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The ABC Islands bear (Ursus arctos sitkensis) or Sitka brown bear is a subspecies of brown bear that resides in Southeast Alaska and is found on Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, and Chichagof Island of Alaska.
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
The Adamello-Presanella Alps Alpine group is a mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group of the Eastern Alps.
Admiralty Island is an island in the Alexander Archipelago in Southeast Alaska, at.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afognak (Alutiiq: Agw’aneq; Афогнакъ) is an island north of Kodiak Island in the U.S. state of Alaska.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alaska Dispatch is a news organization founded in 2008 and based in Anchorage, Alaska.
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands.
The Alaska Peninsula brown bear is any member of the grizzly bear subspecies (Ursus arctos horribilis) that lives in the coastal regions of southern Alaska.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
The Aleutian tern (Onychoprion aleuticus, formerly Sterna aleutica)Bridge, E. S.; Jones, A. W. & Baker, A. J. (2005).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
The American lion (Panthera leo atrox) – also known as the North American cave lion – is an extinct subspecies of lion that lived in North America during the Pleistocene epoch (340,000 to 11,000 years ago).
The American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is one of three species of tree squirrels currently classified in the genus Tamiasciurus, known as the pine squirrels (the others are the Douglas squirrel, T. douglasii, and Mearns's squirrel, T. mearnsi).
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a leopard subspecies native to the Primorye region of southeastern Russia and the Jilin Province of northeast China.
Amur Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
The Anabar River (Анаабыр) is a river in Sakha, Russia, located just west of the Lena River.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Arbutus unedo, the strawberry tree, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii or Urocitellus parryii) is a species of ground squirrel native to the Arctic.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The army cutworm (Euxoa auxiliaris) is a species of moth.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
The names Atlas bear and African bearBryden, H. A. (ed.) (1899).
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Baranof Island, also sometimes called Baranov Island, Shee or Sitka Island (italic) is an island in the northern Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle, in Alaska.
A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.
The Republic of Bashkortostan (Башҡортостан Республикаһы, p), also historically known as Bashkiria (p), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)).
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
Bearberries are three species of dwarf shrubs in the genus Arctostaphylos.
The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
A beehive is an enclosed structure man-made in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
The Boone and Crockett Club is an American nonprofit organization that advocates fair chase hunting in support of habitat conservation.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, wildebeest, impala, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) is a freshwater whitefish species.
The Brooks Range (Athabaskan Gwazhał) is a mountain range in far northern North America stretching some from west to east across northern Alaska into Canada's Yukon Territory.
Brown is a composite color.
Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? is a children's picture book published in 1967.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bundesliga (lit. "Federal League", sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga or 1. Bundesliga) is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide.
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California grizzly bear (Ursus arctos californicus) is an extinct subspecies of the grizzly bear, the very large North American brown bear.
The California State Library collects, preserves, generates and disseminates a wide array of information.
Cambaroides japonicus, also known as, is a species of crayfish endemic to Japan.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
Cantabrian brown bear refers to a population of Eurasian brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) living in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain.
The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
The Carinthian-Slovenian Alps (in Slovenian Koroško-Slovenske Alpe, in German Kärntnerisch-Slowenische Alpen) are a mountain range in the eastern part of the Alps.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) are large ants indigenous to many forested parts of the world.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The Central Arctic was an electoral district of the Northwest Territories, Canada, created in 1966 and abolished in 1983.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The Changtang (alternatively spelled Changthang) is a part of the high altitude Tibetan Plateau in western and northern Tibet extending into southeastern Ladakh, India, with vast highlands and giant lakes.
Charles John Cornish (28 September 1858 – 30 January 1906) was an English naturalist and author.
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois.
Chichagof Island, or Shee Kaax, is an island in the Alexander Archipelago of the Alaska Panhandle.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus.
Chipmunks are small, striped rodents of the family Sciuridae.
The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native in the Indian subcontinent.
The Chukchi Peninsula (or Chukotka Peninsula or Chukotski Peninsula) (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.
Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
The chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Coastal California, also known as the California Coastline and the Golden Coast, refers to the coastal regions of the U.S. state of California.
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch; Karuk: achvuun) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon.
The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, European grass frog, or simply a frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans.
The common raven (Corvus corax), also known as the northern raven, is a large all-black passerine bird.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation).
