359 relations: A History of Britain (book), Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Afforestation, Airport, Albion, Alderney, Almagest, Amendments to the Constitution of Ireland, Amphibian, Ancient Greece, Angevin Empire, Anglesey, Anglo-Celtic, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglo-Saxon mission, Anglo-Saxons, Arable land, Archipelago, Association football, Atlantic Ocean, Auregnais, Avalonia, Avienus, Badger, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Baltica, Bass (fish), Battle of Aughrim, Battle of the Boyne, Beech, Ben Nevis, Birch, Bowls, Bracken, Breton language, Britain's Next Top Model, Britannia, British and Irish Lions, British Empire, British Islands, British Isles fixed sea link connections, British Isles naming dispute, British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly, Brittany, Brittonic languages, Caledonian orogeny, Cant (language), Carboniferous, Cattle, ..., Celtic Britons, Celtic languages, Channel Islands, Channel Tunnel, Church of England, Circa, Cod, Common blackbird, Common chaffinch, Common starling, Common toad, Common Travel Area, Connemara pony, Consociationalism, Continental Europe, Cork (city), Cornish language, Cornwall, Costa Book Awards, Counties of the United Kingdom, County Antrim, County Wexford, Craton, Croquet, Crown dependencies, Cruthin, Dark Ages (historiography), Darts, Dáil Éireann, Denmark, Devolution, Devonian, Diarmait Mac Murchada, Diodorus Siculus, Doggerland, Douglas, Isle of Man, Dublin, Dublin City University, Duchy of Normandy, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Elm, Encyclopædia Britannica, England national rugby union team, English Channel, English Civil War, English language, English law, English Mastiff, Equator, Ericaceae, Esox, Europe, European mole, European polecat, European water vole, Extreme points of the British Isles, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fauna, Fishguard, Flora, Foras na Gaeilge, Fox, France, Fraxinus, French language, G. M. Trevelyan, Gaelic handball, Gaelic Ireland, Gaels, Galloway, Geography (Ptolemy), Glorious Revolution, Goidelic languages, Golden Age, Golf, Good Friday Agreement, Government of Ireland, Grass snake, Gray wolf, Great Britain, Great Famine (Ireland), Greater Dublin Area, Greater Glasgow, Greater London Built-up Area, Greater Manchester Built-up Area, Greeks in Egypt, Greenwich Mean Time, Guernésiais, Guernsey, Gulf of Mexico, Hadrian's Wall, Hare, Heathrow Airport, Hebrides, Hedge, Hedgehog, Hen Ogledd, Henry II of England, Hibernia, Hiberno-Scottish mission, Highland Clearances, History of association football, History of cricket, History of golf, History of snooker, History of water polo, Holyhead, House sparrow, Indo-European languages, Institution of Engineers of Ireland, Insular Celtic languages, Ireland, Ireland national rugby union team, Irish diaspora, Irish language, Irish nationalism, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish Sea, Irish Travellers, Irish War of Independence, Irish Wolfhound, Isle of Man, Jèrriais, Jersey, John Dee, Judiciary, Julius Caesar, Köppen climate classification, Kerry slug, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Language family, Last glacial period, Late Middle Ages, Laudabiliter, Limerick, List of English monarchs, List of French monarchs, List of islands of the British Isles, List of weather records, Loch Lomond, Loch Morar, Loch Ness, London, Lordship of Ireland, Lough Neagh, Low-pressure area, Manx language, Marcian of Heraclea, Marsh, Massaliote Periplus, Member of parliament, Mercury Prize, Michael Braddick, Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom), Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monastery, Moose, Munster, Mussel, National Assembly for Wales, Niall Blaney, Norman conquest of England, Norman invasion of Ireland, Norman language, Normandy, Normans, Normans in Ireland, Norn language, North Atlantic Current, North Sea, North Slob, North/South Ministerial Council, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Assembly, Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Ireland peace process, Oak, Oceanic climate, Oireachtas, Open Library, Ordovician, Orkney, Orogeny, Otter, Oyster, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary system, Partition of Ireland, Partridge, Peninsula, Perch, Perseus Project, Pheasant, Picts, Pine, Pinniped, Pitch and putt, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Poaceae, Pollock, Pope Adrian IV, President of Ireland, Principality of Wales, Pro14, Protestant Ascendancy, Ptolemy, Pytheas, Quaternary, Quaternary glaciation, Rabbit, Red deer, Red grouse, Reptile, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Revolutionary republic, River Severn, River Shannon, Roe deer, Roman conquest of Britain, Roman Empire, Rosslare Europort, Royal National Lifeboat