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Active duty is a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
The Aden Brigade was a formation of the British Indian Army formed after 1903 and the Kitchener Reforms.
The Chief Commissioner’s Province of Aden, or Aden Province, was the administrative status under which the former Aden Settlement (1839-1932) was placed from 1932 to 1937.
An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, or ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War in World War II.
The Anglo-Egyptian War (al-āḥalāl al-Brīṭānnī al-Miṣr) occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
The Army of India between 1903 and 1947 consisted of the British Indian Army and the British Army in India.
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Auxiliary Force (India) (AFI) was a part-time, paid volunteer organisation within the Indian Army in British India.
Awan (اعوان) is a tribe living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab, with significant numbers also residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and to a lesser extent in Sindh and Balochistan.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Army (BA, বাংলাদেশ সেনাবাহিনী, Bangladesh Senabahini) is the land forces branch and the largest of the three defence service of the Bangladesh Armed Forces.
The Bannu Brigade was formed after the 1903 reforms of the British Indian Army by Herbert Kitchener when he was Commander-in-Chief, India.
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II.
The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944.
The Battle of Kohima was the turning point of the Japanese U Go offensive into India in 1944 during the Second World War.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle (10–13 March 1915) took place in the First World War.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of Tanga, sometimes also known as the Battle of the Bees, was the unsuccessful attack by the British Indian Expeditionary Force "B" under Major General A.E. Aitken to capture German East Africa (the mainland portion of present-day Tanzania) during the First World War in concert with the invasion Force "C" near Longido on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bengal Engineer Group (BEG) or the Bengal Sappers or Bengal Engineers as they are informally known, are remnants of British Indian Army's Bengal Army of the Bengal Presidency in British India; now a regiment of the Corps of Engineers in the Indian Army.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Bikaner Camel Corps was a unit of Imperial Service Troops from India that fought for the Allies in World War I and World War II.
The Bombay Army was the army of the Bombay Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bombay Engineer Group, or the Bombay Sappers as they are informally known, are a regiment of the Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
The Bren gun, usually called simply the Bren, are a series of light machine guns (LMG) made by Britain in the 1930s and used in various roles until 1992.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective name which refers to all the units in the British Army that are composed of Nepalese Gurkha soldiers.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire.
The British expedition to Tibet, also known as the British invasion of Tibet or the Younghusband expedition to Tibet began in December 1903 and lasted until September 1904.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bunt (also known as Nadava) are a community from Karnataka, India.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma Division was a static formation of the British Indian Army.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Chief of the General Staff, India was a senior military commander in India from 1904 to Indian Independence in 1947.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
A command in military terminology is an organisational unit for which a military commander is responsible.
The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
Company quartermaster sergeant is a military rank or appointment.
The company sergeant major (CSM) is the senior non-commissioned soldier of a company in the armies of many Commonwealth countries, responsible for administration, standards and discipline.
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.
Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.
The Corps of Guides was a regiment of the British Indian Army which served on the North West Frontier.
Daffadar (Hindustani: दफ़्फ़दार (Devanagari); Urdu: (Nastaliq)) is the equivalent rank to sergeant in the Indian and Pakistani cavalry, as it was formerly in the British Indian Army.
Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.
The Derajat Brigade was formed after the 1903 reforms of the British Indian Army by Herbert Kitchener when he was Commander-in-Chief, India.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan that speaks the Dogri language.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Command of the Indian Army is one of the seven operational commands of the army.
General Sir Edward Pellew Quinan (9 January 1885 – 13 November 1960) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century.
The Gakhars (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) are a clan found predominantly in Pakistan.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Garhwali people (गढ़वळि मन्खि) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who primarily live in the Garhwal Himalayas of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand and speak the Indo-Aryan Garhwali language.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Gunner (Gnr) is a rank equivalent to private in the British Army Royal Artillery and the artillery corps of other Commonwealth armies.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Gurkha Rifles may refer to several different regiments of Gurkhas.
