246 relations: Actinide, Alkene, Allotropes of phosphorus, Ancient Greek, Annalen der Physik, Anticonvulsant, Antimony, Antoine Jérôme Balard, Aromaticity, Arsenic, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Atmosphere, Atomic electron transition, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Azeotrope, Azide, Bacteria, Bad Kreuznach, Barbiturate, Barium, Basement membrane, Benzene, Bernard Courtois, Beta decay, Bifluoride, Biological half-life, Bismuth, Borden Institute, Boron, Brine, Bromate, Bromic acid, Bromide, Brominated flame retardant, Bromine dioxide, Bromine monochloride, Bromine monofluoride, Bromine oxide, Bromine pentafluoride, Bromine trifluoride, Bromism, Bromo-Seltzer, Bromochlorodifluoromethane, Bromochloromethane, Bromoform, Bromomethane, Bromoperoxidase, Bromothymol blue, Bromotrifluoromethane, ..., Bromous acid, Butyl group, Caesium, Calcium fluoride, Carbon, Carbon tetrachloride, Carl Jacob Löwig, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chain reaction, Chemical burn, Chemical element, Chemical warfare, Chemische Berichte, Chloral hydrate, Chlorine, Chlorine oxide, Chlorine trifluoride, Cyanogen bromide, D-block contraction, Daguerreotype, Dead Sea, Decabromodiphenyl ether, Dehydrohalogenation, Delirium, Diamagnetism, Dibromine monoxide, Dibromine pentoxide, Dibromine trioxide, Diethyl ether, Disproportionation, Drilling fluid, Electron affinity, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Engine knocking, Eosinophil, Epileptic seizure, Ethanol, Ethyl group, Filariasis, Fire retardant, Flow battery, Fluorine, Food and Drug Administration, FR-2, FR-4, Free element, French Academy of Sciences, Fumigation, Fungus, Grignard reaction, Half-life, Halogen, Halogen addition reaction, Halogenation, Halohydrin, Halomethane, Halonium ion, Haloperoxidase, Heidelberg, HOMO/LUMO, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen bromide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydronium, Hypobromite, Hypobromous acid, Hypochlorite, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Industry, Interhalogen, Iodine, Iodine monochloride, Iodine oxide, Iodine pentoxide, Ion, Ionization energy, Israel, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Krypton, Lanthanide, Latin, Lattice energy, Leaching (chemistry), Leopold Gmelin, Liquid, List of extremely hazardous substances, List of gasoline additives, Louis Jacques Thénard, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Medication, Methyl group, Mineral (nutrient), Montpellier, Montreal Protocol, N-Bromosuccinimide, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nematode, Neutron activation, Niobium pentoxide, Niobium(V) bromide, Nitrogen, Nitrogen tribromide, Nitrosyl chloride, Noble gas, Nonmetal, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nucleophilic substitution, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organobromine compound, Organochloride, Organoiodine compound, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxyacid, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Parasitism, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Perbromate, Perbromic acid, Periodic trends, Permissible exposure limit, Pesticide, Phenol, Photographic film, Platinum, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polymerization, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium bromide, Printed circuit board, Pseudohalogen, Psychosis, Quaternary ammonium cation, Radical (chemistry), Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Relative permittivity, Resin, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Salt marsh, Seaweed, Sedative, Selenium, Silicon, Silver bromate, Silver bromide, Silver chloride, Silver halide, Silver iodide, Sodium bromide, Somnolence, Staßfurt, Standard electrode potential, Strontium, Sulfur, Sulfuryl fluoride, Sunlight, Tetrabromobisphenol A, Tetrabromomethane, Thiocyanate, Triiodide, Tuberculosis, Type IV collagen, Tyrian purple, United States, United States Government Publishing Office, Uranium, Uranium hexafluoride, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Vanadium bromoperoxidase, Vinyl bromide, Weed, World War I, Wurtz reaction, Xenon, Xenon difluoride, Xylyl bromide, Zinc–bromine battery, 1,2-Dibromoethane, 1,4-Benzoquinone. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine Jérôme Balard (30 September 180230 April 1876) was a French chemist and one of the discoverers of bromine.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asparagopsis taxiformis, limu kohu formerly A. sanfordiana, is a species of red algae, with cosmopolitan distribution in tropical to warm temperate waters.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777 – 27 September 1838) was a French chemist credited with first isolating iodine and morphine.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bifluoride is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HF (also written −).
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The Borden Institute is a U.S. Army “Center of Excellence in Military Medical Research and Education”.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
The bromate anion, BrO, is a bromine-based oxoanion.
Bromic acid, also known as hydrogen bromate, is an oxoacid with the molecular formula HBrO3.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are organobromine compounds that have an inhibitory effect on combustion chemistry and tend to reduce the flammability of products containing them.
Bromine dioxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula BrO2.
Bromine monochloride, also called bromine(I) chloride, bromochloride, and bromine chloride, is an interhalogen inorganic compound with chemical formula BrCl.
Bromine monofluoride is a quite unstable interhalogen compound with the chemical formula BrF.
Bromine can form several different unstable oxides: Dibromine monoxide (Br2O) Bromine dioxide (BrO2) Dibromine trioxide (Br2O3) Dibromine pentoxide (Br2O5) Tribromine octoxide (Br3O8) Also, a number of ions are bromine oxides: Hypobromite (BrO−) Bromite (BrO2−) Bromate (BrO3−) Perbromate (BrO4−) And the bromine monoxide radical: Bromine oxide (BrO).