Institution, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Rugby football, Rugby union, Ryder Cup, Saint Helier, Saint Patrick, Saint Peter Port, Salmon, Samaritans (charity), Sark, Schengen Area, Scotland, Scotland national rugby union team, Scots language, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Highlands, Scottish Parliament, Sercquiais, Sheep, Shelta, Shetland, Shetland pony, Shrew, Silurian, Simon Schama, Six Nations Championship, Smooth snake, Snake, Soil, Sole (fish), Sovereign state, Species, Squalidae, States of Guernsey, States of Jersey, Stoat, Strabo, Summit, Taoiseach, Tectonics, Temperate climate, Temperate rainforest, Terrane, The Isles: A History, The Pale, The Washington Post, The X Factor (UK TV series), Tilia, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Limerick, Treaty of Windsor (1175), Triple Crown (rugby union), Trout, Tynwald, Ulex, Ulmus glabra, Ulster, Ulster Scots dialects, Union of the Crowns, Unionism in Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University, Variscan orogeny, Vassal, Vegetation, Vikings, Vipera berus, Wales national rugby union team, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Waterford, Weasel, Welsh language, West Midlands conurbation, West Yorkshire Urban Area, Westerlies, Western European Summer Time, Wexford, Wild boar, Wildcat, Woodlouse, Year. Expand index (309 more) » « Shrink index
A History of Britain is a three volume work written by Simon Schama to accompany a series of documentaries he presented for the BBC.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Albion (Ἀλβιών) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.
Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Amendments to the Constitution of Ireland are only possible by way of referendum.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
Anglo-Celtic citizens are those of British or English and Celtic descent.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Auregnais, Aoeur'gnaeux or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (Aurigny, Auregnais: Aoeur'gny or Auregny).
Avalonia was a microcontinent in the Paleozoic era.
Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century AD.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
The Battle of Aughrim (Cath Eachroma) was the decisive battle of the Williamite War in Ireland.
The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis), in Scotland, is the highest mountain in the British Isles.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls called woods so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".
Bracken (Pteridium) is a genus of large, coarse ferns in the family Dennstaedtiaceae.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Britain's Next Top Model (or Britain & Ireland's Next Top Model 2011–13), often abbreviated as BNTM, BINTM, or Top Model, is a British-Irish reality television show in which a number of women compete for the title of Britain's Next Top Model and a chance to start their career in the modelling industry.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British & Irish Lions is a rugby union team selected from players eligible for any of the Home Nations – the national teams of England, Scotland, and Wales – and Ireland.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities.
Proposals for fixed sea links to improve transportation between areas of the British Isles include undersea tunnel, bridge, causeway, or combination of these elements.
In British English usage, the toponym "British Isles" refers to a European archipelago consisting of Great Britain, Ireland and adjacent islands.
The British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly (BIPA, Tionól Pharlaiminteach na Breataine agus na hÉireann) is a deliberative body consisting of members elected to the parliaments of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the British crown dependencies.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.
A cant (or cryptolect, or secret language) is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush.
The common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the chaffinch, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family.
The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.
The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.
The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
The Connemara pony (Irish: Capaillín Chonamara) is a pony breed originating in Ireland.
Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Costa Book Awards are a set of annual literary awards recognizing English-language books by writers based in Britain and Ireland.
The counties of the United Kingdom are subnational divisions of the United Kingdom, used for the purposes of administrative, geographical and political demarcation.
County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.
