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The A 11 autoroute is a motorway which connects Paris with Nantes via Le Mans and Angers.
The A81 autoroute is a motorway in north-western France.
The A84 autoroute is a motorway in western France completed on 27 January 2003.
The Grand Ouest Airport, or Aéroport du Grand Ouest Project was a project for a new airport, to be situated to the north-west of the French city of Nantes in the commune of Notre-Dame-des-Landes.
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
Alan II (died 952), nicknamed Wrybeard or Twistedbeard, Alan Varvek in Breton, was Count of Vannes, Poher, and Nantes, and Duke of Brittany from 938 to his death.
Alan Rufus (alternatively Alanus Rufus (Latin), Alan ar Rouz (Breton), Alain le Roux (French) or Alan the Red (c. 1040 – 1093), 1st Lord of Richmond, was a relative and companion of William the Conqueror (Duke William II of Normandy) during the Norman Conquest of England. He was the second son of Eozen Penteur (also known as Eudon, Eudo or Odo, Count of Penthièvre) by Orguen Kernev (also known as Agnes of Cornouaille). William the Conqueror granted Alan Rufus a significant English fief, later known as the Honour of Richmond, in about 1071.Keats-Rohan "" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou on 6 January 1944) is a Breton and Celtic musician and singer, recording artist, and master of the Celtic harp.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Amélie (also known as Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amélie Poulain;; italic) is a 2001 French romantic comedy film directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
American rock is rock music from the United States.
The oil tanker Amoco Cadiz ran aground on Portsall Rocks, from the coast of Brittany, France, on 16 March 1978, and ultimately split in three and sank, all together resulting in the largest oil spill of its kind in history to that date.
Anatole le Braz, the "Bard of Brittany" (2 April 1859 – 20 March 1926), was a Breton poet, folklore collector and translator.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Ankou (Breton: an Ankoù) is a personification of death in Breton mythology as well as in Cornish (an Ankow in Cornish), Welsh (yr Angau in Welsh) and Norman French folklore.
Anne of Brittany (25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death.
Anthemius (Latin: Procopius Anthemius Augustus) (c. 420 – 11 July 472) was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Ar Men ("the rock" in Breton) is a lighthouse at one end of the Chaussée de l'Île de Sein, at the west end of Brittany.
Armand-Guy-Simon de Coetnempren, comte de Kersaint, in short Armand de Kersaint (29 July 17424 December 1793), was a French sailor and politician.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
The Armoricaine or Armorican is an endangered French breed of domestic cattle.
The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Arthur III of Brittany (Arzhur III) (24 August 139326 December 1458), known as the Justicier and more commonly as Arthur de Richemont, briefly reigned as Duke from 1457 until his death.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
Arvandus was a Gaul who rose through the hierarchy of Imperial Roman society to twice be appointed Praetorian prefect of Gaul.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aster is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae.
Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix (Astérix or Astérix le Gaulois) is a series of French comics.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family.
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Julien Auguste Pélage Brizeux (12 September 1803 – 3 May 1858) was a French poet.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Auray is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Austropotamobius pallipes is an endangered European freshwater crayfish, and the only species of crayfish native to the British Isles.
Avallon is a town (French: commune) in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in central-eastern France.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
École Centrale de Nantes, or Centrale Nantes, is a Grande Ecole d'Ingénieurs - a French engineering school - established in 1919 under the name of Institut Polytechnique de l'Ouest.
An École des Beaux-Arts (School of Fine Arts) is one of a number of influential art schools in France.
Telecom Bretagne (formerly known as ENST Bretagne) is one of the top French public institutions of higher education and research (Grandes Écoles) of engineering in France, and a high standard research centre providing high level training in Information Technologies and telecommunications.
The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of Saint-Cyr") is the foremost French military academy.
Émile Souvestre (April 15, 1806 – July 5, 1854) was a French novelist who was a native of Morlaix, Finistère.
Éric Marcel Guy Tabarly (24 July 1931 – 12 June 1998) was a French Navy officer and yachtsman.
Île Vierge (Breton language: Enez-Werc'h) is a islet lying off the north-west coast of Brittany, opposite the village of Lilia.
A bagad is a Breton band, composed of bagpipes (Breton: binioù, French: cornemuse), bombards and drums (including snare, tenor and bass drums).
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
The Cairn of Barnenez (also: Barnenez Tumulus, Barnenez Mound etc.; in Breton Karn Barnenez; in French: Cairn de Barnenez or Tumulus de Barnenez) is a Neolithic monument located near Plouezoc'h, on the Kernéléhen peninsula in northern Finistère, Brittany (France).
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The Battle of Castillon was a battle fought on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne (later Castillon-la-Bataille).
The Battle of Formigny, fought on 15 April 1450, was a major battle of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.
The Battle of Jengland (also called Jengland-Beslé, Beslé, or Grand Fougeray) took place on 22 August 851, between the Frankish army of Charles the Bald and the Breton army of Erispoe, Duke of Brittany.
The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France.
The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Fields), also called the Battle of the Campus Mauriacus, Battle of Châlons or the Battle of Maurica, took place on June 20, 451 AD, between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their vassals commanded by their king Attila.
Batz-sur-Mer (Breton: Bourc'h-Baz) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
Bénodet (Breton: Benoded) is a commune in the Finistère department and administrative region of Brittany in north-western France.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Belle-Île, Belle-Île-en-Mer, or Belle Isle (ar Gerveur in Modern Breton; Guedel in Old Breton) is a French island off the coast of Brittany in the département of Morbihan, and the largest of Brittany's islands.
Bernard Hinault (born 14 November 1954) is a French former professional cyclist who won the Tour de France five times.
Beurre blanc—literally translated from French as "white butter"—is a hot emulsified butter sauce made with a reduction of vinegar and/or white wine (normally Muscadet) and grey shallots into which cold, whole butter is blended off the heat to prevent separation.
Bignan (Begnen in Breton) is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Bigouden (Breton: Bro-Vigoudenn; French: Pays Bigouden), historically known as Cap Caval, is, along the Bay of Audierne, the most south-western area of Bro Kernev in Brittany, south-west of Quimper, defined since 1790 in the French departement of Finistère.
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours.
Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.
