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Bronze Night

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The Bronze Night (Pronksiöö or Pronksöö), also known as the April Unrest (Aprillirahutused) and April Events (Aprillisündmused), is the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn. [1]

138 relations: Aftermath of the Bronze Night, Agence France-Presse, Amnesty International, Andrus Ansip, Article 19, Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Associated Press, Õhtuleht, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Germans, Baltic News Service, BBC, Berel Lazar, Bolsheviks, Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, Business cycle, Captain (armed forces), Casting, Certiorari, Citizenship, Committee for the Prevention of Torture, Constitution of Estonia, Coordinated Universal Time, Copycat crime, Dagens Nyheter, Declaration of war, Defence Forces Cemetery of Tallinn, Demographics of Estonia, Dmitri Linter, DNA, Eastern European Summer Time, Eesti Päevaleht, Eesti Televisioon, Estonia, Estonian Centre Party, Estonian Defence Forces, Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate, Estonian Patriotic Movement, Estonian Reform Party, Estonian War of Independence, Estonians, Eternal flame, Ethnic conflict, European Court of Human Rights, European Union, Federal Security Service, Finland, Flag of Estonia, Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia), Frank-Walter Steinmeier, ..., Freedom House, Geneva Conventions, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, Germany, Government of Estonia, History of Estonia, Human rights, In dubio pro reo, Institute of Democracy and Cooperation, Interfax, International law, Jõhvi, Jerusalem, Jews, Kalamaja cemetery, Kolyvan, Kommersant, Kopli cemetery, Language, Latvian Riflemen, Legal Information Centre for Human Rights, London, Looting, Mandate (politics), Mark Sirõk, Master sergeant, Mõigu cemetery, Military attaché, Minister of Defence (Estonia), Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Monument of Lihula, Moscow, Mount of Olives, Nashi (youth movement), Natalya Narochnitskaya, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Near abroad, Nikolay Kovalyov (politician), Nochnoy Dozor (group), Occupation of the Baltic states, Opinion poll, Partorg, Perestroika, Perjury, Politics of Estonia, Postimees, Pro Patria (Estonian political party), Rabbi, Red Army, REGNUM News Agency, Resignation, Resistance movement, RIA Novosti, Riigikogu, Riot, Rostov Oblast, Russia, Russia-24, Russians in the Baltic states, Sovereignty, Soviet Army, Soviet Union, Standing (law), State continuity of the Baltic states, State Duma, Supreme Court of Estonia, Sven Mikser, Tallinn, Tõnismägi, Tear gas, The American Spectator, Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå, Time (magazine), Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Traffic, United States, Urmas Paet, Vandalism, Veteran, Victory Day (9 May), Victory in Europe Day, Voice of Russia, War grave, World War II, Wreath, Yle, 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia. Expand index (88 more) »

Aftermath of the Bronze Night

Aftermath of the Bronze Night refers to the reactions and consequences of the Bronze Night, the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Andrus Ansip

Andrus Ansip (born 1 October 1956) is an Estonian politician, the current European Commissioner for Digital Single Market and Vice President of the European Commission, in office since 2014.

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Article 19

Article 19 (stylized ARTICLE 19) is a British human rights organization with a specific mandate and focus on the defense and promotion of freedom of expression and freedom of information worldwide founded in 1987.

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Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits torture, and "inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Õhtuleht

Õhtuleht (Evening Paper) is the second largest daily newspaper in Estonia.

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Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic News Service

The Baltic News Service (BNS) is the largest news agency operating in the Baltic states.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Berel Lazar

Rabbi Shlomo Dovber Pinchas Lazar (born May 19, 1964 in Milan, Italy), better known as Berel Lazar, is an Italian Jewish Orthodox, Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic rabbi.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Bronze Soldier of Tallinn

The Bronze Soldier (Pronkssõdur, Бронзовый Солдат, Bronzovyj Soldat) is the informal name of a controversial Soviet World War II war memorial in Tallinn, Estonia, built at the site of several war graves, which were relocated to the nearby Tallinn Military Cemetery in 2007.

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Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Casting

Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.

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Certiorari

Certiorari, often abbreviated cert. in the United States, is a process for seeking judicial review and a writ issued by a court that agrees to review.

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Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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Committee for the Prevention of Torture

The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment or shortly Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) is the anti-torture committee of the Council of Europe.

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Constitution of Estonia

The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law of the Republic of Estonia and establishes the state order as that of a democratic republic where the supreme power is vested in its citizens.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Copycat crime

A copycat crime is a criminal act that is modeled or inspired by a previous crime.

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Dagens Nyheter

Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.

