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Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland.
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago.
The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of England's Act of Settlement 1701.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland.
Alfred is a sung stage work about Alfred the Great with music by Thomas Arne and a libretto by David Mallet and James Thomson.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
The Alien Act was a law passed by the Parliament of England in 1705, as a response to the Parliament of Scotland's Act of Security of 1704, which in turn was partially a response to the English Act of Settlement 1701.
"All-Ireland" is an attributive term which emphasises the whole of the island of Ireland.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anglican church music is music that is written for Christian worship in Anglican religious services, forming part of the liturgy.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).
Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Anglo-Scottish border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.
Anne Brontë (commonly; 17 January 1820 – 28 May 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family.
Anti-British sentiment is prejudice, fear or hatred against the British Government, the culture or the people of the United Kingdom, or its Overseas territories usually because of British Imperial past.
The La Araucanía, La Araucanía Region (Región de La Araucanía) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.
The Arbroath smokie is a type of smoked haddock – a speciality of the town of Arbroath in Angus, Scotland.
The architecture of the United Kingdom, or British architecture, consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the United Kingdom, such as Roman, to 21st century contemporary.
Armed Forces Day (formerly Veterans' Day) in the United Kingdom is an annual event celebrated in late June to commemorate the service of men and women in the British Armed Forces.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist, and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangers and mash, also known as sausages and mash, is a traditional dish of Great Britain and Ireland comprising sausages served with mashed potatoes.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Battle of Brunanburh was fought in 937 between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin; Constantine, King of Alba and Owen, King of Strathclyde.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Four is a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation and available to digital television viewers on Freeview, IPTV, satellite, and cable.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC One is the flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
The BBC Trust was the governing body of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) between 2007 and 2017.
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Sir Bernard Rowland Crick (16 December 1929 – 19 December 2008) was a British political theorist and democratic socialist whose views can be summarised as "politics is ethics done in public".
The BFI TV 100 is a list compiled in 2000 by the British Film Institute (BFI), chosen by a poll of industry professionals, to determine what were the greatest British television programmes of any genre to have been screened.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Blur are an English rock band, formed in London in 1988.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The BRIT Awards (often simply called The BRITs) are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
British Americans usually refers to Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland).
The British & Irish Lions is a rugby union team selected from players eligible for any of the Home Nations – the national teams of England, Scotland, and Wales – and Ireland.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.
The British diaspora consists of British people and their descendants who emigrated from the present-day United Kingdom, or people who have acquired British Nationality through colonisation.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
British hip hop is a genre of music, and a culture that covers a variety of styles of hip hop music made in the United Kingdom.
The British Invasion was a cultural phenomenon of the mid-1960s when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom and other aspects of British culture, became popular in the United States and significant to rising "counterculture" on both sides of the Atlantic.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
British National (Overseas), commonly known as BN(O), is one of the major classes of British nationality under British nationality law.
British National Day is a proposed official national day for the United Kingdom and a celebration of Britishness.
The British Nationality Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that created the status of "Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies" (CUKC) as the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and its colonies.
The British Nationality Act 1981 (c.61) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality since 1 January 1983.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality.
The BPI (British Recorded Music Industry) Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association.
British popular music and popular music in general, can be defined in a number of ways, but is used here to describe music which is not part of the art/classical music or Church music traditions, including folk music, jazz, pop and rock music.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A British sitcom or a Britcom is a situation comedy programme produced for British television.
The British Social Attitudes Survey (BSA) is an annual statistical survey conducted in Great Britain by National Centre for Social Research since 1983.
The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.
Britishness is the state or quality of being British, or of embodying British characteristics.
Britonia (which became Bretoña in Galician) is the historical, apparently Latinized name of a Celtic settlement, presently Santa Maria de Bretoña, or A Pastoriza, in the Province of Lugo, autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.