The bombard is a contemporary conical-bore double-reed instrument widely used to play traditional Breton music.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Boule bretonne is a sport popular in Brittany, France, similar to boule lyonnaise and to a lesser extent, pétanque.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
A box-bed (also known as a closed bed, close bed, or enclosed bed) is a bed enclosed in furniture that looks like a cupboard, half-opened or not.
Brest Bretagne Airport (Aéroport de Brest Bretagne), formerly known as Brest Guipavas Airport, is an international airport serving Brest, France.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
The Breton is a breed of draft horse.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Breton National Party (French Parti National Breton, or PNB) was a nationalist party in Brittany that existed from 1931 to 1944.
Breton nationalism is the nationalism of the historical province of Brittany in France.
The Breton regionalist union (Union Régionaliste Bretonne or URB) was a Breton cultural and political organisation created August 16, 1898.
The Bretonne Pie Noir is breed of small dairy cattle from Brittany in north-western France.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brian of Brittany, 1st Earl of Cornwall in English, or Brien (also Brient) de Bretagne in French, was a Breton noble who fought for William I of England.
Brière (Ar Briwer) is the marsh area to the north of the Loire estuary in France at its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean.
Brigitte Fontaine, (born June 24, 1939) in Morlaix in the Brittany region of France, is a singer of avant-garde music.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The Brittany is a breed of gun dog bred primarily for bird hunting.
Brittany Ferries is a French shipping company that operates a fleet of ferries and cruiseferries between France and United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain, and between United Kingdom and Spain.
The Brittany football select is the professional football team of Brittany, France.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
Bro Gozh ma Zadoù (Old Land of My Fathers) is the anthem of Brittany, sometimes presented as the "national anthem" although it has no official status.
Gwened, Bro-Gwened (Standard Bro-Wened) or Vannetais (Pays Vannetais) is a historic realm and county of Brittany in France.
Brocéliande (also known as Breselianda, Bersillant, Berthelien, Berceliande, Brecheliant, Brecilien, Broceliande) is a legendary enchanted forest that had a reputation in the medieval imagination as a place of magic and mystery.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
The Cadomian Orogeny was a tectonic event or series of events in the late Neoproterozoic, about 650–550 Ma, which probably included the formation of mountains.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Caerleon (Caerllion) is a suburban town and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, Wales.
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The Caletes or Caleti (Calētēs or Calētī) were a Gaulish or a Belgic tribe of present-day Normandy.
A calvary (calvaire in French) is a type of monumental public crucifix, sometimes encased in an open shrine, most commonly found across northern France from Brittany east, through Belgium and Galicia (North West of Spain), where they are called "cruceiro" or "crucero".
Camp Conlie was one of eleven military camps established by the Republican Government of National Defense under Léon Gambetta during the Franco-Prussian war.
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
In geography, a cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea.
Carhaix-Plouguer (Karaez-Plougêr) is a commune in the Finistère department in northwestern France.
Carnac (Breton: Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany in the Morbihan department in north-western France.
The Carnac stones (Breton: Steudadoù Karnag) are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic University of the West (UCO; French: Université catholique de l'Ouest), known colloquially to its students as «la Catho», is a private and prestigious university located in Angers, France.
Côtes-d'Armor (Aodoù-an-Arvor), formerly known as Côtes-du-Nord, is a department in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic harp is a triangular harp traditional to Wales, Brittany, Ireland and Scotland.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celtic League is a pan-Celtic organisation, founded in 1961, that aims to promote modern Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man – referred to as the Celtic nations; it places particular emphasis on promoting the Celtic languages of those nations.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
Centre-Val de Loire ("Centre-Loire Valley") is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Chantiers de l'Atlantique, is a French shipyard based in Saint-Nazaire, France.
Charles Armand Tuffin, marquis de la Rouërie (13 April 1751 – 30 January 1793), also known in the United States as "Colonel Armand", was a French cavalry officer who served under the American flag during the American War of Independence.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Le Goffic (14 July 1863 – 12 February 1932) was a French poet, novelist and historian whose influence was especially strong in his native Brittany.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
The Château de Châteaubriant is a medieval castle strongly modified during the Renaissance, located in the commune of Châteaubriant in the Loire-Atlantique département of France.
The Château de Clisson is a castle in the commune of Clisson in the Loire-Atlantique département of France.
Château de Combourg is a medieval castle in the commune of Combourg in the Ille-et-Vilaine département of Brittany, France.
The Château de Dinan consists of a keep, in the town of Dinan, in the Côtes-d'Armor département of the Brittany region of France.
The Château de Fougères is a castle in the commune of Fougères in the Ille-et-Vilaine département of France.
The Château de Largoët, also known as the Tours d’Elven (Elven Towers), is a medieval castle in Elven, in the Morbihan département of France, 13 km from Vannes.
The Château de Suscinio or de Susinio is a French castle, built in the late Middle Ages, to be the residence of the Dukes of Brittany.
The Château de Tonquédec is a castle in the commune of Tonquédec in the Côtes d'Armor département of France.
The Château de Trécesson is a medieval castle in the Brittany region of France.
The Château de Vitré is a medieval castle in the town of Vitré, in the Ille-et-Vilaine département of France.
The Château des ducs de Bretagne (Castle of the Dukes of Brittany) is a large castle located in the city of Nantes in the Loire-Atlantique département of France; it served as the centre of the historical province of Brittany until its separation in 1941.
Châteaubriant (Kastell-Briant; Gallo: Châtiaoberiant) is a town in western France, about southwest of Paris, and one of the three sous-préfectures of the Loire-Atlantique department.
Châteaulin (Kastellin) is a commune in the Finistère department and administrative region of Brittany in north-western France.
The Châteaux of the Loire Valley (French: Châteaux de la Loire) are part of the architectural heritage of the historic towns of Amboise, Angers, Blois, Chinon, Montsoreau, Nantes, Orléans, Saumur, and Tours along the Loire River in France.
The Châtelperronian is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of which is debated.
The Chouannerie was a royalist uprising or counter-revolution in 12 of the western départements of France, particularly in the provinces of Brittany and Maine, against the French First Republic during the French Revolution.
Chouchen (Breton: chouchenn) is an alcoholic beverage popular in Brittany in France.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
Cistus (from the Greek kistos) is a genus of flowering plants in the rockrose family Cistaceae, containing about 20 species (Ellul et al. 2002).
In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
Clisson, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département in Pays de la Loire in western France.