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (that is, the periods of dawn and dusk).
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).
Cronartium ribicola is a species of rust fungus in the family Cronartiaceae that causes the disease white pine blister rust.
Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience that aims to prove the existence of entities from the folklore record, such as Bigfoot or chupacabras, as well as animals otherwise considered extinct, such as non-avian dinosaurs.
The cutthroat trout is a fish species of the family Salmonidae native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin in North America.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dall Island is an island in the Alexander Archipelago off the southeast coast of Alaska, just west of Prince of Wales Island and north of Canadian waters.
Denali National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve located in Interior Alaska, centered on Denali, the highest mountain in North America.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
The East Siberian brown bear (Ursus arctos collaris) is a subspecies of brown bear which ranges from eastern Siberia, beginning at the Yenisei river, as far as Trans-Baikaliya, the Stanovoy Range, the Lena River, Kolyma and generally throughout Yakutia and the Altai Mountains.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ecological traps are scenarios in which rapid environmental change leads organisms to prefer to settle in poor-quality habitats.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy used by approximately 100 different mammals in seven or eight different orders.
Empetrum nigrum, crowberry, black crowberry, or, in western Alaska, blackberry, is a flowering plant species in the heather family Ericaceae with a near circumboreal distribution in the northern hemisphere.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) is one of the most common subspecies of the brown bear, and is found in much of Eurasia.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
European Protected Species (EPS) are species of plants and animals (other than birds) protected by law throughout the European Union.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is folklore genre that takes the form of a short story that typically features entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria (Bayern).
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, junglefowl and the Cracidae.
The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species, whether the distance measures time from common ancestor or degree of differentiation.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
The Alps cover a large area.
George Fox University (GFU) is a Christian university of liberal arts and sciences and professional studies in Newberg, Oregon.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Gobi bear, Ursus arctos gobiensis (known in Mongolian as the mazaalai/Мазаалай), is a subspecies of the brown bear, Ursus arctos, that is found in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
"Goldilocks and the Three Bears" (originally titled "The Story of the Three Bears") is a 19th-century fairy tale of which three versions exist.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The grayling (Thymallus thymallus) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is one of the last remaining large, nearly intact ecosystems in the northern temperate zone of the Earth.
The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos ssp.) is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America.
The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
The Gwich’in (or Kutchin) are an Athabaskan-speaking First Nations people of Canada and an Alaska Native people.
The gyrfalcon is a bird of prey (Falco rusticolus), the largest of the falcon species. The abbreviation gyr is also used. It breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra, and the islands of northern North America, Europe, and Asia. It is mainly a resident there also, but some gyrfalcons disperse more widely after the breeding season, or in winter. Individual vagrancy can take birds for long distances. Its plumage varies with location, with birds being coloured from all-white to dark brown. These colour variations are called morphs. Like other falcons, it shows sexual dimorphism, with the female much larger than the male. For centuries, the gyrfalcon has been valued as a hunting bird. Typical prey includes the ptarmigan and waterfowl, which it may take in flight; it also takes fish and mammals.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Hedysarum (sweetvetch) is a genus of the botanical family Fabaceae, consisting of about 200 species of annual or perennial herbs in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and North America.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is one of five tortoise species traditionally placed in the genus Testudo, the others being the marginated tortoise (T. marginata), Greek tortoise (T. graeca, or common tortoise), Russian tortoise (T. horsfieldii), and Kleinmann's tortoise (T. kleinmanni, or Egyptian tortoise).
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
The Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus), also known as the Himalayan red bear, isabelline bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the brown bear and is known from northern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, northern India, west China, and Nepal.
The Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) is a marmot species that inhabits alpine grasslands throughout the Himalayas and on the Tibetan Plateau.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homotherium (also known as the scimitar-toothed cat or scimitar cat) is an extinct genus of machairodontine saber-toothed cats, often termed scimitar-toothed cats, that inhabited North America, South America, Eurasia, and Africa during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (4 mya – 12,000 years ago), existing for approximately.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
An ice field (also spelled icefield) is an expansive area of interconnected glaciers found in a mountain region, or it is an extensive formation of packs of ice at sea.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Inbreeding avoidance, or the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to the prevention of the deleterious effects of inbreeding.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
In animals, infanticide involves the killing of young offspring by a mature animal of the same species, and is studied in zoology, specifically in the field of ethology.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The International Wolf Center (IWC) is a research and educational organization based in Ely, Minnesota, United States, that, in its own words, "advances the survival of wolf populations by teaching about wolves, their relationship to wildlands and the human role in their future." The Wolf Center operates an interpretive center in Ely open to the public, where visitors can view captive "ambassador wolves" in natural surroundings through large windows, and can learn about wolves through a variety of exhibits and programs.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese rat snake (Elaphe climacophora) is a medium-sized snake found throughout the Japanese archipelago (except the far South West).