Britpop is a UK based music and culture movement in the mid 1990s which emphasised "Britishness", and produced brighter, catchier alternative rock, partly in reaction to the popularity of the darker lyrical themes of the US-led grunge music, an alternative rock genre, and to the UK's own shoegazing music scene.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland, north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire.
Cambro-Normans were Normans who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.
The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was passed (as stated in the preamble) at the request of the Parliament of Canada, to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the British parliament to be involved in making changes to the Constitution of Canada.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.
The Catholic Church in Ireland (Eaglais Chaitliceach na hÉireann) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See.
The Catholic Church in Scotland (An Eaglais Chaitligeach; Catholic Kirk), overseen by the Scottish Bishops' Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church headed by the Pope.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Celtic field is an old name for traces of early (prehistoric) agricultural field systems found in North-West Europe, i.e. Britain, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and the Baltic states.
Celtic music is a broad grouping of music genres that evolved out of the folk music traditions of the Celtic people of Western Europe.
In Greek mythology, Celtine (Greek: Κελτίνη, Keltínē) was the daughter of Bretannus and mother of Keltos.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Channel 5 is a British commercial television network.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charlotte Brontë (commonly; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.
Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Cheshire cheese is a dense and crumbly cheese produced in the English county of Cheshire, and four neighbouring counties, Denbighshire and Flintshire in Wales and Shropshire and Staffordshire in England.
Chicken tikka masala is a dish of chunks of roasted marinated chicken (chicken tikka) in a spiced curry sauce.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.
The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Christmas dinner is a meal traditionally eaten at Christmas.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civics is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government.
The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
Club Hípico de Santiago is a thoroughbred horse race track in Santiago, Chile.
Coarse fishing is a term used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for angling for coarse fish.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom which aimed to address racial discrimination and promote racial equality.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
In general, a Commonwealth citizen is a citizen of a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Commonwealth Day, formerly Empire Day, is the annual celebration of the Commonwealth of Nations, often held on the second Monday in March.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Coquimbo is a port city, commune and capital of the Elqui Province, located on the Pan-American Highway, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language.
The Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall: and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Moray (Moireibh), or Elginshire, is one of the registration counties of Scotland, bordering Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The Cruthin (Old Irish,; Middle Irish: Cruithnig or Cruithni; Modern Irish: Cruithne) were a people of early medieval Ireland.
The culture of England is defined by the idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the English people.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
The Culture of Northern Ireland relates to the traditions of Northern Ireland.
The culture of Scotland refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with Scotland and the Scottish people.
Wales is a country in Western Europe that has a distinctive culture including its own language, customs, holidays and music.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Daniel Robert Snow (born 3 December 1978) is a British television presenter, who presents history programmes for the BBC and other broadcasters, has a history slot on The One Show and hosts the podcast, Dan Snow's History Hit.
Daniel O'Connell (Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century.
The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called "Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s.
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
According to the 2011 census, the total population of the United Kingdom was around 63,182,000.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Disestablishmentarianism refers to campaigns to sever links between church and state, particularly in relation to the Church of England as an established church within the United Kingdom.
Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940), formerly a New Zealand politician, was Leader of the Opposition, Leader of the National Party (the country's main Opposition party at that time) from 28 October 2003 to 27 November 2006, and the Leader of the ACT Party from 28 April 2011 to 26 November 2011.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500 – 22 January 1552) was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553).
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.
The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.
Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Emily Jane Brontë (commonly; 30 July 1818 – 19 December 1848) was an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to the developments in English architecture that were parallel to the evolution of Baroque architecture in continental Europe between the Great Fire of London (1666) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).
English Chileans (Spanish: Anglochilenos) are citizens of Chile who are descended from English people who have emigrated.
English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England.
English Gothic is an architectural style originating in France, before then flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
People from various ethnicities reside in the United Kingdom.
The Etymologicum Genuinum (standard abbreviation E Gen) is the conventional modern title given to a lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople in the mid ninth century.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Europeanism is a political neologism, coined in c. 2002 by the "Center for Dialogue and Universalism" at Warsaw University, coined for ideological support for the process of European integration as pursued by the European Union.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.