Camp Coëtquidan (Camp de Coëtquidan) is a French military educational facility located in the Morbihan department of Brittany in France.
Colbertism is an economic and political doctrine of the 17th century, created by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the French minister of finance under Louis XIV.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
Columbanus (Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615), also known as St.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
The common murre or common guillemot (Uria aalge) is a large auk.
The common swift (Apus apus) is a medium-sized bird, superficially similar to the barn swallow or house martin but somewhat larger, though not stemming from those passerine species, being in the order Apodiformes.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
Conan Meriadoc is a legendary British leader credited with founding Brittany.
Concarneau (meaning Bay of Cornwall) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.
Condor Ferries is an operator of passenger and freight ferry services between The United Kingdom, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey and France.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
The Congress of Arras was a diplomatic congregation established in Arras in the summer of 1435 between representatives of England, France, and Burgundy.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Saint Corentin (Corentinus; in Breton, Sant Kaourintin) (d. 460 AD) is a Breton saint.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornouaille (Kernev or Kerne) is a historic region of Brittany in northwestern France.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Corseul (Gallo: Corsoeut) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
Cotriade (Kaoteriad in Breton) is a fish stew speciality from the French province of Brittany that is made with different kinds of fish, as well as potatoes.
The Couesnon (Kouenon) is a river running from the département of Mayenne in north-western France, forming an estuary at Mont Saint-Michel.
Count Theodosius (Comes Theodosius) was a senior military officer serving in the Western Roman Empire.
In the 11th and 12th centuries the Countship of Penthièvre (Breton: Penteur) in Brittany (now in the department of Côtes-d'Armor) belonged to a branch of the sovereign House of Brittany.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The coypu (Myocastor coypus), also known as the nutria, is a large, herbivorous, semiaquatic rodent.
A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.
Crozon (Kraozon in Breton) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).
The Culture of Brittany is made up of Breton culture, and Celtic culture.
The Curiosolites or Curiosolitae were a people in the region now called Brittany, in Celtica, who are mentioned by Julius Caesar several times.
Cyrille Guimard (born 20 January 1947 in Bouguenais, Loire-Atlantique) is a French former professional road racing cyclist who became a directeur sportif and then a television commentator.
Dan Ar Braz (born Daniel Le Bras on 15 January 1949 in Quimper) is a Breton guitarist-singer-composer and the founder of Héritage des Celtes, a 50-piece Pan-Celt band.
Déols is a commune in the department of Indre in the Centre-Val de Loire Region of central France.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Denez Prigent (born 17 February 1966 in Santec, Finistère) is a Breton folk singer-songwriter of the gwerz and kan ha diskan styles of Breton music.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Dinan is a walled Breton town and a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in northwestern France.
Dinard (Gallo: Dinard) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Dinard–Pleurtuit–Saint-Malo Airport or Aéroport de Dinard – Pleurtuit – Saint-Malo is an airport serving the city of Saint-Malo, France.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
A directeur sportif (French for sporting director, although the original French term is often used in English-language media; plural directeurs sportifs) is a person directing a cycling team during a road bicycle racing event.
Diwan (pronounced; "seed" in Breton) is a federation of Breton-medium schools in Brittany.
Dol-de-Bretagne Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Samson de Dol) is a Roman Catholic church located in Dol-de-Bretagne.
Dol-de-Bretagne (Gallo: Dóu), cited in most historical records under its Breton name of Dol, is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany in northwestern France.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.
Domnonée is the modern French form of Domnonia or Dumnonia (Latin for "Devon"; Domnonea), an historic kingdom in northern Armorica (Brittany) founded by British immigrants from Dumnonia (Sub-Roman Devon) fleeing the Saxon invasions of Britain in the early Middle Ages.
Douarnenez,, is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.
A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK and Commonwealth) or dray horse (from the Old English dragan meaning "to draw or haul"; compare Dutch dragen and German tragen meaning "to carry" and Danish drage meaning "to draw" or "to fare"), less often called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor.
Druidry, sometimes termed Druidism, is a modern spiritual or religious movement that generally promotes harmony, connection, and reverence for the natural world.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
An eau de vie (French for spirits, – French version of European Union spirits regulations literally "water of life") is a clear, colourless fruit brandy that is produced by means of fermentation and double distillation.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet (28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Electro (or electro-funk).
En Avant de Guingamp Côtes-d'Armor (Forward Guingamp), commonly referred to as EA Guingamp, EAG, or simply Guingamp, is a French association football club based in the commune of Guingamp.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.
Erispoe (Erispoë; Herispoius, Herispogius, or Respogius; 2 or 12 November 857) was Duke of Brittany from 851.
Ermine in heraldry is a "fur", a type of tincture, consisting of a white background with a pattern of black shapes representing the winter coat of the stoat (a species of weasel with white fur and a black-tipped tail).
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
Erwan Berthou (September 4, 1861 – January 30, 1933) was a French and Breton language poet, writer and neo-Druidic bard.
École Supérieure de Commerce Bretagne Brest (ESC Bretagne Brest), also called The Graduate school of Management of Brittany, France, is a French business School in the city of Brest in northwestern France.
Elona quimperiana, common name the escargot de Quimper ("Quimper snail"), is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Elonidae.
The Estates of Brittany was the States Provincial for the province of Brittany.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
The Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) is a medium-small wading bird found in temperate and subarctic Eurasia.
Euric (Gothic: *Aiwareiks, see Eric), also known as Evaric, or Eurico in Spanish and Portuguese (c. 440 – 28 December 484), son of Theodoric I, ruled as king (rex) of the Visigoths, after murdering his brother, Theodoric II, from 466 until his death in 484.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to long).
The European mink (Mustela lutreola), also known as the Russian mink, and Eurasian mink is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
An ex-voto is a votive offering to a saint or to a divinity; the term is usually restricted to Christian examples.
Fañch Broudig or François Broudic (born 1946 in Buhulien) is a Breton journalist and Breton- and French-language writer.
Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.
Far Breton (also Breton far) is a traditional cake or dessert from the Brittany region in France.
Football Club Lorient-Bretagne Sud (commonly referred to FC Lorient or simply Lorient) is a French association football club based in Lorient, Brittany.
Football Club de Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt), commonly referred to as FC Nantes or simply Nantes, is a French association football club based in Nantes, Pays de la Loire.