A havildar or havaldar (हविलदार (Devanagari) (Perso-Arabic)) is a rank in the Indian and Pakistani armies, equivalent to a sergeant.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
The I Indian Corps was an army corps of the British Indian Army in the Great War.
The III Corps was a formation of the Indian Army during World War I formed in Mesopotamia.
The Imperial Service Troops were forces raised by the princely states of the British Indian Empire.
Following the Kitchener Reforms of 1903 during the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India, enjoyed control of the Army of India and answered to the civilian Viceroy of India.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army has a long history dating back to the mid-18th century.
The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.
The Indian Cavalry Corps was a formation of the British Indian Army in World War I. It was formed in France in December 1914.
The Indian Defence Force (IDF) was a part-time defence force established as part of the Indian Army in 1917 in order to release regular troops from garrison duties during the First World War.
The Indian Distinguished Service Medal (IDSM) was a military decoration awarded by the British Empire to Indian citizens serving in the Indian armed forces and police.
The Indian Legion (Indische Legion), officially the Free India Legion (Legion Freies Indien) or Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian) (Infanterie-Regiment 950 (indisches), I.R. 950) and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany.
The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.
Indian Military Historical Society (IMHS).
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indian National Army trials (INA trials), which are also called the Red Fort trials, were the British Indian trial by courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) between November 1945 and May 1946, for charges variously for treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder during World War II.
The Indian Order of Merit (IOM) was a military and civilian decoration of British India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian Staff Corps was a branch of the Indian Army during the British Raj.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indian Territorial Force (ITF) was a part-time, paid volunteer organisation within the Indian Army in British India.
Indianisation was a process introduced in the later period of British India (early 20th century) whereby Indian officers were promoted to more senior positions in government services, formerly reserved for Europeans.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
Internal security, or IS, is the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
IV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army, formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II, and later a lieutenant general in the post-war Japan Ground Self Defense Force.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jemadar or jamadar is a title used for various military and other official in the Indian subcontinent.
Jitra (日得拉) is a mukim in Kubang Pasu District, Kedah, Malaysia.
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state.
Lieutenant Colonel John Masters, DSO, OBE (26 October 1914 – 7 May 1983) was a British officer of the Indian Army and later a novelist.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Khudadad Khan, VC (20 October 1888 – 8 March 1971) was the first South Asian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces. On 31 October 1914, at Hollebeke, Belgium, 26-year-old Khan, then serving in the British Indian Army, performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War. A statue of Khudadad Khan is at the entrance of the Pakistan Army Museum in Rawalpindi.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
A King's commissioned Indian officer (KCIO) was an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who held a full King's commission after training at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England, as opposed to the Indian commissioned officers (ICOs), who were trained at the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, and the Viceroy's commissioned officers (VCOs), who were treated in almost all respects as commissioned officers, but who only had authority over Indian troops.
The Kohat Brigade (now 101 Infantry Brigade, Sialkot, Pakistan) was formed after the 1903 reforms of the British Indian Army by Herbert Kitchener when he was Commander-in-Chief, India.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kumauni or Kumaoni are people from Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India.
Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, and also by some police forces and other uniformed organisations.
Lance daffadar is the equivalent rank to corporal in Pakistan, Indian and British Indian Army cavalry units, ranking between acting lance daffadar and daffadar.
Lance naik (L/Nk) is the equivalent rank to lance corporal in the Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indian Armies and before 1947, in the British Indian Army, ranking below naik.