Falkland Islanders, also called FalklandersChater, Tony.
Fawlty Towers is a British television sitcom broadcast on BBC2 in 1975 and 1979.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot potato chips.
The national flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack, also known as the Union Flag.
The folk music of England is tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frances Burney (13 June 17526 January 1840), also known as Fanny Burney and after her marriage as Madame d'Arblay, was an English satirical novelist, diarist and playwright.
Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett (24 November 1849 – 29 October 1924) was a British novelist and playwright.
Frederic Harrison (18 October 1831 – 14 January 1923) was a British jurist and historian.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG (1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751.
The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
A full breakfast is a breakfast meal that typically includes bacon, sausages, eggs and a beverage such as coffee or tea.
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
The General Synod is the deliberative and legislative body of the Church of England.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
There are many geographically indicated foods of the United Kingdom.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Continuation of an entity as a going concern is presumed as the basis for financial reporting unless and until the entity’s liquidation becomes imminent.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great Britain or Team GB is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories, and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.
The Great Britain Historical GIS (or GBHGIS), is a spatially enabled database that documents and visualises the changing human geography of the British Isles, although is primarily focussed on the subdivisions of the United Kingdom mainly over the 200 years since the first census in 1801.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Grime (also known as, Eskibeat, 8Bar, Sublow and UK Bashment) is a genre of music that emerged in London in the early 2000s.
Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey.
Gwynfor Richard Evans (1 September 1912 – 21 April 2005) was a Welsh politician, lawyer and author.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
Sir Herbert Edward Read, DSO, MC (4 December 1893 – 12 June 1968) was an English art historian, poet, literary critic and philosopher, best known for numerous books on art, which included influential volumes on the role of art in education.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.
Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922.
The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles.
A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Immigration to Chile has contributed to the demographics and the history of this South American nation.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Independent music (often referred to as indie music or indie) is music produced independently from commercial record labels or their subsidiaries, a process that may include an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) is a left-wing think tank based in London.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Interpretation Act 1978 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Iquique is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Isatis tinctoria, also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
ITV is a commercial television channel in the United Kingdom.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia.
James Thomson (c. 11 September 1700 – 27 August 1748) was a British poet and playwright, known for his poems The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence, and for the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!".
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.
Jingoism is nationalism in the form of aggressive foreign policy, such as a country's advocacy for the use of threats or actual force, as opposed to peaceful relations, in efforts to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Marwood Cleese (born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, voice actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
John Thomas North (30 January 1842 – 5 May 1896) was an English investor and businessman.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
James Keir Hardie (15 August 185626 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist, politician, and trade unionist.
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake (11 February 1904 – 8 December 1983) was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The title King of the Britons (Latin Rex Britannorum) was used (often retrospectively) to refer to the most powerful ruler among the Celtic Britons, both before and after the period of Roman Britain up until the Norman conquest of England.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
In New Zealand, the Leader of Her Majesty's Opposition, commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition, is the politician who commands the support of the Official Opposition.
The Legislative Council of the Falkland Islands (sometimes referred to as LEGCO) was the unicameral legislature of the Falkland Islands from 13 November 1845 until 1 January 2009.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test constituting one of the requirements for anyone seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen.
Linda Colley, CBE, FBA, FRSL, FRHistS (born 13 September 1949 in Chester, England) is a British historian of Britain, empire and nationalism.
This is a list of flags used in Canada.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The following list of legendary kings of Britain derives predominantly from Geoffrey of Monmouth's circa 1136 work Historia Regum Britanniae ("the History of the Kings of Britain").
This article lists political parties in the United Kingdom.
The lists of British people are divided as follows.
Llanito or Yanito (pronounced) is a form of Spanish heavily laced with words from English and some from other languages such as Genoese, spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Magallanes Province (Provincia de Magallanes) is one of four provinces in the southern Chilean region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena (XII).