County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman, Yola: Weiseforthe) is a county in Ireland.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
Croquet is a sport that involves hitting plastic or wooden balls with a mallet through hoops (often called "wickets" in the United States) embedded in a grass playing court.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The Cruthin (Old Irish,; Middle Irish: Cruithnig or Cruithni; Modern Irish: Cruithne) were a people of early medieval Ireland.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Darts is a sport in which small missiles/torpedoes/arrows/darts are thrown at a circular dartboard fixed to a wall.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
Douglas (Doolish) is the capital and largest town of the Isle of Man, with a population of 27,938 (2011).
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dublin City University (abbreviated as DCU) (Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a university in the Republic of Ireland based in Northside, Dublin.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, and Wales.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The English Mastiff is a breed of extremely large dog (often known simply as the Mastiff) perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae, with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions.
Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae—the esocids which were endemic to North America and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European mole (Talpa europaea) is a mammal of the order Eulipotyphla.
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.
The European water vole or northern water vole (Arvicola amphibius, included in synonymy: A. terrestris), is a semiaquatic rodent.
This is a list of the extreme points of the British Isles, the points that are farther north, south, east, west, higher or lower than any other location.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fishguard (Abergwaun, meaning "Mouth of the River Gwaun") is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, south-west Wales, with a population of 3,419 recorded in the 2011 Census.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Foras na Gaeilge ("Irish Institute"; often abbreviated to FnaG) is a public body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland, including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.
Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball; liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return, and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles).
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The grass snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian non-venomous snake.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish: Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent.
Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation).
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.
There has been a large community of Greeks in Egypt, also known as Egyptiotes (Αιγυπτιώτες), from the Hellenistic period until the aftermath of the Egyptian revolution of 1952, when most were forced to leave.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, can be traced to as far back as the ancient period in China (Han dynasty).
The sport of cricket has a known history beginning in the late 16th century.
The origins of golf are unclear and much debated.
The game of snooker is a cue sport which emerged in its modern form in the late 19th century, with roots going back to the 16th century form of English billiards.
The history of water polo as a team sport began in mid 19th-century England and Scotland, where water sports were a feature of county fairs and festivals.
Holyhead (Caergybi, "Cybi's fort") is a town in Wales and a major Irish Sea port serving Ireland.
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Institution of Engineers of Ireland (Cumann na nInnealtóirí) or the IEI, is the second oldest Engineering Society on the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and was established in 1835, the institution primarily represents members based in Ireland.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union.
The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Irish Travellers (an lucht siúil, meaning 'the walking people') are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
The Irish Wolfhound (Cú Faoil) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kerry slug or Kerry spotted slug (Geomalacus maculosus) is a rare species of medium-sized to large air-breathing land slug.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Laudabiliter was a Papal Bull issued in 1155 by Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to have served in that office.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This page is a list of the larger islands that form the British Isles, listing area and population data.
This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories.
Loch Lomond (Loch Laomainn - 'Lake of the Elms'Richens, R. J. (1984) Elm, Cambridge University Press.) is a freshwater Scottish loch which crosses the Highland Boundary Fault, often considered the boundary between the lowlands of Central Scotland and the Highlands.
Loch Morar (Scottish Gaelic: Loch Mhòrair) is a freshwater loch in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland.
Loch Ness (Loch Nis) is a large, deep, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for approximately southwest of Inverness.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Lough Neagh is a large freshwater lake in Northern Ireland.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
Marcian of Heraclea (Μαρκιανός Ηρακλειώτης; Marcianus Heracleensis; fl. c. 4th century AD) was a Late Antiquity minor Greek geographer from Heraclea Pontica.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Massaliote Periplus or Massiliote Periplus is a theoretical reconstruction of a sixth century BC periplus, or sailing manual, proposed by Adolf Schulten.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Mercury Prize, formerly called the Mercury Music Prize, is an annual music prize awarded for the best album released in the United Kingdom by a British or Irish act.
Michael Jonathan Braddick, FBA, FRHistS (born 29 August 1962) is a British historian and academic specialising in Early modern Britain.
The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the British Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
Niall Blaney (born 29 January 1974) is a former Irish politician.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Normans in Ireland, or Hiberno-Normans, were a group of Normans who invaded the various realms of Gaelic Ireland.
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The North Slob is an area of mud-flats at the estuary of the River Slaney at Wexford Harbour, Ireland.
