320 relations: A4 autostrada (Poland), Actor, Adrian Tekliński, Aerodrome, Agricultural machinery, Agriculture, Agriculture in Poland, Alfred Kurella, Auschwitz concentration camp, Austria, Łódź, Łosiów, Barrage (dam), Barter, Basket Liga Kobiet, Bastion, Bavarian Geographer, Berlin, Beroun, Blacksmith, Bohemia, Bolesław I the Tall, Bolesław III Wrymouth, Bolesławiec, Bourg-en-Bresse, Braided river, Brandenburg, Bronze Age, Brzeg Castle, Brzeg County, Brzeg railway station, Brzeg Synagogue, Brzeg Town Hall, Brzeg water tower, Buszyce, Opole Voivodeship, Bytom, Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cavalry, Celts, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Circa, Clavicle, Cliff, College, Composer, Conducting, Confectionery, Craft, Curia, ..., Defensive wall, Domestication, Duchy of Brzeg, Duchy of Legnica, Duke of Silesia, Dzierżoniów, Eastern Neisse, Economy of Germany, Economy of Poland, Electric motor, Empire style, Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics, European route E40, European route E67, Feudalism, Film director, Fisherman, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Flint, Foothills, Forced displacement, Franciscans, Franciszek Gajowniczek, Frederick II of Legnica, Frederick the Great, Garrison, General education liceum, Geometric terms of location, Georg Gebel (the younger), George William, Duke of Liegnitz, German Army (German Empire), German Army (Wehrmacht), German Empire, German language, Germans, Germany, Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, Gmina, Gniezno, Goslar, Gotthard Deutsch, Grain, Granary, Great Moravia, Grodków, Gymnasium (school), Habsburg Monarchy, Hamlet (place), Hand tool, Hectare, Helipad, Henry III the White, Henry the Bearded, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henryk IV Probus, Higher education, Hillock, History of agriculture, History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, Holy Cross Church, Brzeg, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, House of Hohenzollern, Hussites, Hymnodist, Infantry, Iron Age, Jadwiga of Poland, Jarosław, Józef Piłsudski, Jews, Joachim Frederick of Brieg, Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, Johann Heermann, Johannes Brockt, John of Capistrano, John of Nepomuk, Joint-stock company, Jude the Apostle, Kame, Kantorowice, Opole Voivodeship, Karpacz, Katowice, Katyn massacre, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Kępno, Kielce, Kilometre, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Prussia, Kościerzyce, Konrad Freiherr von Wangenheim, Korczowa, Kraków, Kresy, Kristallnacht, KS Cukierki Odra Brzeg, Kurt Masur, Last glacial period, Latin, Legnica, Leopold Wilhelm von Dobschütz, Lewin Brzeski, Lieutenant general, Lipki, Opole Voivodeship, List of Polish monarchs, Lithic flake, Lower Silesia, Lublin, Lubsza, Opole Voivodeship, Luftstreitkräfte, Lusatian culture, Lwów Eaglets, Lyceum, Małujowice, Margarine, Max Friedlaender (musicologist), Max Obal, Mąkoszyce, Opole Voivodeship, Mesolithic, Metalworking, Milicz, Mining, Municipal charter, Music school, Musician, Musicology, Myślibórz, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Namysłów, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, National road 39 (Poland), Nazi Germany, Neoclassical architecture, Neolithic, Nomad, Nysa, Poland, Oat, Oława, Oława County, Obórki, Opole Voivodeship, Obsolete Polish units of measurement, Oder, Odrzańska Gate, Brzeg, Oleśnica, Opole, Opole Voivodeship, Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), Osiedle, Otmuchów Group, Otto Thorbeck, Park, Patronage, Pawłów, Opole Voivodeship, Pępice, Opole Voivodeship, Přemyslid dynasty, Philosopher, Piast dynasty, Pisarzowice, Brzeg County, PKP Intercity, Plastic, Poet, Poland, Poles, Polish diaspora, Polish language, Polish People's Republic, Polish population transfers (1944–1946), Polish State Railways, Polish złoty, Pope John Paul II, Positivism, Potsdam, Potsdam Agreement, Potsdam Conference, Pottery, Powiat, Poznań, Prędocin, Opole Voivodeship, Primary education, Province of Silesia, Prussia, Prussian Army, Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Samochodowej, Przemyśl, Przewozy