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Defence Forces Cemetery of Tallinn

The Defence Forces Cemetery of Tallinn (Tallinna Kaitseväe kalmistu), sometimes called the Tallinn Military Cemetery (Tallinna Sojavae kalmistu), is one of the three cemeteries of the Tallinn City Centre Cemetery (Estonian: Siselinna kalmistu).

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Demographics of Estonia

The demographics of Estonia in the twenty-first century result from historical trends over more than a thousand years, as with most European countries, but have been disproportionately influenced by events in the last half of the twentieth century.

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Dmitri Linter

Dmitri Linter (Дмитрий Серге́евич Линтер) (born November 22, 1973) is a Russian civil servant.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eesti Päevaleht

Eesti Päevaleht ("Estonia Daily") is a major daily Estonian newspaper, from the same publishers as the weekly Eesti Ekspress.

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Eesti Televisioon

Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television) is the free-to-air national public television station of Estonia.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonian Centre Party

The Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond) is a centrist, social-liberal, and populist political party in Estonia.

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Estonian Defence Forces

The Estonian Defence Forces (Eesti Kaitsevägi) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.

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Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate

The Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (Moskva Patriarhaadi Eesti Õigeusu Kirik) is a semi-autonomous Church in the canonical jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow whose primate is appointed by the Holy Synod of the latter.

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Estonian Patriotic Movement

The Estonian Patriotic Movement (Eesti Rahvuslik Liikumine; ERL) was a political pressure group in Estonia.

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Estonian Reform Party

The Estonian Reform Party (Eesti Reformierakond) is a liberal political party in Estonia.

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Estonian War of Independence

The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.

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Estonians

Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.

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Eternal flame

An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns continuously for an indefinite period.

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Ethnic conflict

An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Federal Security Service

The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Flag of Estonia

The national flag of Estonia (Eesti lipp) is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.

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Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia)

The Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation (p) or SVR RF (СВР РФ) is Russia's external intelligence agency, mainly for civilian affairs.

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Frank-Walter Steinmeier

Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Geneva Conventions

Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

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Geographical distribution of Russian speakers

This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Government of Estonia

The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.

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History of Estonia

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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In dubio pro reo

The principle of in dubio pro reo (Latin for " in doubt, for the accused") means that a defendant may not be convicted by the court when doubts about his or her guilt remain.

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Institute of Democracy and Cooperation

The Institute of Democracy and Cooperation is a think tank in Paris.

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Interfax

Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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Jõhvi

Jõhvi (Jewe) is a town in north-eastern Estonia, and the capital of Ida-Viru County.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Kalamaja cemetery

The Kalamaja cemetery (Kalamaja kalmistu, Fischermay Kirchhof or Fischermay Friedhof), in Tallinn in Estonia was once the city's oldest existing cemetery, located in the suburb of Kalamaja in the north of the city.

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Kolyvan

Kolyvan (Колывань) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.

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Kommersant

Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.

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Kopli cemetery

The Kopli cemetery (Friedhof von Ziegelskoppel or Kirchhof von Ziegelskoppel; Kopli kalmistu) was Estonia's largest Lutheran Baltic German cemetery, located in the suburb of Kopli in Tallinn.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Latvian Riflemen

Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.

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Legal Information Centre for Human Rights

Legal Information Centre for Human Rights is a non-governmental organisation based in Estonia, according to Hanne-Margret Birckenbach, is "particularly involved in promoting the concerns of Russian-speaking inhabitants and with outstanding contacts to West European research institutes", which "is considered as one of the few attempts in Estonia to develop competence in the understanding of human rights issues, whereas Estonian judges or the legal education system, for instance, have remained uninterested".

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Looting

Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.

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Mandate (politics)

In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative.

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Mark Sirõk

Mark Sirõk (Марк Сирык, born 12 March 1989) is a Russian-speaking Estonian political activist.

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Master sergeant

A master sergeant is the military rank for a senior non-commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries.

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Mõigu cemetery

The Mõigu cemetery (Friedhof von Moik or Kirchhof von Moik), Mõigu kalmistu) was a large Baltic German cemetery, located in the Tallinn suburb of Mõigu in Estonia. It served as the primary burial ground for the usually wealthy and noble citizens of the Toompea parish of Tallinn. Containing numerous graves, it stood for over 170 years from 1774 to shortly after World War II when it was completely flattened and destroyed by the Soviet occupation authorities governing the country at that time.Rein Taagepera, Estonia: Return to Independence, Westview Press 1993,, page 189 Its origins and destruction are very similar to that of the Kopli cemetery (also in Tallinn).

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Military attaché

A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission (an attaché).