The Region of Magallanes, officially the XII Region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica (Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena), is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.
The military history of South Africa chronicles a vast time period and complex events from the dawn of history until the present time.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Monmouth (Trefynwy meaning "town on the Monnow") is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which remained vibrant throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music.
Wales has a strong and distinctive link with music.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.
A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
The National Secular Society (NSS) is a British campaigning organisation that promotes secularism and the separation of church and state.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Neil Oliver (born 21 February 1967) is a British television presenter, free-lance archaeologist, conservationist and author.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The New England Colonies of British America included Connecticut Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the Province of New Hampshire, as well as a few smaller short-lived colonies.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Listener is a New Zealand magazine which covers a variety of general topics, including current affairs, politics and entertainment.
New Zealand passports (in Māori: Uruwhenua Aotearoa) are issued to New Zealand citizens for the purpose of international travel by the Department of Internal Affairs.
The Northern Ireland Football League Premiership, known as the Danske Bank Premiership for sponsorship purposes, is a professional association football league which operates as the highest division of the Northern Ireland Football League – the national league in Northern Ireland.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A North Briton is a term used for a person from North Britain, the northern parts of the islands of Great Britain.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parthenius of Nicaea (Παρθένιος ὁ Νικαεύς) or Myrlea (ὁ Μυρλεανός) in Bithynia was a Greek grammarian and poet.
A pasty or pastie (or, Pasti) is a baked pastry, a traditional variety of which is particularly associated with Cornwall, United Kingdom.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
The people of Northern Ireland, or Northern Irish people, are all people born in Northern Ireland and having, at the time of their birth, at least one parent who is a British citizen, an Irish citizen or is otherwise entitled to reside in Northern Ireland without any restriction on their period of residence,The Good Friday Agreement guarantees the "recognition of the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose." under the Belfast Agreement.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a published work that appears in a new edition on a regular schedule.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
Pisagua is a Chilean port on the Pacific Ocean, located in Huara comuna (municipality), in Tarapacá Region, northern Chile.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Theresa May, is the head of government.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.
Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain (31 July 1737 – 23 March 1813) was a British princess, granddaughter of King George II and the only elder sibling of King George III.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
In the United Kingdom, the term "public service broadcasting" refers to broadcasting intended for public benefit rather than to serve purely commercial interests.
Pulp were an English rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978.
Punta Arenas (historically Sandy Point in English) is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antartica Chilena.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
The Queen Anne style in Britain refers to either the English Baroque architectural style approximately of the reign of Queen Anne (reigned 1702–1714), or a revived form that was popular in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century (when it is also known as Queen Anne revival).
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are very occasionally held at a national, regional or local level.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.
Christianity is the largest religion in Northern Ireland.
Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,400 years by various forms of Christianity.
The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate military personnel who have died in war, and represents a common or field poppy, Papaver rhoeas.
Remembrance Sunday is held in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations as a day "to commemorate the contribution of British and Commonwealth military and civilian servicemen and women in the two World Wars and later conflicts".
Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
"Rule, Britannia!" is a British patriotic song, originating from the poem "Rule, Britannia" by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740.
The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.
S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel 4 Wales") is a Welsh-language British public-service TV channel broadcast throughout the UK and Republic of Ireland.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salutary neglect is an American history term that refers to the 17th and 18th century British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep British colonies obedient to England.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions, practices and cuisines associated with Scotland.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
The Scottish Football Association (also known as the SFA and the Scottish FA; Scottish Gaelic: Comann Ball-coise na h-Alba; Scots Fitbaw Association), is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity, as embodied in the shared and characteristic culture, languages and traditions, of the Scottish people.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
The Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815) is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The social structure of the United Kingdom has historically been highly influenced by the concept of social class, with the concept still affecting British society today.