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Journal of Animal Ecology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in all areas of animal ecology.
The Journal of Applied Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in all areas of environmental management.
Julia Pavlovna Petrova-Averkieva (July 24, 1907 – October 9, 1980 in Moscow) was a Soviet anthropologist and string figure collector.
The Kamchatka brown bear (Ursus arctos beringianus), also known as the Far Eastern brown bear, is a subspecies of brown bear native to the Anadyrsky District, the Kamchatka Peninsula, Karaginskiy Island, the Kuril Islands, the coastal strip west of the Sea of Okhotsk southward to the Stanovoy Range and the Shantar Islands.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kāṣāya (kāṣāya; kasāva; කසාවත) are the robes of fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye.
Katmai National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park and Preserve in southern Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its Alaskan brown bears.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the coast of Southcentral Alaska.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
Khabarovsk Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).
The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi), also known as the Kodiak brown bear, sometimes the Alaskan brown bear, inhabits the islands of the Kodiak Archipelago in southwest Alaska.
Kodiak Island (Alutiiq: Qikertaq, Кадьякъ) is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait.
The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge in the Kodiak Archipelago in southwestern Alaska, United States.
Kolyma (Колыма́) is a region located in the Russian Far East.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kwakiutl (natively Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw "Kwak'wala-speaking peoples") are a Pacific Northwest Coast Indigenous people.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
A lemming is a small rodent usually found in or near the Arctic in tundra biomes.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Fatal bear attacks in North America have occurred in a variety of settings.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) is a species of cypriniform freshwater fish in the Catostomidae family.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Machairodus is a genus of large machairodontine saber-toothed cats that lived in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America from the late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene.
The Mackenzie Mountains are a mountain range forming part of the Yukon-Northwest Territories boundary between the Liard and Peel rivers.
The Mackenzie River (Slavey language: Deh-Cho, big river or Inuvialuktun: Kuukpak, great river; fleuve (de) Mackenzie) is the longest river system in Canada, and has the second largest drainage basin of any North American river after the Mississippi River.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple (M. pumila syn. M. domestica) – also known as the eating apple, cooking apple, or culinary apple.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Mark Allen Sherman of Pasadena, California is a biochemist (PhD) and prominent string figure enthusiast.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Marsica is a geographical area in the Abruzzo, central Italy, including 37 comuni in the province of L'Aquila, the most important of which is Avezzano.
The Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) (Italian: orso bruno marsicano), also known as the Apennine brown bear, is a critically endangered subspecies of the brown bear, with a range restricted to the Abruzzo National Park, and the surrounding region in Italy.
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.
Mast is the "fruit of forest trees like acorns and other nuts".
A maternity den, in the animal kingdom, is a lair where the mother gives birth and nurtures the young, when they are in a vulnerable life stage.
Medicago is a genus of flowering plants, commonly known as medick or burclover, in the legume (Fabaceae) family.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
The seaducks (Mergini) are a tribe of the duck subfamily of birds, the Anatinae.
The Mexican grizzly bear (Ursus arctos; formerly Ursus arctos nelsoni) is an extinct population of the grizzly bear.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (Ministerul Mediului și Schimbărilor climatice) is one of the ministries of the Government of Romania.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a large hoofed mammal endemic to North America.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
Nelchina (Xaz Ghae Na’ in Ahtna) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska, United States.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
The northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) was first discovered by Lewis and Clark on April 9, 1805 at the mouth of the Knife River, North Dakota.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Novosibirsk Oblast (Новосиби́рская о́бласть, Novosibirskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in southwestern Siberia.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmon and Pacific trout.