Regionalne, Rectangle, Red Army, Reformation, Reichswehr, Relief, Reservoir, Rhenish guilder, Riss glaciation, Rittmeister, Road cycling, Roman currency, Roman Empire, Romanesque architecture, Rybna, Opole Voivodeship, Saints Peter and Paul Church, Brzeg, Scholarship, Screenwriter, Secondary education, Silesia, Silesian Lowlands, Silesian Piasts, Silesian tribes, Silesian Wars, Silesians, Sister city, Skarbimierz, Opole Voivodeship, Slaughterhouse, Slavs, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Soil fertility, Soviet Union, Squadron (army), St. Jadwiga's Church, Brzeg, St. Luke's Church, Brzeg, St. Nicholas' Church, Brzeg, Stanisław Moniuszko, State school, Stobrawa Landscape Park, Street, Strzelce Opolskie, Strzelin, Sudetes, Szczecin, Szklarska Poręba, Tarnów, Technikum (Polish education), The Holocaust, Thirty Years' War, Torah, Tourism in Poland, Town, Track cycling, Trade, Treaty of Versailles, Tribute, Trinity, Ungulate, Unification of Germany, Upper Silesia, Valley, Vehicle registration plates of Poland, VI Corps (German Empire), Vocational school, Voivodeships of Poland, Walloons, War of the Austrian Succession, Warsaw, Wawel, Wawrzyszów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Władysław II the Exile, Weaving, Western Front (World War I), Wiązów, Wilhelm Schuppe, World War I, World War II, Wrocław, Yalta, Zamość, Zębice, Złotoryja, Zgorzelec, Zielona Góra, 12th Division (German Empire). Expand index (270 more) » « Shrink index
The autostrada A4 in Poland is a long east-west motorway that runs through southern Poland, along the north side the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains, from the Polish-German border at Zgorzelec-Görlitz (connecting to the German A4 autobahn), bypassing Wrocław, Opole, Strzelce Opolskie, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów, Dębica and Rzeszów to the Polish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
Adrian Tekliński (born 3 November 1989) is a Polish road and track cyclist.
An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in Poland has always been an important part of the country's economy.
Alfred Kurella (May 2, 1895 – June 12, 1975) was a German author and functionary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) in East Germany.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łosiów (Lossen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lewin Brzeski, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
A barrage is a type of low-head, diversion dam which consists of a number of large gates that can be opened or closed to control the amount of water passing through.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Basket Liga Kobiet, BLK (2001–2013 Polska Liga Koszykówki Kobiet, PLKK) is a professional women's club basketball league in Poland.
A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.
The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" (Geographus Bavarus) is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in central-eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Beroun (Beraun) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolesław I the Tall (Bolesław I Wysoki) (b. 1127 – d. Leśnica, 7 or 8 December 1201) was a Duke of Wroclaw from 1163 until his death in 1201.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bolesławiec (Bunzlau; Bolesławjec) is a town located on the Bóbr River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, with 40,837 inhabitants (2006).
Bourg-en-Bresse (Bôrg in Arpitan language) is a commune in eastern France, capital of the Ain department, and the capital of the ancient province of Bresse (Arpitan: Brêsse).
A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brzeg Castle is located in Brzeg, Opole Voivodeship, within the Silesia region of Poland.
Brzeg County (powiat brzeski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Opole Voivodeship, south-western Poland.
Brzeg railway station is a station in Brzeg, Opole Voivodeship, Poland.
Brzeg Synagogue - a former synagogue building, located in Brzeg, Poland.
Brzeg Town Hall is a Renaissance building designed by Bernard Niuron built between 1569 and 1577.