A social club may be a group of people or the place where they meet, generally formed around a common interest, occupation, or activity.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) is a social-democratic and Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Britain is a term which was occasionally used in the 17th and 18th centuries, for England and Wales in relation to their position in the southern half of the island of Great Britain.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spain–United Kingdom relations, also called Spanish-British relations, are the bilateral international relations between the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
In ecology, species homogeneity is a lack of biodiversity.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), branded as Stats NZ, is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the collection of statistics related to the economy, population and society of New Zealand.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
A statutory corporation is a corporation created by the state.
Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic, meaning "strath (valley) of the River Clyde") was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.
Strathearn or Strath Earn (from Srath Èireann) is the strath of the River Earn, in Scotland.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
Sub-Roman Britain is the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around CE 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period.
The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Tea (in reference to food, rather than the drink) has long been used as an umbrella term for several different meals.
Since the eighteenth century, the United Kingdom has been one of the world's greatest tea consumers, with an average annual per capita tea supply of 1.9 kg (4.18 lbs).
Tearfund is a UK Christian relief and development agency based in Teddington.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising.
In the United Kingdom and the Crown dependencies, any household watching or recording live television transmissions as they are being broadcast (terrestrial, satellite, cable, or Internet) is required to hold a television licence.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867, when the British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were merged to form a single Dominion within the British Empire.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Kinks are an English rock band formed in Muswell Hill, North London, in 1964 by brothers Ray and Dave Davies.
The Kymin, (Cae-y-Maen), is a hill overlooking Monmouth, in Monmouthshire, Wales.
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press.
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London, England, in 1962.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Augustine Arne (12 March 1710, London – 5 March 1778, London) was an English composer.
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy, mercenary and radical politician.
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
Torquay is a seaside town in Devon, England, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
A tradesman, tradesperson, tradie or skilled tradesman refers to a worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education, but often not a bachelor's degree.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
Two-tone (or 2 tone) is a genre of British music that fuses traditional ska with musical elements of punk rock.
UK garage (also known as UKG) is a genre of electronic music originating from England in the early 1990s.
UK hard house or simply hard house is a style of electronic dance music music that emerged in the 1990s and is synonymous with its association to Trade club and the associated DJ's there that created the style.
UKTV is a British multi-channel broadcaster, jointly owned by BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide) and Discovery, Inc. It was formed on 26 March 1992 through a joint venture between BBC and Thames Television.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
United Empire Loyalists (or Loyalists) is an honorific given in 1799 by Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor-general of British North America, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution.
United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom Census of 1861 recorded the people residing in every household on the night of 7 April 1861, and was the third of the UK censuses to include details of household members.
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Welsh cakes (picau ar y maen, pice bach, cacen gri or teisen radell), also Welshcakes or pics, are traditional in Wales.
Welsh Chileans are Chileans of Welsh descent whose family roots came from Wales.
Welsh cuisine encompasses the cooking traditions and practices associated with the country of Wales and the Welsh people.
The Welsh Football League (also known as the Nathaniel Car Sales Welsh Football League for sponsorship reasons) is a club football league in Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh nationalism (Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
West Brit, an abbreviation of West Briton, is a derogatory term for an Irish person who is perceived as being too anglophilic in matters of culture or politics.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Hogarth FRSA (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist and author.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom was a movement to fight for women's right to vote.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yorkshire pudding is a common British side dish baked pudding made from batter consisting of eggs, flour, and milk or water.
The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart—is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988.
The 100 Greatest Britons was a television series broadcast by the BBC in 2002.
The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
British (U.K.), British (UK), British (people), British People, British ancestry, British descent, British emigrants, British ethnicity, British ex-pat community, British expatriate, British genealogy, British heritage, British immigrants, British people of the United Kingdom, British peoples, British person, Britisher, Britishers, Britishs, Briton, Britons, Britons (contemporary people), People of Britain, People of British descent, People of Great Britain, People of United Kingdom, People of the United Kingdom, People of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The British people, The british people, U.K. people, UK people, United Kingdom people.