Oncorhynchus masou, known as the masu salmon, masu, or the cherry hybrid salmon, is a species of salmon found in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean along East Asia, ranging from the Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorsky Krai south through Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Ovis is a genus of mammals, part of the goat-antelope subfamily of the ruminant family Bovidae.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, is a species of large edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pharidae.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The Pamir-Alay (also Pamiro-Alai, Памиро-Алай) is a mountain system in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, part of the Pamir Mountains.
Panthera spelaea, formerly referred to as Panthera leo spelaea, is a fossil cat belonging to the genus Panthera, which was described by the German paleontologist Georg August Goldfuss in 1810 under the scientific name Felis spelaea.
Paramushir (translit, translit, translit, is a volcanic island in the northern portion of Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean. It is separated from Shumshu by the very narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast, from Antsiferov by the Luzhin Strait (15 km) to the southwest, from Atlasov in the northwest by, and from Onnekotan in the south by the 40 km wide Fourth Kuril Strait. Its northern tip is from Cape Lopatka at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Its name is derived from the Ainu language, from “broad island” or “populous island”. Severo-Kurilsk, the administrative center of the Severo-Kurilsky district, is the only permanently populated settlement on Paramushir island.
A paraspecies (a paraphyletic species) is a species, living or fossil, that gave rise to one or more daughter species without itself becoming extinct.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.
Peri-urbanisation relates to those processes of dispersive urban growth that creates hybrid landscapes of fragmented urban and rural characteristics.
Pet food is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pets.
Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
The Picos de Europa (literally: "Peaks of Europe", often abbreviated in English to the Picos) are a range of mountains 20 km inland from the northern coast of Spain, in the Autonomous Communities of Asturias, Cantabria and Castile and León; they are part of the Cantabrian Mountains.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
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Pink salmon or humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Pinus albicaulis, known by the common names whitebark pine, white pine, pitch pine, scrub pine, and creeping pine, is a conifer tree native to the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically subalpine areas of the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range, Pacific Coast Ranges, and Rocky Mountains from Wyoming northwards.
The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), also known as the black-lipped pika, is a species of mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France, near the border with Spain and the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum.
Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.
Prunus avium, commonly called wild cherry, sweet cherry, or gean, is a species of cherry, a flowering plant in the rose family, Rosaceae.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, from the Greek words nukt-, "night" + ereutēs, "wanderer" + prokuōn, "before-dog" + -oidēs, "similar to"), also known as the mangut (its Evenki name) is a canid indigenous to East Asia.
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.
Rankin Inlet (Kangiqliniq; Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ or Kangirliniq, ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ, or Kangir&iniq meaning deep bay/inlet) is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
is an island in the Sea of Japan off the northwestern tip of Hokkaidō, Japan.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Reynard (Reinaert; Renard; Reineke or Reinicke; Renartus) is the main character in a literary cycle of allegorical Dutch, English, French and German fables.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
is an island in the Sea of Japan off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Rubus fruticosus L. is the ambiguous name of a European blackberry species in the genus Rubus in the rose family.
Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Bear is a widespread symbol (generally of a Eurasian brown bear) for Russia, used in cartoons, articles and dramatic plays since as early as the 16th century, and relating alike to the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the present-day Russian Federation.
A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others.
The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The, also referred to as the or the, was the worst bear attack in Japanese history, killing seven settlers in Rokusensawa, Sankebetsu, Tomamae, Rumoi, Hokkaidō, Japan.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A sea eagle (also called erne or ern, mostly in reference to the white-tailed eagle) is any of the birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
The Shantar Islands (translit) are a group of fifteen islands located off the northwestern shore of the Sea of Okhotsk east of Uda Gulf and north of Academy Bay.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shelikhov Gulf (залив Шелихова) is a large gulf off the northwestern coast of Kamchatka, Russia.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.
The short-faced bears (Arctodus spp.) is an extinct bear genus that inhabited North America during the Pleistocene epoch from about 1.8 Mya until 11,000 years ago.
The shortgrass prairie is an ecosystem located in the Great Plains of North America.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.
Shuyak Island is an island in the northern part of the Kodiak Archipelago in the state of Alaska, USA.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian chipmunk or common chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus) appears across northern Asia from central Russia to China, Korea, and Hokkaidō in northern Japan.
Siberian Federal District (Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг, Sibirsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia.
The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.
The Skeena River is the second-longest river entirely within British Columbia, Canada (after the Fraser River).