A Fest Noz (Breton for night festival) is a Breton traditional festival, with dancing in groups and live musicians playing acoustic instruments.
The Festival Interceltique de Lorient (French), Gouelioù Etrekeltiek An Oriant (Breton) or Inter-Celtic Festival of Lorient in English, is an annual Celtic festival, located in the city of Lorient, Brittany, France.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed) is a department of France in the extreme west of Brittany.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The flag of Brittany is called the Gwenn-ha-du, pronounced, which means white and black in Breton.
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
Flavius Aetius (Flavius Aetius; 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
A folk wrestling style is any traditional style of wrestling, which may or may not be codified as a modern sport.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
A forum (Latin forum "public place outdoors", plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fougères (Felger; Gallo: Foujerr) is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the region of Brittany, northwestern France.
A fracture is any separation in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces.
François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style.
François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis II of Brittany (in Breton Frañsez II, in French François II) (23 June 1433 – 9 September 1488) was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death.
Francis Renaud (1887–1973), was a French sculptor mainly noted for his monumental granite public memorials in Brittany.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Corsairs (corsaire) were privateers, authorized to conduct raids on shipping of a nation at war with France, on behalf of the French crown.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is an endangered species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusc in the family Margaritiferidae.
The Froment du Léon is an endangered French breed of dairy cattle from the coastal region of northern Brittany, in the north-west of France.
Fulk I of Anjou (870 – 942) — Foulques le Roux ("Fulk the Red", i.e., "Red Falcon") — held the county of Anjou first as Viscount, then Count, until his death.
The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France that was established during the mid-14th century and lasted, with brief lapses and revisions, until 1946.
Galette is a term used in French cuisine to designate various types of flat round or freeform crusty cakes, or, in the case of a Breton galette (Galette bretonne, Krampouezhenn gwinizh du), a pancake made with buckwheat flour usually with a savoury filling.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The gavotte (also gavot, gavote, or gavotta) is a French dance, taking its name from a folk dance of the Gavot, the people of the Pays de Gap region of Dauphiné in the southeast of France, where the dance originated according to one source.
Gavrinis (Gavriniz) is a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan in Brittany, France.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
Georges de La Tour (March 13, 1593 – January 30, 1652) was a French Baroque painter, who spent most of his working life in the Duchy of Lorraine, which was temporarily absorbed into France between 1641 and 1648.
Georges Robin (1904–1928), also known as Jorj Robin, was a sculptor and designer from Nantes.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
Gilles Servat is a French singer, born in Tarbes in southern France in 1945, into a family whose roots lay in the Nantes region of Brittany.
Glaucophane is the name of a mineral and a mineral group belonging to the sodic amphibole supergroup of the double chain inosilicates, with the chemical formula ☐Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2.
Glenmor was the stage name of Emile Le Scanf (1931–1996), a Breton protest singer who sought to preserve the Breton language and adapt local traditions of folk singing to the radical culture of the 1960s and 70s.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gouren is a style of folk wrestling which has been established in Brittany for several centuries.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, the large cormorant in India and the black shag further south in New Zealand, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds.
Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Grenadiers or rattails are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine fish of the subfamily Macrourinae, the largest subfamily of the family Macrouridae.
The grey partridge (Perdix perdix), also known as the English partridge, Hungarian partridge, or hun, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.
Groix (Île de Groix, Enez Groe) is an island and a commune in the Morbihan department of the region of Brittany in north-western France.
Guérande (Gwenrann) is a medieval town located in the ''département'' of Loire-Atlantique in western France.
Guingamp is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
The Gulf of Morbihan is a natural harbour on the coast of the Département of Morbihan in the south of Brittany, France.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.
Gwalarn ("Northwesterly") was a Breton language literary journal.
Gwerz (plural gwerzioù, "ballad", "lament") is a type of folk song of Brittany.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
In historic and modern usage, a hearth is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally also used for cooking food.
A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation.
Hellfest, also called Hellfest Summer Open Air, is a French rock festival focusing on heavy metal music, held annually in June in Clisson in Loire-Atlantique.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is the national anthem of Wales.
Henri Queffélec (29 January 1910 – 13 January 1992) was a French writer and screenwriter.
A heraldic badge, emblem, impresa, device, or personal device worn as a badge indicates allegiance to, or the property of, an individual or family.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Hippocrepis comosa, the horseshoe vetch, is a species of perennial flowering plant belonging to the genus Hippocrepis in the Fabaceae family.
Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period.
Historicism or also historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans.
The history of Brittany may refer to the entire history of the Armorican peninsula or only to the creation and development of a specifically Brythonic culture and state in the Early Middle Ages and the subsequent history of that state.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Hugues-Félicité Robert de Lamennais (or De La Mennais) (19 June 1782 – 27 February 1854) was a French Catholic priest, philosopher and political theorist.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Ille-et-Vilaine (Il-ha-Gwilen) is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
In the archaeology of the Stone Age, an industry or technocomplex is a typological classification of stone tools.
The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.
Inzinzac-Lochrist is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
Irish Ferries is a maritime transport company that operates passenger and freight services on routes between Ireland, Britain and Continental Europe, including Dublin Port–Holyhead; Rosslare Europort to Pembroke as well as Dublin Port-Cherbourg and Rosslare to Cherbourg and Roscoff in France The company is a division of the Irish Continental Group (ICG) which trades on the Irish Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange.
Iroise or the Iroise Sea (mer d'Iroise) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean which stretches from the Ile de Sein to Ushant off the coast of Brittany in north-western France.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Saint Ivo of Kermartin, T.O.S.F. (17 October 1253 – 19 May 1303), also known Yvo or Ives (and in Breton as Erwan, Iwan, Youenn or Eozenn, depending on the region, and known as Yves Hélory (also Helori or Heloury) in French), was a parish priest among the poor of Louannec, the only one of his station to be canonized in the Middle Ages.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
James Bouillé (February 14, 1894 – June 22, 1945) was a French architect based in Brittany.
Jean Fréour (8 August 1919 – 11 June 2010) was a prominent Breton sculptor.
Jean II de Brosse, also Jehan II de Brosse (1432 – August 6, 1482), was the elder son of Marshal of France Jean I de Brosse.
Jean Le Cam (Quimper, Finistère, 27 April 1959) is a French sailor.