Bromine pentafluoride, BrF5, is an interhalogen compound and a fluoride of bromine.
Bromine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula BrF3.
Bromism is the syndrome which results from the long-term consumption of bromine, usually through bromide-based sedatives such as potassium bromide and lithium bromide.
Bromo-Seltzer (acetaminophen, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid), was a brand of antacid to relieve pain occurring together with heartburn, upset stomach, or acid indigestion.
Bromochlorodifluoromethane, also known by the trade name Halon 1211, or BCF, or Halon 1211 BCF, or Freon 12B1, is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CF2ClBr.
Bromochloromethane or methylene bromochloride and Halon 1011 is a mixed halomethane.
Bromoform (CHBr3) is a brominated organic solvent, colorless liquid at room temperature, with a high refractive index, very high density, and sweet odor is similar to that of chloroform.
Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br.
Bromoperoxidases are enzymes that catalyse the bromination of hydrocarbons.
Bromothymol blue (also known as bromothymol sulfone phthalein and BTB) is a pH indicator.
Bromotrifluoromethane, commonly known as Halon 1301, R13B1, Halon 13B1 or BTM, is an organic halide with the chemical formula CBrF3.
Bromous acid is the inorganic compound with the formula of HBrO2.
In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
Carl Jacob Löwig (17 March 1803 – 27 March 1890) was a German chemist and discovered bromine independently of Antoine Jérôme Balard.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine and oxygen can bond in many ways.
Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.
Cyanogen bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula (CN)Br or BrCN.
The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.
The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Decabromodiphenyl ether (also known as decaBDE, deca-BDE, DBDE, deca, decabromodiphenyl oxide, DBDPO, or bis(pentabromophenyl) ether) is a brominated flame retardant which belongs to the group of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
Dehydrohalogenation is a chemical reaction that involves removal of (elimination of) a hydrogen halide from a substrate.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Dibromine monoxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O.
Dibromine pentoxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O5.
Dibromine trioxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O3.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 is a United States federal law passed by the 99th United States Congress located at Title 42, Chapter 116 of the U.S. Code, concerned with emergency response preparedness.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.
A fire retardant is a substance that is used to slow or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity.
A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
FR-2 (Flame Resistant 2) is a NEMA designation for synthetic resin bonded paper, a composite material made of paper impregnated with a plasticized phenol formaldehyde resin, used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
FR-4 (or FR4) is a NEMA grade designation for glass-reinforced epoxy laminate material.
In chemistry, a free element is a chemical element that is not combined with or chemically bonded to other elements.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A halogen addition reaction is a simple organic reaction where a halogen molecule is added to the carbon–carbon double bond of an alkene functional group.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
In organic chemistry a halohydrin (also a haloalcohol or β-halo alcohol) is a functional group in which a halogen and a hydroxyl are bonded to adjacent carbon atoms, which otherwise bear only hydrogen or hydrocarbyl groups (e.g. 2-chloroethanol, 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol).
Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I).
A halonium ion in organic chemistry is any onium compound (ion) containing a halogen atom carrying a positive charge.
Haloperoxidases are peroxidases that are able to mediate the oxidation of halides by hydrogen peroxide.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen bromide is the diatomic molecule with the formula.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
The hypobromite ion, also called alkaline bromine water, is BrO−.
Hypobromous acid is a very weak and unstable acid with chemical formula of HOBr.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine monochloride is an interhalogen compound with the formula.
Iodine oxides are chemical compounds of oxygen and iodine.
Iodine pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula I2O5.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 by the American Chemical Society.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This is the list of extremely hazardous substances defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002).
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
N-Bromosuccinimide or NBS is a chemical reagent used in radical substitution, electrophilic addition, and electrophilic substitution reactions in organic chemistry.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Niobium pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Nb2O5.
Niobium(V) bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula Nb2Br10.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen tribromide is a chemical compound with the formula NBr3.
Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organobromine compounds, also called organobromides, are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
An oxyacid, or oxoacid, is an acid that contains oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
In chemistry, the perbromate ions ion is the anion having the chemical formula.
The compound perbromic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula HBrO4.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver bromate (AgBrO3), is a poisonous, light and heat-sensitive, white powder.
Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.
Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.
Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Staßfurt (Stassfurt) is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuryl fluoride (also spelled sulphuryl fluoride) is an inorganic compound with the formula SO2F2.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant.
Tetrabromomethane, CBr4, also known as carbon tetrabromide, is a carbon bromide.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
In chemistry, triiodide usually refers to the triiodide ion,.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vanadium bromoperoxidase are a kind of haloperoxidase that is involved in the bromination of organic compounds associated with defense and pigmentation in seaweeds and marine algae.
Vinyl bromide is a simple vinyl halide.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wurtz reaction, named after Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, is a coupling reaction in organic chemistry, organometallic chemistry and recently inorganic main group polymers, whereby two alkyl halides are reacted with sodium metal in dry ether solution to form a higher alkane: Other metals have also been used to effect the Wurtz coupling, among them silver, zinc, iron, activated copper, indium and a mixture of manganese and copper chloride.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.
Xylyl bromide, also known as methylbenzyl bromide or T-stoff ("T stuff"), is any member or a mixture of organic chemical compounds with the molecular formula C6H4(CH3)(CH2Br).
The zinc–bromine flow battery is a type of hybrid flow battery.
1,2-Dibromoethane, also known as ethylene dibromide (EDB), is the organobromine compound with the chemical formula (CH2Br)2.
1,4-Benzoquinone, commonly known as para-quinone, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4O2.