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore is a United States National Lakeshore located along the northwest coast of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in Leelanau and Benzie counties near Empire, Michigan.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
A slug is a term used for a bulky solid ballistic projectile.
Smilodon is an extinct genus of machairodont felid.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
"Snow-White and Rose-Red" (Schneeweißchen und Rosenrot) is a German fairy tale.
Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it.
Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "longnecks", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
The Southern African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) is a lion subspecies in Southern Africa.
Southern Indian Lake is a large lake in Manitoba, Canada.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).
The spotted seal (Phoca largha), also known as the larga seal or largha seal, is a member of the family Phocidae, and is considered a "true seal".
The Stanovoy Range (Станово́й хребе́т, Stanovoy khrebet), also known as Sükebayatur and Sükhbaatar in Mongolian, or Outer Khingan Range is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The Stickeen brown bear (Ursus arctos stikeenensis), also known as Stikine brown bear, is a large, North American brown bear that is most commonly dark brown in color but can also range from blonde to black, featuring a distinctive hump on its shoulders and a slightly dished profile to the face.
The Stikine River (Tlingit: Shtax'héen) is a river, historically also the Stickeen River, approximately 610 km (379 mi) long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in southeast Alaska in the United States.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear species occurring in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus) is a relatively small subspecies of brown bear native to the Middle East.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Takydromus is a genus of lizards, commonly called grass lizards or oriental racers.
The Taymyr Peninsula (italic) is a peninsula in the Far North of Russia, in the Siberian Federal District, that forms the northernmost part of the mainland of Eurasia.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Temperate forests correspond to forest concentration formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Brown Bear of Norway is an Irish fairy tale collected by Patrick Kennedy which appeared in his Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts (1866).
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
The Tibetan bear or Tibetan blue bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus) is a subspecies of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) found in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
is a town located in Rumoi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.
The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) is a species of swan found in North America.
Tulare County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
Unimak Island (Unimax) is the largest island in the Aleutian Islands chain of the U.S. state of Alaska.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of California, Riverside (UCR or UC Riverside), is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system.
Mustang (from the Tibetan möntang, मुस्तांग Mustāṃg "fertile plain"), formerly Kingdom of Lo, is a remote and isolated region of the Nepalese Himalayas.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
An ursid hybrid is an animal with parents from two different species or subspecies of the Ursidae (bear) family.
Ursus is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all topics about or related to bears.
Ursus etruscus (Etruscan bear) is an extinct species of mammal of the family Ursidae (bears), endemic to Europe, Asia and North Africa during the Pliocene through Pleistocene, living from ~5.3 Mya—100,000 years ago, existing for approximately.
Ursus maritimus tyrannus (meaning tyrant polar bear) is an extinct subspecies of polar bear, known from a single fragmentary ulna found in the gravels of the Thames at Kew Bridge, London.
Ursus rossicus, also known as the Pleistocene small cave bear, is an extinct species of bear that lived in the steppe regions of northern Eurasia and Siberia during the Pleistocene.
The Ussuri brown bear (Ursus arctos lasiotus), also known as the black grizzly is a subspecies of the brown bear.
The Ussuri River or Wusuli River (река Уссури), runs through Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais, Russia, and the southeast region of Northeast China.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vaccinium parvifolium, the red huckleberry, is a species of Vaccinium native to western North America, where it is common in forests from southeastern Alaska and British Columbia south through western Washington and Oregon to central California.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry, partridgeberry, or cowberry) is a short evergreen shrub in the heath family that bears edible fruit, native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America.
Vallespir is a historical Catalan comarca of Northern Catalonia, part of the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
A vole is a small rodent.
The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
Western China (or rarely) is the west of China.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
The whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), pronounced hooper swan, is a large Northern Hemisphere swan.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild yak (Bos mutus) is a large wild bovid native to the Himalayas.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of an animal, typically a quadruped.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Яма́ло-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug; Ямалы-Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Jamaly-Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) (Abbreviated: YaNAO (ЯНАО)) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast).
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta is a river delta located where the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers empty into the Bering Sea on the west coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
The zygomatic arch, or cheek bone, is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture); the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
American brown bear, Broan Bear, Brown Bear, Brown bears, Coastal brown bear, Evolution of brown bears, Mountain bear, Sexual behavior of brown bears, U arctos, U. arctos, Ursos arctos, Ursus arctos, Wild bear.