Brzeg water tower - a historic water tower in the town of Brzeg, Opole Voivodeship, Poland.
Buszyce (Buchitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lewin Brzeski, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lower rank officials who could sit in the Senate of Poland.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure.
A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
The Duchy of Brzeg (Księstwo Brzeskie) or Duchy of Brieg (Herzogtum Brieg), (Knížectví Břežské) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, created in 1311 during the fragmentation of the Duchy of Wrocław.
The Duchy of Legnica (Księstwo Legnickie, Lehnické knížectví) or Duchy of Liegnitz (Herzogtum Liegnitz) was one of the Duchies of Silesia.
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.
Dzierżoniów (Reichenbach im Eulengebirge; from 1945-1946 Rychbach, Drobniszew) is a town located at the foot of the Owl Mountains in southwestern Poland, within the Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship).
The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka (Glatzer Neiße, Kladská Nisa), is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km (21st longest) and a basin area of 4,570 km² (3,742 in Poland).
The economy of Germany is a highly developed social market economy.
The economy of Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and the largest among the former Eastern Bloc members of the European Union.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.
The equestrian events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping.
European route E 40 is the longest European route, more than long, connecting Calais in France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with Ridder in Kazakhstan near the border with Russia and China.
European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film.
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franciszek Gajowniczek (15 November 1901 – 13 March 1995)David Binder.
Frederick II, Duke of Legnica (Fryderyk II Legnicki) (12 February 1480 – 17 September 1547), also known as the Great of Legnica (Legnicki Wielki), was a Duke of Legnica from 1488 (until 1495 and 1505 with his brothers), of Brzeg from 1521.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
A general education liceum (Polish:Liceum ogólnokształcące) is an academic high school in the Polish educational system.
Geometric terms of location describe directions or positions relative to the shape of an object.
Georg Gebel (25 October 1709 – 24 September 1753) was a German musician and composer.
George William (Georg Wilhelm), also known as George IV William; Jerzy IV Wilhelm; 29 September 1660 – 21 November 1675) was the last Silesian duke of Legnica and Brzeg from 1672 until his death. He was the last male member of the Silesian Piast dynasty descending from Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159).
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH and also GesmbH in Austria) is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equivalent to a société à responsabilité limitée) and Liechtenstein.
The gmina (Polish pronunciation, plural gminy) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Gotthard Deutsch (31 January 1859 – 14 October 1921), also spelled Gottard Deutsch, was a scholar of Jewish history.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
Grodków is a town in Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship in Poland, the administrative seat of Gmina Grodków.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
A hamlet is a small human settlement.
A hand tool is any tool that is powered by hand rather than a motor.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft.
Henry III the White (Henryk III Biały) (– 3 December 1266), a member of the Silesian Piasts, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1248 until his death, as co-ruler with his brother Władysław.
Henry the Bearded (Henryk Brodaty, Heinrich der Bärtige); c. 1165/70 – 19 March 1238), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1201 and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland — internally divided — from 1232 until his death.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henryk IV Probus (Latin for the Righteous) (Henryk IV Probus or Prawy; Heinrich IV.) (– 23 June 1290) was a member of the Silesian branch of the royal Polish Piast dynasty.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
A hillock or knoll is a small hill,, "hillock" entry, retrieved December 18, 2007 usually separated from a larger group of hills such as a range.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
Holy Cross Church - a Roman Catholic parish church in Brzeg, in the Opole Voivodeship.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
A hymnodist (or hymnist) is one who writes the text, music or both of hymns.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
Jarosław (Ярослав, יאַרעסלאָוו Yareslov, Jaroslau) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 38,970 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joachim Frederick of (Legnica-)Brieg (Joachim Friedrich von Liegnitz-Brieg; Joachim Fryderyk legnicko-brzeski; 29 September 1550 – Brzeg, 25 March 1602), was a Duke of Oława and Wołów (since 1586 with his brother as a co-ruler until 1592) and Brzeg (since 1595) and Legnica (since 1596).