General Sir Lashmer Gordon Whistler, 3 September 1898 – 4 July 1963), known as "Bolo", was a British Army officer who served in both the world wars. A junior officer during the First World War, during the Second World War he achieved senior rank serving with Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery in North Africa and North-western Europe from 1942 to 1945. Montgomery considered that Whistler "was about the best infantry brigade commander I knew". In peacetime, his outstanding powers of leadership were shown in a series of roles in the decolonisation process, and he reached the four-star rank of a full general, without having attended the Staff College, Camberley, then considered almost essential for an officer wishing to attain high rank, and which a significant majority of the British generals of the war had attended. This, in Richard Mead's words, was "proof that lacking a Staff College qualification was no barrier to advancement for the right man."Mead (2007), p. 484.
The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.
This List of regiments of the British Indian Army (1903) is after the Commander-in-Chief, India Lord Kitchener carried out a reform of the Indian Army.
This is a list of regiments of the Indian Army as it was following the reorganisation of the Indian Armed Forces in 1922.
This is a list of recipients of the Victoria Cross by nationality.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
Madras Engineer Group (MEG), informally known as the Madras Sappers, is an engineer group of the Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca.
The Malleson mission was a military action by a small autonomous force of British troops, led by General Wilfrid Malleson, operating against Bolshevik forces over large distances in Transcaspia (modern Turkmenistan) between 1918 and 1919.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
Martial race was a designation created by Army officials of British India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, where they classified each caste into one of two categories, 'martial' and 'non-martial'.
Mary, formerly named Merv, Meru and Margiana, is a city on an oasis in the Karakum Desert, located on the Murghab river.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
Mhow, officially known as Dr Ambedkar Nagar, is a cantonment in the Indore district in Madhya Pradesh state of India.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
Military deployment is the movement of armed forces and their logistical support infrastructure around the world.
The North-West Frontier (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) region of the British Indian Empire was the most difficult area to conquer in South Asia, strategically and militarily.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Mohan Singh (Punjabi: ਮੋਹਨ ਸਿਂਘ (Gurmukhi); (Shahmukhi); 1909 – 1989) was an Indian military officer and member of the Indian Independence Movement best known for his role in organising and leading the First Indian National Army in South East Asia during World War II.
The First Mohmand Campaign was a British military campaign against the Mohmands from 1897 to 1898.
Mohyal Brahmins or Mohyal is caste of Hindu Brahmin community in India.
Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Naik (Nk; sometimes historically spelled nayak) is the Indian Army and Pakistan Army rank equivalent to corporal.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
The Northern Command is a Command of the Indian Army.
Observatory Ridge is the highest point in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Operation Battleaxe was a British Army operation during the Second World War in June 1941, to clear eastern Cyrenaica of German and Italian forces and raise the Siege of Tobruk.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.
The Order of British India was an order of merit established in 1837 by the East India Company for "long, faithful and honourable service".
Other ranks (ORs) in the Royal Marines, British Army, Royal Air Force and in the armies and air forces of many other Commonwealth countries are those personnel who are not commissioned officers, usually including non-commissioned officers (NCOs).
The Oudh State (also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until 1858.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India, later the forces of the British Crown in India, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
A quartermaster general is the staff officer in charge of supplies for a whole army.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/राजपूताना), (راجپُوتانہ), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”, was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan rajput are 10 percent in rajasthan mostly mp and mla of rajasthan are of rajput community after gurjar and meena it is the 3rd largest populated community in rajasthan arat and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.
A regiment is a military unit.
A rifle regiment is a military unit consisting of a regiment of infantry troops armed with rifles and known as riflemen.
Risaldar (often called ressaidar in the British Indian Army), meaning the commander of a risala (mounted troop) in Persian, is a mid-level rank in cavalry and armoured units of the Indian Army.
Risaldar-major was originally a cavalry officer of the British Indian Army, the rank was created in 1886 - a risaldar-major was the most senior risaldar (army rank equivalent to a captain) of the regiment.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Regiment of Indian Artillery, generally known as the Royal Indian Artillery (RIA), was an administrative corps of the British Indian Army.
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India.
The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies), in areas that are now part of Indonesia.
