation Acts were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between Britain and its colonies.
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Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Nevis is a small island in the Caribbean Sea that forms part of the inner arc of the Leeward Islands chain of the West Indies.
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New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick;, Quebec French pronunciation) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province constitutionally bilingual (English–French).
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New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763.
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New Holland is a historical European name for mainland Australia.
The New Kingdom of Granada (Nuevo Reino de Granada) was the name given to a group of 16th-century Spanish colonial provinces in northern South America governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama and parts of Peru.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colonial province of the Seven United Netherlands that was located on the East Coast of North America.
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New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
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New Territories (Hakka: Sin1 Gai4) is a peninsula that constitutes one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.
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The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
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The New Zealand Company originated in London in 1837 as the New Zealand Association with the aim of promoting the systematic colonisation of New Zealand.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve, Taqamkuk) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a major war of the late 17th century fought between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder-King William III, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
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"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1750s and 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
The non-cooperation movement was significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule.
A Non-Resident Indian (NRI) is a citizen of India who holds an Indian passport and has temporarily emigrated to another country for six months or more for employment, residence, education or any other purpose.
The Norman (or Anglo-Norman) invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century.
North Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States.
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The North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the slightly larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait.
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Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann.; or Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.
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Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland", pronounced in English as) (French: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and constitutes one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces.
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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Operation Vantage was a British military operation in 1961 to support the newly independent state of Kuwait against territorial claims by its neighbour, Iraq.
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Opium (poppy tears, lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
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The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, and later a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.
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The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is the "order of chivalry of British democracy", rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations and public service outside the Civil Service.
The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Papua New Guinea (PNG;; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
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The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947.
Patriation was the political process that led to Canadian sovereignty, culminating in 1982.
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Patriotism is, generally speaking, emotional attachment to a nation which an individual recognizes as their homeland.
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Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace in Europe and the world (1815–1914) during which the British Empire became the global hegemon (dominant power) and adopted the role of global policeman.
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The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general populace by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.
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Transportation or penal transportation is the sending of convicted criminals or other persons regarded as undesirable to a penal colony.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746.
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A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
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The East India Company Act 1784, also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India under the control of the British Government.
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A plantation is a large piece of land (or water) usually in a tropical or semitropical area where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale and usually tended by resident laborers.
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Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from England (particularly the Border Counties) and the Scottish Lowlands.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth, or Plymouth Bay Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
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A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group.
The politics of Egypt is based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system of government.
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The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português), was the first global empire in history.
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The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
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Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
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A privateer (sometimes called corsair or buccaneer) was a private person or ship authorized by a government by letters of marque to attack foreign vessels during wartime.
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A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and services produced domestically.
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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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The United Province of Canada, or Province of Canada, or the United Canadas was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
The Province of Carolina was an English and later a British colony of North America.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, "five rivers" (Punjabi: (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi), Hindi: पंजाब (Devanagari)), is a geographical region in the Indian subcontinent or South Asia comprising vast areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
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The Puritans were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
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The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Qacarlar) was a PersianizedAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3 royal family of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
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The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
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Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is a French island located in the Indian Ocean.
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The Regulating Act of 1773 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to overhaul the management of the East India Company's rule in India.
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as the Durham Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Ontario, Canada and the British Empire.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Rhodesia, commonly known from 1970 onwards as the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territorial terms to modern Zimbabwe.
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Rhodesia is a historical region in southern Africa whose formal boundaries evolved between the 1890s and 1980.
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The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (latterly Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).
Richard Hakluyt (or; 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer.
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The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively.
The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of the subjects of the monarch of England.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, established on Roanoke Island, in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina, United States, was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement.
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Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, KB MP FRS (29 September 1725 – 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and soldier of fortune who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
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Rockall is an uninhabited remote granite islet of the United Kingdom in the North Atlantic Ocean situated at the following rough distances from the closest large islands: 430 km (270 miles) north-west of Ireland, 460 km (290 miles) west of Great Britain and 700 km (440 miles) south of Iceland.
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The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919 popularly known as the Rowlatt Act was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.
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The Royal African Company was a mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
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The Royal Indian Navy revolt (also called the Royal Indian Navy mutiny or Bombay mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 18 February 1946.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.
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Rugby football is a style of football that developed at Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire and was one of many versions of football played at English public schools during the 19th century.
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Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America, consisting the Hudson Bay drainage basin, which was nominally owned by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870, although numerous aboriginal groups lived in the same territory and disputed the sovereignty of the area.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian military.
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The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian and Persian Empires.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.
Saint Helena is a tropical island of volcanic origin in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and west of the southern coast of Africa.
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The Saint John River (Rivière Saint-Jean) is a river, approximately long, located principally in the Canadian province of New Brunswick but also in and arising from the province of Quebec and the U.S. state of Maine.
Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies.
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The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
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Samoa (Sāmoa), officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa), formerly known as Western Samoa, is an Oceanian country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
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The political term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
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The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The "Scramble for Africa" was the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Sea Venture was a seventeenth-century English sailing ship that wrecked in Bermuda.
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The Second Boer War (Tweede Boerenoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, literally "Second Freedom War") otherwise known as the Second Anglo-Boer War, was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.
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Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers are able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
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Settler colonialism is a form of colonial formation whereby foreign people move into a region.
The Seven Years' War was fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.
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Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago in the Indian Ocean.
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The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown or the German Battle, ending on October 19, 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
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Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the ''Lion City'', the ''Garden City'', and the ''Red Dot'', is a leading global city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
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Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
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The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by Prime Ministers Zhao Ziyang of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom (UK) on behalf of their respective governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing.
47 Geo 3 Sess 1 c 36, sometimes called the Slave Trade Act, the Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade".
Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (citation 3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire (with the exceptions "of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company," the "Island of Ceylon," and "the Island of Saint Helena"; the exceptions were eliminated in 1843).
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
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The Somers Isles Company (fully, The London Company of The Somers Isles or the Company of The Somers Isles) was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles, also known as Bermuda, as a commercial venture.
The Sotho people (Basotho or Basuto) are a Bantu ethnic group whose ancestors have lived in southern Africa since around the fifth century.
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The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British overseas territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
The South Island or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, equivalent in territorial terms to modern Zimbabwe.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.
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The Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China (SAR; RAE) are autonomous territories that fall within the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China, yet do not form part of Mainland China (except for Wolong SAR).
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
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Splendid isolation is the foreign policy pursued by Great Britain during the late 19th century, especially under the Conservative Party premierships of Benjamin Disraeli and the Marquess of Salisbury.
Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.
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The Statute of Westminster, 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and separate versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly by subsequent laws in former Commonwealth realms.
A steamboat is a boat in which the primary method of marine propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.
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Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.
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The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
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The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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Suriname (or, also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
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The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France, with the assent of Russia, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in the Middle East should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The negotiation of the treaty occurred between November 1915 and March 1916.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state from 1961 to 1964.
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Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε tele, "at a distance" and γράφειν graphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual/symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an island country of the Lucayan Archipelago consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets in the Atlantic Ocean; north of Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic); northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands; southeast of the U.S. state of Florida and east of the Florida Keys.
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The Emergency (Ré na Práinne / An Éigeandáil) was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War.
The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" has been used with variations to describe certain global empires that were so extensive that there was always at least one part of their territory that was in daylight.
"The Great Game" was the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
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The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia is a historical book by Peter Hopkirk.
The History of England from the Accession of James the Second (1848) is the full title of the five-volume work by Lord Macaulay (1800–1859) more generally known as The History of England.
The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.
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An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Thirteen Colonies, as of 1775, were British colonies on the east coast of North America which had been founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1732 (Georgia), stretching from New England to the northern border of the Floridas (British East and West Florida).
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Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
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Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
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A trading post was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
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Transatlantic crossings are passages of passengers and cargo across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas and Europe or Africa.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in China, took place on 1 July 1997.
The Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814 in the city of Ghent, was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain.
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The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of London, signed on 18 August O.S. (28 August N.S.) 1604, concluded the nineteen-year Anglo-Spanish War.
The Treaty of Nanking, formally called the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Emperor of China, was signed on the 29August 1842 to mark the end of the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing dynasty of China.
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The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Union is the name given to the agreement that led to the creation of Great Britain, the political union of the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland, which took effect on 1 May 1707.
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The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
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The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and various Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
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Trinidad (Spanish: "Trinity") is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago.
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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan) is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
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The Turks and Caicos Islands (and / /), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago, north of the larger Antilles island grouping.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia.
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The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922.
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
In Ireland, unionism is an ideology which favours the continuation of some form of political union between Ireland and Great Britain.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Kingdom general election of 1945 was a general election held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA, GA, or, from the Assemblée Générale, "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal developed by the United Nations, which recommended a partition with Economic Union of Mandatory Palestine to follow the termination of the British Mandate.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 127, adopted on January 22, 1958, dealt with complaints by Jordan regarding Israeli activities between the armistice demarcation lines.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
The United States of the Ionian Islands (Ἡνωμένον Κράτος τῶν Ἰονίων Νήσων, Inoménon-Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, literally "United State of the Ionian Islands"; Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the United Kingdom to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States of America after the American Revolution.
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Vanuatu (or; Bislama), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is an Oceanian island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
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A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. or just an association) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement as volunteers to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for pioneers, literally "fore-pullers", "those in front who pull", "fore-trekkers") were Afrikaner emigrants during the 1830s and 1840s who left the Cape Colony (British at the time, but founded by the Dutch) moving into the interior of what is now South Africa in what is known as the Great Trek.
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In his 1492 transatlantic maritime expedition, Christopher Columbus became the first Christian European to make landfall in the Americas.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer.
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In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
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The War of 1812 was a military conflict, lasting for two and a half years, fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.
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The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II.
The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, was a treaty among the major nations that had won World War I, which by the terms of the treaty agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction.
The West Country men were a group of wealthy individuals in Elizabethan England who advocated the English settlement of Ireland, attacks on the Spanish Empire and overseas colonisation.
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The West Indies Federation, also known as the Federation of the West Indies, was a short-lived political union that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962.
White people is a racial classification specifier, depending on context used for people of Caucasian ancestry.
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Willem Janszoon (1570–1630), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch navigator and colonial governor.
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William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898), was a British Liberal politician.
Captain William Hobson RN (26 September 1792 – 10 September 1842) was the first Governor of New Zealand and co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi.
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William III (Willem III; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
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The "Wind of Change" speech was a historically significant address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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A world war is a war involving some of the world's most powerful and populous countries.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.
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The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–11 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
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The Imperial Conference of 1923 met in London in the autumn of 1923.
The 1926 Imperial Conference was the seventh Imperial Conference bringing together the prime ministers of the dominions of the British Empire.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against British colonial rule, as a demand for independence and opposition to mass Jewish immigration.
Britain's Imperial Century, British Asia, British Colonial Empire, British Imperium, British Occupation, British colonial, British colonial empire, British colonial period, British colonial rule, British colonial system, British colonialism, British empire, British imperialism, British imperium, British occupation, British rule, Britsh empire, Brittish empire, Brytish Impire, Colonial England, Empire (British), Empire of Great Britain, Empire of the United Kingdom, England Empire, First British Empire, History of the British Empire, Imperial Britain, Imperial england, S Ireland, S. Ireland, Second British Empire, The British Empire, The Fall of the British Empire, UK Empire, UK colonies.