Jean Robic (10 June 1921 – 6 October 1980)L'Équipe, 9 July 2003 was a French road racing cyclist, who won the 1947 Tour de France.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.
Jean-Marc Ayrault (born 25 January 1950) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 16 May 2012 to 31 March 2014.
Jeanne Malivel (1895–1926) was a Breton designer and illustrator who inspired the Breton nationalist art movement Seiz Breur.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
John III the Good (in Breton Yann III, in French Jean III; 8 March 1286 – 30 April 1341) was duke of Brittany, from 1312 to his death and 5th Earl of Richmond from 1334 to his death.
John IV the Conqueror KG (in Breton Yann IV, in French Jean IV, and traditionally in English sources both John of Montfort and John V) (1339 – 1 November 1399) was Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort from 1345 until his death and 7th Earl of Richmond from 1372 until his death.
Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.
Joseph Savina, (1901–1983), was a Breton woodworker, cabinet maker and sculptor who was a member of the art movement Seiz Breur.
Josselin Castle is a medieval castle at Josselin, in the Morbihan department of Brittany, France, first built in the 11th century and rebuilt at various times since.
Jules Achille Noël, born Louis Assez Noël (24 February 1815, Quimper - 26 March 1881, Algiers) was a French landscape and maritime painter who worked primarily in Brittany and Normandy.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The Musée Jules Verne is a museum dedicated to the French writer Jules Verne.
The Jules Verne Trophy is a prize for the fastest circumnavigation of the world by any type of yacht with no restrictions on the size of the crew provided the vessel has registered with the organization and paid an entry fee.
Jules-Charles Le Bozec (1898–1973) was a French sculptor, whose work reflects a commitment to the local design traditions of his native province of Brittany.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kan ha diskan is probably the most common type of traditional music of Brittany.
Keroman Submarine Base was a German U-boat base located in Lorient during World War II.
Kig ha farz is a cooked dish consisting of various meats simmered in a broth with a buckwheat flour based pudding.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The Kingdom of Brittany was a short-lived vassal-state of the Frankish Empire that emerged during the Norman invasions.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
Kornog is a Breton folk music band formed in the 1980s.
Kouign-amann (kouignoù-amann) is a Breton cake.
The Notre-Dame du Kreisker chapel (Breton: Chapel Itron-Varia ar C'hreiz-kêr; French: Chapelle Notre-Dame du Kreisker) is a former Roman Catholic chapel in Saint-Pol-de-Léon in Brittany.
The Kroaz Du (Black Cross) is a flag of Brittany, used as an emblem of the independent duchy in the late Middle Ages.
La Baule-Escoublac, commonly referred to as La Baule, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
La Folle Journée is a French annual classical music festival held in Nantes.
La Jument is the name of a lighthouse at the Northwestern part of France, Brittany.
La Route du Rock is a biannual music festival that occurs in the city of Saint-Malo.
La Trinité-sur-Mer (An Drinded-Karnag in Breton), is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany, in north-western France.
La Vieille ("The Old Lady" or "The Wrass") is a lighthouse in the département of Finistère at the commune of Plogoff, on the northwest coast of France.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Lady of the Lake is an enchantress in the Matter of Britain, the body of medieval literature and legend associated with King Arthur.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
A language border or language boundary is the line separating two language areas.
Language immersion, or simply immersion, is a technique used in bilingual language education in which two languages are used for instruction in a variety of topics, including math, science, or social studies.The languages used for instruction are referred to as the L1 and the L2 for each student, with L1 being the native language of the student and L2 being the second language to be acquired through immersion programs and techniques.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Lannion is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Lannion – Côte de Granit Airport or Aéroport de Lannion - Côte de Granit is an airport located in Lannion, near the former municipality of Servel, a commune of the Côtes-d'Armor département in the Brittany région of France.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Léon Fleuriot (5 April 1923 – 15 March 1987) was a French academic specializing in Celtic languages (Old Breton, Welsh and Irish) and in history, particularly that of Gallo-Roman Brittany and of the Early Middle Ages.
Le Croisic (Breton: Ar Groazig), is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Le Palais is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in northwestern France.
The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or simply the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians.
Lefèvre Utile, better known worldwide by the initials LU, is a manufacturer brand of French biscuits, emblematic of the city of Nantes.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Lemovices (Lemovici) were a Gaulish tribe of Central Europe who established themselves in Limousin and Poitou between 700 and 400 BC.
The Lexovii (Ληξόβιοι, Strabo; Ληξούβιοι, Ptol. ii. 8. § 2), were a Celtic people, on the coast of Gallia, immediately west of the mouth of the Seine.
The LGV Atlantique is a high-speed railway line running from Paris (Gare Montparnasse) to Western France.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
Linaria is a genus of 150 species of flowering plants, one of several related groups commonly called toadflax.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Litavis—also known as Litauis,Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith.
Loïck Peyron, born 1 December 1959 in Nantes, is a French yachtsman, younger brother of the yachtsman Bruno Peyron.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
The Locmariaquer megaliths are a complex of Neolithic constructions in Locmariaquer, Brittany.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Lorient is a town (French "commune") and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France.
Lorient South Brittany Airport or Aéroport de Lorient Bretagne Sud, also known as Lorient-Lann-Bihoué Airport, is the airport serving the city of Lorient.
Loudéac (Gallo: Loudia) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Louis IV (September 920 / September 921 – 10 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of West Francia from 936 to 954.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray (2 February 1840 – 4 July 1910) was a French Breton composer, pianist, and professor of music history/theory at the Conservatoire de Paris as well as a Prix de Rome laureate.
Louis "Louison" Bobet (12 March 1925 - 13 March 1983) was a French professional road racing cyclist.
Lower Brittany (Breizh-Izel; Basse-Bretagne) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language has been traditionally spoken, and where the culture associated with this language is most prolific.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Lucien Georges Mazan (18 October 1882 – 20 December 1917) was a French racing cyclist (pseudonym: Lucien Petit-Breton). He was born in Plessé, Loire-Atlantique, a part of Brittany, now part of Pays de la Loire.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Mad War (la Guerre folle), also known as the War of the Public Weal, was a late Medieval conflict between a coalition of feudal lords and the French monarchy.
The Magdalenian (also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
Saint Malo (also known as Maclou or Mac'h Low, or in Latin as Maclovius or Machutus, born 27 March 520 – died 15 November 621) was a mid-sixth century founder of Saint-Malo, a commune in Brittany, France.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Manau is a French hip hop group formed in 1998, known for their fusing of traditional Celtic melodies with modern hip hop beats.
