115 relations: Ada (programming language), Address space layout randomization, Alphanumeric, Alphanumeric shellcode, Array data structure, ASCII, Billion laughs attack, Bounds checking, Buffer over-read, Buffer overflow protection, Bugtraq, C (programming language), C dynamic memory allocation, C file input/output, C standard library, C string handling, C++, Call stack, Code Red (computer worm), Computer architecture, Computer data storage, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer security, Computer worm, Crash (computing), Cyclone (programming language), D (programming language), Daemon (computing), Data, Data (computing), Data buffer, Eiffel (programming language), Elias Levy, Empty string, End-of-file, Endianness, Exception handling, Exec Shield, Executable space protection, Execution (computing), Exploit (computer security), Finger protocol, Forth (programming language), Fuzzing, GNU Compiler Collection, Graphics Device Interface, Heap overflow, Heuristic (computer science), Homebrew (video games), ..., Information security, Internet Information Services, Interpreted language, Intrusion detection system, Java (software platform), JPEG, Legacy code, Lisp (programming language), MacOS, Memory address, Memory management, Metacharacter, Metamorphic code, Metasploit Project, Microsoft, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft-specific exception handling mechanisms, Modchip, Modula-2, Morris worm, NOP, Null-terminated string, NX bit, OCaml, Opcode, OpenBSD, Openwall Project, Operating system, Paging, PaX, Payload (computing), Phrack, Ping of death, PlayStation 2, Polymorphic code, Port scanner, Privilege escalation, Programming language, Proprietary software, Rebasing, Return-to-libc attack, Rust (programming language), Scanf format string, Security-focused operating system, Segmentation fault, Self-modifying code, Shellcode, Smalltalk, Software bug, SQL Slammer, Stack buffer overflow, Standard Template Library, Static program analysis, System administrator, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, Uncontrolled format string, Unicode, Unix, Virtual memory, Wii, W^X, Xbox (console), .NET Framework, 64-bit computing. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a computer security technique involved in preventing exploitation of memory corruption vulnerabilities.
Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.
In computer security alphanumeric shellcode is a shellcode that consists of or assembles itself on execution into entirely alphanumeric ASCII or Unicode characters such as 0-9, A-Z and a-z. This type of encoding was created by hackers to hide working machine code inside what appears to be text.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In computer security, a billion laughs attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack which is aimed at parsers of XML documents.
In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.
In computer security and programming, a buffer over-read is an anomaly where a program, while reading data from a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and reads (or tries to read) adjacent memory.
Buffer overflow protection is any of various techniques used during software development to enhance the security of executable programs by detecting buffer overflows on stack-allocated variables, and preventing them from causing program misbehavior or from becoming serious security vulnerabilities.
Bugtraq is an electronic mailing list dedicated to issues about computer security.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C dynamic memory allocation refers to performing manual memory management for dynamic memory allocation in the C programming language via a group of functions in the C standard library, namely,, and.
The C programming language provides many standard library functions for file input and output.
The C standard library or libc is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
The C programming language has a set of functions implementing operations on strings (character strings and byte strings) in its standard library.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Code Red was a computer worm observed on the Internet on July 15, 2001.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
In computing, a crash (or system crash) occurs when a computer program, such as a software application or an operating system, stops functioning properly and exits.
The Cyclone programming language is intended to be a safe dialect of the C language.
D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.
Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
Elias Levy (also known as Aleph One) was the moderator of "Bugtraq", a full disclosure vulnerability mailing list, from May 14, 1996 until October 15, 2001.
In formal language theory, the empty string, or empty word is the unique string of length zero.
In computing, end-of-file (commonly abbreviated EOF) is a condition in a computer operating system where no more data can be read from a data source.
Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
Exec Shield is a project started at Red Hat, Inc in late 2002 with the aim of reducing the risk of worm or other automated remote attacks on Linux systems.
In computer security, executable-space protection marks memory regions as non-executable, such that an attempt to execute machine code in these regions will cause an exception.
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.
An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).
In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
Fuzzing or fuzz testing is an automated software testing technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) is a Microsoft Windows application programming interface and core operating system component responsible for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers.
A heap overflow or heap overrun is a type of buffer overflow that occurs in the heap data area.
In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover") is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.
Homebrew is a term frequently applied to video games or other software produced by consumers to target proprietary hardware platforms (usually with hardware restrictions) not typically user-programmable or that use proprietary storage methods.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.
Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is an extensible web server created by Microsoft for use with the Windows NT family.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Legacy code is source code that relates to a no-longer supported or manufactured operating system or other computer technology.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
A metacharacter is a character that has a special meaning (instead of a literal meaning) to a computer program, such as a shell interpreter or a regular expression (regex) engine.
Metamorphic code is code that when run outputs a logically equivalent version of its own code under some interpretation.
The Metasploit Project is a computer security project that provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows OS family employs some exception handling mechanisms that are based on the operating system specifics.
A modchip (short for modification chip) is a small electronic device used to alter or disable artificial restrictions of computers or entertainment devices.
Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988, was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet.
In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
In computer programming, a null-terminated string is a character string stored as an array containing the characters and terminated with a null character ('\0', called NUL in ASCII).
The NX bit (no-execute) is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors.
OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Openwall Project is a source for various software, including Openwall GNU/*/Linux (Owl), a security-enhanced operating system designed for servers.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages.
In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message.
Phrack is an ezine written by and for hackers, first published November 17, 1985.
A ping of death is a type of attack on a computer system that involves sending a malformed or otherwise malicious ping to a computer.
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
In computer terminology, polymorphic code is code that uses a polymorphic engine to mutate while keeping the original algorithm intact.
A port scanner is an application designed to probe a server or host for open ports.
Privilege escalation is the act of exploiting a bug, design flaw or configuration oversight in an operating system or software application to gain elevated access to resources that are normally protected from an application or user.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
In computing, rebasing is one of the following.
A "return-to-libc" attack is a computer security attack usually starting with a buffer overflow in which a subroutine return address on a call stack is replaced by an address of a subroutine that is already present in the process’ executable memory, bypassing the NX bit feature (if present) and ridding the attacker of the need to inject their own code.
Rust is a systems programming language sponsored by Mozilla which describes it as a "safe, concurrent, practical language," supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms.
Scanf format string (which stands for "scan formatted") refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the string-processing libraries of various programming languages.
This is a list of operating systems with a sharp security focus.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).
In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.
In hacking, a shellcode is a small piece of code used as the payload in the exploitation of a software vulnerability.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
SQL Slammer is a 2003 computer worm that caused a denial of service on some Internet hosts and dramatically slowed down general Internet traffic.
In software, a stack buffer overflow or stack buffer overrun occurs when a program writes to a memory address on the program's call stack outside of the intended data structure, which is usually a fixed-length buffer.
The Standard Template Library (STL) is a software library for the C++ programming language that influenced many parts of the C++ Standard Library.
Static program analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for the Wii and GameCube home video game consoles.
Uncontrolled format string is a type of software vulnerability discovered around 1989 that can be used in security exploits.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.
W^X ("Write XOR Execute"; spoken as W xor X) is a security feature in operating systems and virtual machines.
The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).