The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
The Northern Ireland peace process is often considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday (or Belfast) Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developments.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
Open Library is an online project intended to create "one web page for every book ever published".
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory gamebirds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Pitch and putt is an amateur sport very similar to golf but where the hole length is typically up to.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Pollock (pronounced) is the common name used for either of the two species of North Atlantic marine fish in the genus Pollachius.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277.
The PRO14 (known as the Guinness PRO14 for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union competition involving professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland, South Africa and Wales.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
The red grouse, Lagopus lagopus scotica, is a medium-sized bird of the grouse family which is found in heather moorland in Great Britain and Ireland.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.
A revolutionary republic is a form of government whose main tenets are popular sovereignty, rule of law, and representative democracy.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Shannon (Abha na Sionainne, an tSionainn, an tSionna) is the longest river in Ireland at.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosslare Europort (Calafort Ros Láir) is a modern seaport located at Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland, near the southeastern-most point of Ireland, handling passenger and freight ferries to and from Wales and France.
The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is the largest charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of the UK, the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man as well as on some inland waterways.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.
Saint Helier (Saint-Hélier) is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saint Peter Port is the capital of Guernsey as well as the main port.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Samaritans is a registered charity aimed at providing emotional support to anyone in emotional distress, struggling to cope, or at risk of suicide throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland, often through their telephone helpline.
Sark (Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scotland national rugby union team is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (Lé Sèrtchais) is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark (Bailiwick of Guernsey).
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shelta (Irish: Seiltis) is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
The Shetland pony is a breed of pony originating in the Shetland Isles.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
Smooth snake (Coronella austriaca)Street D. 1979.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Sole is a fish belonging to several families.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks or spiny dogfishes, are a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes.
The States of Guernsey (États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the British Crown dependency of Guernsey.
The States of Jersey (États de Jersey) is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Jersey.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
A terrane in geology, in full a tectonostratigraphic terrane, is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate.
The Isles: A History is a 1999 narrative history book by Norman Davies.
The Pale (An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale (An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht) was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The X Factor is a British reality television music competition to find new singing talent.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Limerick (Conradh Luimnigh) ended the Williamite War in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange and concluded the Siege of Limerick.
The Treaty of Windsor (1175) was a territorial agreement made during the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the "Home Nations" – i.e. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales who compete within the larger Six Nations Championship.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Tynwald (Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court is the legislature of the Isle of Man.
Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.
Ulmus glabra, the wych elm, Scotch elm or Scots elm, has the widest range of the European elm species, from Ireland eastwards to the Urals, and from the Arctic Circle south to the mountains of the Peloponnese in Greece; it is also found in Iran.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vipera berus, the common European adderMallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. (2003).
The Wales national rugby union team (Tîm rygbi'r undeb cenedlaethol Cymru) competes annually in the Six Nations Championship with England, France, Ireland, Italy and Scotland.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.
The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wildcat is a small cat species complex comprising ''Felis silvestris'' and the ''Felis lybica''.
A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Anglo Celtic Isles, Anglo-Celitc Isles, Anglo-Irish Archipelago, Anglo-Irish Archipelo, Anglo-Irish archipelago, Anglo-Irish archipelo, Archipelago of Great Britain and Ireland, Atlantic Archipelago, Atlantic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, Breetish Isles, Britain and Ireland (region), British Archipelago, British Isle, British Isles and Ireland, British and Irish Isles, British isles, British isles (political and physical), British-Irish Isles, Brytish Iles, Eileanan Bhreatainn, Eileanan Breatannach, Eire agus an Bhreatain Mhor, Ellanyn Goaldagh, Enesow Bretennek, Geography of Britain and Ireland, Geography of Great Britain and Ireland, Geography of Ireland and Great Britain, Geography of the British Isles, Geography of the United Kingdom and Ireland, Geography of the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Geology of the British Isles, Iles Britanniques, North East Atlantic Archipelago, North east atlantic archipelago, Ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan Bhreatainn, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Pretannic Isles, The Atlantic Isles, The BI, The British Isles, The British Isles and Ireland, These islands, West European Isles, Ynysoedd Prydain, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór, Îles Britanniques.