Mane Braz is a Megalithic tomb located 2 km southeast of Erdeven, Brittany, France.
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
Marc Pajot (born 21 September 1953 in La Baule) is a French sailor.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Mayenne is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River.
In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
Meavenn (1911–1992) was the pen name of Francine Rozec, also known as Fant Rozec, a Breton language poet, novelist and playwright linked to Breton nationalism.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
This article describes several characteristic architectural elements typical of European megalithic (Stone Age) structures.
A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large manmade upright stone.
The Menhir de Champ-Dolent is a menhir, or upright standing stone, located in a field outside the town of Dol-de-Bretagne.
Merlin (Myrddin) is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend and medieval Welsh poetry.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Michel Desjoyeaux (born 16 July 1965, in Concarneau) is a French sailor, known for competing successfully in several long-distance single-handed races.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
* Not to be confused with the Montagne Noire of Languedoc-Rousillon The Montagnes Noires (French: 'the black mountains'), also known as the Montagne Noire (French: 'the black mountain') and in Breton as Menez Du are an east-west oriented range of hills in Brittany centred on the town of Gourin.
The House of Montfort was a French noble family, which reigned in the Duchy of Brittany from 1365 to 1514.
The Monts d'Arrée, or Menezioù Are in Breton, are an ancient mountain range in western Brittany which forms part of the Armorican massif.
Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.
Morbihan (Mor-Bihan) is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France.
Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana, Morganna, Morgant, Morgane, Morgen, Morgne, Morgue and other names and spellings, is a powerful enchantress in the Arthurian legend.
Morlaix (Montroulez) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Fine Arts Museum of Nantes, along with 14 other provincial museums, was created, by consular decree on 14 Fructidor in year IX (31 August 1801).
The Musée Dobrée is a museum in Nantes, in the quartier Graslin in the immediate outskirts of the city centre and very close to the city's Natural History Museum.
The Musée national de la Marine (National Navy Museum) is a maritime museum located in the Palais de Chaillot, Trocadéro, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.
Muscadet is a French white wine.
The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes (Musée des beaux-arts de Rennes) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Rennes, the capital of Brittany.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf.
The Namnetes were a tribe of ancient Gaul, living in the area of the modern city of Nantes near the river Liger (modern Loire).
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Nantes Atlantique Airport (Aéroport Nantes Atlantique, formerly known as Aéroport Château Bougon) is an international airport serving Nantes, France.
Nantes Cathedral, or the Cathedral of St.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Natural History Museum of Nantes is a French natural history museum located in the city of Nantes.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Needlework is decorative sewing and textile arts handicrafts.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nolwenn Korbell (born 3 February 1968 in Quimper, Finistère), is a French Breton singer-songwriter and actress.
Nolwenn Le Magueresse (born 28 September 1982 in Saint-Renan, Brittany, France), known by her stage name Nolwenn Leroy (French pronunciation), is a French singer-songwriter, musician and voice actress.
Nominoe or Nomenoe (Nominoë; Nevenoe; 7 March 851) was the first Duke of Brittany from 846 to his death.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The northern gannet (Morus bassanus) is a seabird, the largest species of the gannet family, Sulidae.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Olier Mordrel (29 April 1901 – 25 October 1985) is the Breton language version of Olivier Mordrelle, a Breton nationalist and wartime collaborator with the Third Reich who founded the separatist Breton National Party.
Olivier de Kersauson (full name: Olivier de Kersauson de Pennendreff, born 20 July 1944) is a French sailor and sailing champion.
Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
The Osismii were a Gaulish tribe on the western Armorican peninsula.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Padarn (Paternus, Padarnus) (? – 550 AD) was an early 6th century sanctified British Christian abbot-bishop who founded St Padarn's Church in Ceredigion, Wales.
Paimpol is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in southwest France.
Paimpont forest also known as Brocéliande forest is a temporate forest located around the village of Paimpont in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine in Brittany, France.
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.
Pan-Celticism (Pan-Chelteachas), also known as Celticism or Celtic nationalism is a political, social and cultural movement advocating solidarity and cooperation between Celtic nations (both the Gaelic and Brythonic branches) and the modern Celts in North-Western Europe.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
A Pardon is a typically Breton form of pilgrimage and one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism in Brittany.
Parish close is a translation of the French term enclos paroissial.
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (also known as Francesco Mazzola or, more commonly, as Parmigianino ("the little one from Parma"); 11 January 150324 August 1540) was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma.
The passepied ("pass-foot", from a characteristic dance step) is a French court dance.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin honorific meaning "Father of the Country", or more literally, "Father of the Fatherland".
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Aurelian (known in Breton as Paol Aorelian or Saint Pol de Léon and in Latin as Paulinus Aurelianus) was a 6th-century Welshman who became first bishop of the See of Léon and one of the seven founder saints of Brittany.
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.
Paul Sérusier (9 November 1864 – 7 October 1927) was a French painter who was a pioneer of abstract art and an inspiration for the avant-garde Nabis movement, Synthetism and Cloisonnism.
Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style.
The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Normandy.
Pays de la Loire (Broioù al Liger, meaning Loire Country) is one of the 18 regions of France.
Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.
Pierre Denis, known also as Pêr Denez (3 February 1921 – 30 July 2011), was a French linguist, lexicographer, scholar and writer.
Pêr-Jakez Helias, baptised Pierre-Jacques Hélias, nom de plume Pierre-Jakez Hélias (1914–1995) was a Breton stage actor, journalist, author, poet, and writer for radio who worked in the French and Breton languages.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Penmarc'h or Penmarch is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Peter II (in Breton Pêr II, in French Pierre II) (1418–1457, Nantes/ Naoned), was Duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort and titular earl of Richmond, from 1450 to his death.
Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
The Phare d'Eckmühl, also known as Point Penmarc'h Light or Saint-Pierre Light, is an active lighthouse in Penmarc'h, Finistère department, Brittany, France.
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
Meroni Manzoni di Chiosca e Poggiolo, better known as Piero Manzoni (July 13, 1933 – February 6, 1963) was an Italian artist best known for his ironic approach to avant-garde art.
Pierre Soulages (born 24 December 1919) is a French painter, engraver, and sculptor.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and drummers.