Joachim II (Joachim II Hector or Hektor; 13 January 1505 – 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1535–1571), the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Johann Heermann (11 October 1585 – 17 February 1647) was a German poet and hymnodist.
Johannes Brockt (15 January 1901 — 25 August 1980) was an Austrian musicologist and conductor.
Saint John of Capestrano (Italian: San Giovanni da Capestrano, Hungarian: Kapisztrán János, Polish: Jan Kapistran, Croatian: Ivan Kapistran, Serbian: Јован Капистран, Jovan Kapistran) (24 June 1386 – 23 October 1456) was a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo.
Saint John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (Jan Nepomucký; Johannes Nepomuk; Ioannes Nepomucenus) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is the saint of Bohemia (Czech Republic), who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus (Θαδδαῖος; ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
A kame is a glacial landform, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier.
Kantorowice (Kantersdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lewin Brzeski, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Karpacz (German: Krummhübel) is a spa town and ski resort in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland, and one of the most important centres for mountain hiking and skiing, including ski jumping.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Kandrzin-Cosel, 1934-45: Heydebreck O.S. and Cosel; Kandrzin-Koźle) is a town in southwestern Poland, the administrative centre of Kędzierzyn-Koźle County in Opole Voivodeship.
Kępno (Kempen in Posen) is a town in Poland.
Kielce is a city in south central Poland with 199,475 inhabitants.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kościerzyce (German Groß Neudorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubsza, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Konrad Freiherr von Wangenheim (20 August 1909 – 28 January 1953) was a German army Cavalry officer, a horse rider who competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, securing a gold medal for the German equestrian team whilst suffering from a broken collarbone.
Korczowa (Корчова, Korchova) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Radymno, within Jarosław County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
KS Cukierki Odra Brzeg is a Polish women basketball team, based in Brzeg, playing in Ford Germaz Ekstraklasa (PLKK).
Kurt Masur (18 July 1927 – 19 December 2015) was a German conductor.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Leopold Wilhelm von Dobschütz (1 January 1763 in Brieg, Niederschlesien – 3 February 1836 at Gut Zölling, Kreis Freystadt, prev. Kreis Sagan, Niederschlesien) was a Prussian "general of cavalry", the "hero of Dennewitz" and "liberator of Wittenberg", military governor of the Rhine province and of Breslau.
Lewin Brzeski (Löwen) is a town in Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, Poland, with 5,843 inhabitants (2004).
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lipki (German Linden) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skarbimierz, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure,"Andrefsky, W. (2005) Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lubsza (Leubusch) is a village in Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force)—known before October 1916 as the Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Corps) or simply Die Fliegertruppe—was the World War I (1914–18) air arm of the German Army, of which it remained an integral part.
The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.
Lwów Eaglets (Orlęta Lwowskie) is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów (L'viv) in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919).
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.
Małujowice (Mollwitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skarbimierz, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
Max Friedlaender (12 October 1852, Brieg/Brzeg, Province of Silesia, Prussia – 2 May 1934, Berlin) was a German bass singer, music editor, and musicologist.
Max Obal (4 September 1881 – 18 May 1949) was a German actor, screenwriter and film director.
Mąkoszyce (Mangschütz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubsza, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Milicz (Militsch) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (charter) establishing a municipality such as a city or town.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Myślibórz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Paszowice, within Jawor County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Namysłów (Namslau) is a town in Poland, in Opole Voivodeship.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National Road 39 (Droga krajowa 39) is a route belonging to the Polish national roads network.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nysa (Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Oława is a town in south-western Poland with 32,674 inhabitants (2016).
Oława County (powiat oławski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland.
Obórki (Schönfeld) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Olszanka, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
The traditional Polish units of measurement included two uniform yet distinct systems of weights and measures, as well as a number of related systems borrowed from neighbouring states.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
Odrzańska Gate is a gate in a system of fortifications of the town of Brzeg.
Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province (województwo opolskie, Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland.
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.