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Minister of Defence (Estonia)

The Minister of Defence (Estonian: Kaitseminister) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Defence (Kaitseministeerium) in the Estonian Government.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Monument of Lihula

Monument of Lihula is the colloquial name of a monument commemorating the Estonians who fought for Estonia against the Soviet Union in World War II, located in Lagedi near Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Mount of Olives

The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet (הַר הַזֵּיתִים, Har ha-Zeitim; جبل الزيتون, الطور, Jabal al-Zaytun, Al-Tur) is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to Jerusalem's Old City.

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Nashi (youth movement)

Nashi (Молодежное демократическое aнтифашистское движение «Наши», Youth Democratic Anti-Fascist Movement "Ours!") was a political youth movement in Russia, which declared itself to be a democratic, anti-fascist, anti-'oligarchic-capitalist' movement.

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Natalya Narochnitskaya

Nataliya Alekseevna Narotchnitskaya (Наталия Алексеевна Нарочницкая) (born December 23, 1948) is a Russian politician, historian and diplomat.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Near abroad

In the political language of Russia and some other post-Soviet states, the near abroad (italic) refers to the newly independent republics (other than Russia itself) which emerged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Nikolay Kovalyov (politician)

Nikolai Dmitrievich Kovalyov (Николай Дмитриевич Ковалёв) (born 6 August 1949) is a Russian politician (United Russia) and member of the State Duma, where he chairs the Duma's Veterans' Committee.

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Nochnoy Dozor (group)

Nochnoy Dozor (Ночной дозор, Night Watch, Öine Vahtkond) is a group of mostly Russophone political activists living in Estonia.

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Occupation of the Baltic states

The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.

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Opinion poll

An opinion poll, often simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample.

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Partorg

Partorg (Парторг, from партийный организатор, partiyny organizator, or "party organizer") was a person appointed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to work at important places: larger plants, construction sites, kolkhozes, institutions, etc.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Perjury

Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.

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Politics of Estonia

Politics in Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

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Postimees

Postimees (The Postman) is an Estonian daily newspaper established on January 1, 1857, by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.

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Pro Patria (Estonian political party)

Pro Patria (Isamaa) is a conservative political party in Estonia.

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Rabbi

In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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REGNUM News Agency

REGNUM News Agency is a Russian non-governmental, nationwide online news service disseminating news from Russia and abroad from its own correspondents, affiliate agencies and partners.

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Resignation

A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position.

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Resistance movement

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Riigikogu

The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.

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Riot

A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.

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Rostov Oblast

Rostov Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russia-24

Russia-24 (Россия-24) is a state-owned Russian-language news channel from Russia.

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Russians in the Baltic states

Russians in the Baltic states describes self-identifying ethnic Russians and other primary Russian-speaking communities in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, commonly referred to collectively as the Baltic states.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Standing (law)

In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.

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State continuity of the Baltic states

State continuity of the Baltic states describes the continuity of the Baltic states as legal entities under international lawZiemele (2005).

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State Duma

The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.

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Supreme Court of Estonia

The Supreme Court of Estonia (Riigikohus) is the court of last resort in Estonia.

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Sven Mikser

Sven Mikser (born 8 November 1973 in Tartu) is an Estonian politician.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Tõnismägi

Tõnismägi (Estonian for "St. Anthony's Hill") is a 36-metre high hillock adjacent to Toompea hill in Tallinn, Estonia.

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Tear gas

Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.

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The American Spectator

The American Spectator is a conservative U.S. monthly magazine covering news and politics, edited by R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. and published by the non-profit American Spectator Foundation.

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Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå

TT News Agency (TT) – former Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå – is a Swedish news agency, the largest in Scandinavia, owned jointly by the country's newspapers and the media groups behind them.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Toomas Hendrik Ilves

Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.

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Traffic

Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urmas Paet

Urmas Paet (born 20 April 1974) is an Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Estonia.

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Vandalism

Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".

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Veteran

A veteran (from Latin vetus, meaning "old") is a person who has had long service or experience in a particular occupation or field.

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Victory Day (9 May)

Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Voice of Russia

The Voice of Russia (r), commonly abbreviated VOR, was the Russian government's international radio broadcasting service from 1993 until 2014, when it was reorganised as Radio Sputnik.

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War grave

A war grave is a burial place for members of the armed forces or civilians who died during military campaigns or operations.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wreath

A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.

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Yle

Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), also known as Rundradion (Swedish) or the Finnish Broadcasting Company (English), abbreviated to Yle (pronounced /yle/; previously stylised as YLE before the 2012 corporate rebrand), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926.

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2007 cyberattacks on Estonia

A series of cyber attacks began 27 April 2007 that swamped websites of Estonian organizations, including Estonian parliament, banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters, amid the country's disagreement with Russia about the relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, an elaborate Soviet-era grave marker, as well as war graves in Tallinn.

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Redirects here:

2007 Estonian unrest, Bronze Nights, Bronze night.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Night

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