Church Saint-Armel Ploërmel (Gallo language: Pieurmè) is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
Plouha (Gallo: Plóha) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Plouharnel is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
Plouhinec is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
The pointe Saint-Mathieu (Lok Mazé in Breton) is a headland located near Le Conquet in the territory of the commune of Plougonvelin in France, flanked by 20m high cliffs.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Poitou-Charentes is a former administrative region in south-western France.
The Politics of Brittany, France takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Council is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Pont-Aven Breton:'River Bridge' is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Pont-Aven School (French: École de Pont-Aven, Breton: Skol Pont Aven) encompasses works of art influenced by Pont-Aven and its surroundings.
The Pontcallec conspiracy was a rebellion that arose from an anti-tax movement in Brittany between 1718 and 1720.
Pornic (Pornizh in Breton, Port-Nitz in Gallo) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département, in South-Eastern Brittany, in western France.
Pornichet is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Port-Louis is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Pot-au-feu ("pot on the fire") is a French beef stew.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Prince étranger (English: "foreign prince") was a high, though somewhat ambiguous, rank at the French royal court of the ancien régime.
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings.
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Quimper (Breton: Kemper, Latin: Civitas Aquilonia or Corisopitum) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Quimper faience is produced in a factory near Quimper, in Brittany, France.
Quimper–Bretagne Airport (Aéroport de Quimper-Bretagne), formerly known as Quimper–Cornouaille Airport (Aérodrome de Quimper Cornouaille) and Quimper–Pluguffan Airport (Aérodrome de Quimper Pluguffan), is an airport located in Pluguffan and 5.5 km southwest of Quimper, both communes of the Finistère département in the Brittany région of France.
Raffig Tullou (born Raphaël Tullou), alias Neven Lewarc’h (6 January 1909 in Mordelles – 16 January 1990 in Saint-Herblain) was a Breton sculptor and set designer.
Raymond Wintz (Joseph Raimond Wintz) (1884–1956) was a Paris-born painter and engraver whose most famous paintings were of marine and coastal views in Brittany.
The razorbill (Alca torda) is a colonial seabird that comes to land only to breed.
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
The Red Ensign or "Red Duster" is the civil ensign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Redon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
The Regional Council of Brittany is the regional legislature of the region of Brittany in France.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
A regional nature park or regional natural park (parc naturel régional or PNR) is a public establishment in France between local authorities and the French national government covering an inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty, in order to protect the scenery and heritage as well as setting up sustainable economic development in the area.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
René-Yves Creston (25 October 1898 – 30 May 1964), born René Pierre Joseph Creston, was a Breton artist, designer and ethnographer who founded the Breton nationalist art movement Seiz Breur.
Les Rencontres Trans Musicales (generally referred to as Les Transmusicales de Rennes) is a music festival that lasts for 3 or 4 days.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
Rennes–Saint-Jacques Airport or Aéroport de Rennes–Saint-Jacques is a minor international airport about southwest of Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
A retable is a structure or element placed either on or immediately behind and above the altar or communion table of a church.
The Revolt of the papier timbré was an anti-fiscal revolt in the west of Ancien Régime France, during the reign of Louis XIV from April to September 1675.
The Rhuys Peninsula is located in the département of Morbihan in the region of Brittany in northwestern France.
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley.
The Riedones, Redones or Rhedones are an ancient tribe of Gaul.
Riothamus (also spelled Riutimus or Riotimus) was a Romano-British military leader, who was active circa AD 470.
Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Roparz Hemon (18 November 1900 in Brest – 29 June 1978 in Dublin), officially named Louis-Paul Némo, was a Breton author and scholar of Breton expression.
Roscoff is a commune in the Finistère département of Brittany in northwestern France.
Rosslare Europort (Calafort Ros Láir) is a modern seaport located at Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland, near the southeastern-most point of Ireland, handling passenger and freight ferries to and from Wales and France.
The Route du Rhum is a transatlantic single-handed yacht race, which takes place every 4 years in November.
The Route nationale 12, or RN12, is a trunk road (nationale) in France connecting Paris with Brittany.
The Route nationale 165 is a highway in western France.
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (commonly called Penance, Reconciliation, or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (called sacred mysteries in the Eastern Catholic Churches), in which the faithful obtain absolution for the sins committed against God and neighbour and are reconciled with the community of the Church.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Anne, of David's house and line, was the mother of Mary and grandmother of Jesus according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition.
Saint Brioc (Breton: Brieg; Briog; Breock; Brieuc; died c. 502) was a 5th-century Welsh holy man who became the first abbot of Saint-Brieuc in Brittany.
Saint Judicael or Judicaël (– 16 or 17 December 658), also spelled Judhael (with many other variants), was the king of Domnonée and high king of the Bretons in the mid-7th century.
Saint Piran's Flag (Baner Peran) is the flag of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg, Gallo: Saent-Berioec) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Saint-Brieuc – Armor Airport (Aéroport de Saint-Brieuc - Armor) is an airport situated northwest of Saint-Brieuc, a commune of the Côtes-d'Armor department in the Brittany (Bretagne) region of northwestern France.
Saint-Julien-de-Concelles is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Malo (Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a historic French port in Brittany on the Channel coast.
The Tumulus of St.
Saint-Michel-Chef-Chef is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.
Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Pol-de-Léon is a commune in the Finistère department in Brittany in north-western France, located on the coast.
Paul Aurelian Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Paul-Aurélien) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral in Saint-Pol-de-Léon, in France.Saint-Pol-de-Léon is a commune in the Finistère department in Brittany in north-western France.
Saint Samson of Dol (also Samsun; born late 5th century) was a Christian religious figure who is counted among the seven founder saints of Brittany with Pol Aurelian, Tugdual or Tudwal, Brieuc, Malo, Patern (Paternus) and Corentin.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
A seaside resort is a resort town or resort hotel, located on the coast.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
In France, secondary education is in two stages.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Seiz Breur was an artistic movement founded in 1923 in Brittany.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
A shipowner is the owner of a merchant vessel (commercial ship) and is involved in the shipping industry.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
The small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), also known as the sandy dogfish, lesser-spotted dogfish, Rough-hound or Morgay (in Scotland and Cornwall), is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Soldat Louis are a French rock group originally from Lorient, who mix the traditional music of Brittany with typical rock music instruments - electric and acoustic guitar, drum kit, etc.