Osiedle (Polish plural: osiedla) is a term used in Poland to denote a designated subdivision of a city or town, or of a dzielnica, with its own council and executive.
Otmuchów Group is a corporate group of enterprises specialised in the food industry of confectionaries.
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Pawłów (Paulau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skarbimierz, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Pępice (Pampitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skarbimierz, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Pisarzowice (Schreibendorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubsza, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
PKP Intercity is a company of PKP Group responsible for long-distance passenger transport.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prędocin (Pramsen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Skarbimierz, within Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Samochodowej (commonly abbreviated PKS, can be translated as Motor Transport Company) is a major Polish enterprise dealing with inter-city public transport using coaches.
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
Przewozy Regionalne, trading as POLREGIO, formerly PKP Przewozy Regionalne, is a train operator in Poland, responsible for local and interregional passenger transportation (przewozy regionalne means regional transport in Polish).
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Rhenish guilder (Rheinischer Gulden; florenus Rheni) is the name of the golden, base currency coin of the Rhineland in the 14th and 15th centuries.
The Riss glaciation, Riss Glaciation, Riss ice age, Riss Ice Age, Riss glacial or Riss Glacial (Riß-Kaltzeit, Riß-Glazial, Riß-Komplex or (obsolete) Riß-Eiszeit) is the second youngest glaciation of the Pleistocene epoch in the traditional, quadripartite glacial classification of the Alps.
Rittmeister (German for "riding master" or "cavalry master") was a military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Scandinavia, and some other countries.
Road cycling is the most widespread form of cycling.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Rybna (Riebnig) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Popielów, within Opole County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Brzeg, Poland, is a historic Gothic Franciscan basilica built in the thirteenth-century.
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education.
A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, comics or video games, are based.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian Lowlands (or Silesian Plains, Nizina Śląska, Slezská nížina, German: Schlesische Niederung, Schlesische Tiefebene, Schlesische Bucht or Oderebene) are lowlands located in Silesia, Poland in Central Europe.
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.
The Silesian tribes (plemiona śląskie) is a term used to refer to tribes, or groups of West Slavs that lived in the territories of Silesia in the Early Middle Ages.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skarbimierz (Hermsdorf) is a village in Brzeg County (Brieg), Opole Voivodeship (Oppeln), in south-western Poland.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A squadron was historically a cavalry subunit, a company sized military formation.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Stobrawa Landscape Park (Stobrawski Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in south-western Poland, established in 1999, covering an area of in the region of the Stobrawa river.
A street is a public thoroughfare (usually paved) in a built environment.
Strzelce Opolskie (Groß Strehlitz) is a town in south-western Poland with 19,628 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
Strzelin (Strehlen, Střelín) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Szklarska Poręba (Schreiberhau) is a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
Technikum (p; Ukrainian: те́хнікум; Polish: technikum) was an institute of vocational education in countries in the former Soviet bloc.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.
A town is a human settlement.
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.
The VI Army Corps / VI AK (VI.) was a corps level command of the Prussian and then the Imperial German Armies from the 19th Century to World War I. Originating in 1815 as the General Command for the Province of Silesia with headquarters in Breslau (now Wrocław in Poland).
A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Wawel is a fortified architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop on the left bank of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above sea level.
Wawrzyszów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wiązów, within Strzelin County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Vladislaus II the Exile (Władysław II Wygnaniec) (1105 – 30 May 1159) was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Wiązów (Wansen) is a town in Strzelin County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Ernst Julius Wilhelm Schuppe (5 May 1836 – 29 March 1913) was a German positivist philosopher, born in Brieg, Silesia.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zębice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Siechnice, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Złotoryja (Goldberg, Latin: Aureus Mons, Aurum) is a historic town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, the administrative seat of Złotoryja County, and of the smaller Gmina Złotoryja.
Zgorzelec (Görlitz, Zhorjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in south-western Poland with 32,322 inhabitants (2012).
Zielona Góra (Grünberg in Schlesien) is the largest city in Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, with 138,512 inhabitants (2015).
The 12th Division (12. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.