Saini is a caste of North India who were traditionally landowners (zamindars) and farmers.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
The Sind Division was the name an administrative division of the British Raj located in Sindh.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's) was a light infantry infantry regiment of the British Army, which served under various titles from 1685 to 1959.
South East Asia Command (SEAC) was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II.
Southern Command is a formation of the Indian Army, active since 1895.
Sowar (सवार, ਸਵਾਰ, সওয়ার, also siwar meaning "the one who rides" or "rider", from Persian sawār), was originally a rank during the Mughal, Maratha period.
A squadron was historically a cavalry subunit, a company sized military formation.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Major-General Stringer Lawrence (6 March 1697 – 10 January 1775) was an English soldier, the first Commander-in-Chief, India.
Subedar (صوبیدار) is a historical rank in the Indian Army and Pakistan Army, ranking below British commissioned officers and above non-commissioned officers.
Subedar-major is the senior rank of junior commissioned officer in the Indian and Pakistani Armies, and formerly a Viceroy's commissioned officer in the British Indian Army.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Garhwal Rifles is one of the most decorated infantry regiments of the Indian Army.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887.
The Tirah Campaign, often referred to in contemporary British accounts as the Tirah Expedition, was an Indian frontier war in 1897–1898.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
A viceroy's commissioned officer (VCO) was a senior Indian member of the British Indian Army.
The Vickers–Berthier (VB) light machine gun manufactured by Vickers-Armstrong was based on a French design of just before World War I intended for use on aircraft.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
The Waziristan campaign 1919–1920 was a military campaign conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region.
The Waziristan campaign 1936–1939 comprised a number of operations conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region.
Western Command is a formation of the Indian Army, active since 1947.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer.
Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XV Corps was first established in 1942, as part of the British Indian Army, during World War II.
XXXIII Corps is a corps of the Indian Army.
The Indian XXXIVu Corps was formed in March 1945 to be part of the British Fourteenth Army for Operation Zipper, the invasion of British Malaya.
Yadav refers to a grouping of traditionally mainly non-elite, Quote: "In southern Awadh, eastern North-Western Provinces, and much of Bihar, non-labouring gentry groups lived in tightly knit enclaves among much larger populations of non-elite 'peasants' and labouring people.
The 101st Grenadiers was a regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 15th (Imperial Service) Cavalry Brigade was a brigade-sized formation that served alongside British Empire forces in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, during the First World War.
The 1st (Peshawar) Division was a Regular Division of the British Indian Army, formed as a result of the Kitchener reforms of the Indian Army in 1903.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division was a regular army division of the British Indian Army.
The 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) is one of the oldest and most highly decorated armoured regiments of the Indian Army.
The 3rd (Lahore) Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army, first organised in 1852.
The 42nd Deoli Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 43rd Erinpura Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 44th Merwara Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 4th (Quetta) Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army.
The 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force) was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 5th (Mhow) Division was a regular division of the British Indian Army and part of the Southern Army which was formed in 1903 after Lord Kitchener was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India between 1902 and 1909.
The 61st Pioneers were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 6th (Poona) Division was a division of the British Indian Army.
The 7th (Meerut) Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army that saw active service during World War I.
The 7th Indian Infantry Division was a war-formed infantry division, part of the Indian Army during World War II that saw service in the Burma Campaign.
The 8th (Lucknow) Division was a formation of the British Indian Army's Northern Army that was first formed as a result of the Kitchener reforms of the Indian Army in 1903.
The 9th (Secunderabad) Division was an infantry division formation of the British Indian Army.
Brindian, British India Army, British Indian Armed forces, British Indian Army (1895-1947), British Indian army, British-Indian Army, Indian Army (1858-1947), Indian Army (1858–1947), Indian Army (1895-1947), Indian Army (1895–1947), Indian Army (British India), Indian Army (British), Indian Army Act, 1911, Indian Army Act,1911, Indian soldiers, Kitchener Reforms, List of Indian corps in WWII, Military of British India.