The Solitaire du Figaro, previously called the Course de l'Aurore, is a solo multi-stage sailing race created in 1970 by Jean-Louis Guillemard and Jean-Michel Barrault.
The South West Peninsula is an unofficial region of England, usually defined as the peninsula of land between the Bristol Channel to the north and the English Channel to the south.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The SS France was a Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT, or French Line) ocean liner, constructed by the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard at Saint-Nazaire, France, and put into service in February 1962.
The SS Normandie was an ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire, France, for the French Line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT).
Stade Brestois 29 (commonly referred to as Stade Brest or simply Brest) is a French football club based in Brest.
Stade Rennais Football Club, commonly referred to as Stade Rennais, SRFC or simply Rennes, is a French association football club based in Rennes.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
A stone row (or stone alignment), is a linear arrangement of upright, parallel megalithic standing stones set at intervals along a common axis or series of axes, usually dating from the later Neolithic or Bronze Age.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
A tall ship is a large, traditionally-rigged sailing vessel.
Tamara Łempicka (born: Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980; colloquial: Tamara de Lempicka) was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
TER Bretagne is the regional rail network serving Brittany, in the north west of France.
TER Pays de la Loire is the regional rail network serving Pays de la Loire, France.
Tetragonolobus maritimus, synonym Lotus maritimus, is a plant species in the legume family, native to Europe, Africa and temperate Asia.
The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
Jean-Baptiste-Théodore-Marie Botrel (14 September 1868 – 28 July 1925) was a French singer-songwriter, poet and playwright.
Théodore Claude Henri, vicomte Hersart de la Villemarqué (7 July 1815 – 8 December 1895) was a French philologist and man of letters.
Jean Antoine Théodore Gudin (15 August 1802 – 11 April 1880) was a French painter of the 19th century, born in Paris.
The Greens (Les Verts,; VEC or LV) was a green-ecologist political party in France.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
Thomas Coville (born 10 May 1968) is a French yacht racer.
The Festival of the Three Continents (Festival des 3 Continents) is an annual film festival held since 1979 in Nantes, France, and is devoted to the cinemas of Asia, and Africa and Latin America.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
The Transat Québec–Saint-Malo is a sailing transoceanic race taking place every four years, from Quebec City, Canada, to Saint-Malo, France.
Trégor (Bro-Dreger in Breton) is one of the nine provinces of Brittany, in its northwestern area.
Tréguier is a port town in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Tréguier Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Tugdual de Tréguier) is a Roman Catholic church and former cathedral in Tréguier, Côtes-d'Armor, France.
Tri Yann is a Breton band from Nantes who play folk rock music drawing on traditional Breton folk ballads.
A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry.
Tristan and Iseult is a tale made popular during the 12th century through Anglo-Norman literature, inspired by Celtic legend, particularly the stories of Deirdre and Naoise and Diarmuid Ua Duibhne and Gráinne.
Tro Breizh (Breton for "Tour of Brittany") is a Catholic pilgrimage that links the towns of the seven founding saints of Brittany.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Saint Tudwal (died c. 564), also known as Tual, Tudgual, Tugdual, Tugual, Pabu, Papu, or Tugdualus (Latin), was a Breton monk.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Unelli or Veneli (also Venelli) were one of the Armoric or maritime states of Gallia.
The union of Brittany and France was a critical step in the formation of modern-day France.
The University of Nantes (Université de Nantes) is a French university, located in the city of Nantes.
The University of Rennes was a French university located in the city of Rennes.
The University of Rennes 1 is one of the two main universities in the city of Rennes, France.
250px The University of Rennes 2 (Université Rennes 2, UR2) is a university in Upper Brittany, France, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.
The University of Southern Brittany (Université de Bretagne Sud) is a French university, in the Academy of Rennes.
The University of Western Brittany (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, UBO) is a French university, located in Brest, in the Academy of Rennes.
Breton Democratic Union (l'Union Démocratique Bretonne, Unvaniezh Demokratel Breizh, UDB) is a Breton nationalist, autonomist, and regionalist political party in Brittany (Bretagne administrée) and Loire-Atlantique.
Upper Brittany (Haute-Bretagne; Breizh-Uhel; Gallo: Haùtt-Bertaèyn) is the eastern part of Brittany France, which is predominantly of a Romance culture and is associated with the Gallo language.
Ushant (Eusa,; Ouessant) is a French island at the south-western end of the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of metropolitan France.
Utopiales is an annual international science fiction festival held in Nantes, France, probably the largest European event for the field.
In Arthurian legend, the Val sans retour (Vale of No Return or Valley Without Return), also known as the Val des faux amants (Vale of False Lovers) or the Val périlleux (Perillous Vale), is an enchanted land in which the sorceress Morgan le Fay imprisons her knightly lovers until the spell is eventually broken by Lancelot.
Vannes is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
Vannes Olympique Club (commonly referred to as simply Vannes) is a French football club based in Vannes.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula (France), which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica.
The Vieilles Charrues Festival (Festival des Vieilles Charrues; Gouel an Erer Kozh; literally: Old Ploughs Festival) is held every year in mid-July in the city of Carhaix located in the west of Brittany, France.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Villa rustica (countryside villa) was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (latifundium).
Vincent Riou (born January 9, 1972, Pont-l'Abbé, France) is a French sailor.
The Viscounty or County of Léon was a feudal state in extreme western Brittany in the High Middle Ages.
Vitré is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Wace (1110 – after 1174), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (he tells us in the Roman de Rou that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xavier Haas, (1907–1950) was a French painter and engraver.
Yann Tiersen (born 23 June 1970) is a French musician and composer.
Yann-Fañch Kemener (born April 7, 1957) is a traditional singer from Brittany, born in Sainte-Tréphine (Côtes-d'Armor), France.
Yelle is a French band founded by lead singer and namesake Yelle (Julie Budet) and GrandMarnier (Jean-François Perrier).
Yorkshire pudding is a common British side dish baked pudding made from batter consisting of eggs, flour, and milk or water.
Ys (pronounced), also spelled Is or Kêr-Is in Breton (kêr is the Breton word for "city", see caer), and Ville d'Ys in French, is a mythical city that was built on the coast of Brittany and later swallowed by the ocean.
.bzh is an approved Internet top level domain.
The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC.
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