118 relations: Ada (programming language), Address space layout randomization, Alphanumeric, Alphanumeric shellcode, Array data structure, ASCII, Billion laughs, Bounds checking, Buffer over-read, Buffer overflow protection, Bugtraq, C (programming language), C dynamic memory allocation, C file input/output, C standard library, C string handling, C++, Call stack, Code Red (computer worm), Computer architecture, Computer data storage, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer security, Computer worm, Crash (computing), Cyclone (programming language), D (programming language), Data, Data (computing), Data buffer, Data Execution Prevention, Dynamic-link library, Eiffel (programming language), Elias Levy, Empty string, End-of-file, Endianness, Exception handling, Exec Shield, Execution (computing), Exploit (computer security), Finger protocol, Forth (programming language), Fuzz testing, GNU Compiler Collection, Graphics Device Interface, Heap overflow, Heuristic (computer science), Homebrew (video games), ..., Internet Information Services, Interpreted language, Intrusion detection system, Intrusion prevention system, Java (software platform), JPEG, Legacy code, Lisp (programming language), Memory address, Memory safety, Metacharacter, Metamorphic code, Metasploit Project, Microsoft, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft-specific exception handling mechanisms, Modchip, Modula-2, Morris worm, NOP, Null character, Null-terminated string, NX bit, OCaml, Opcode, OpenBSD, Openwall Project, Operating system, OS X, Paging, PaX, Payload (computing), Phrack, Ping of death, PlayStation 2, Polymorphic code, Port scanner, Programming language, Proprietary software, Rebasing, Return-to-libc attack, Rust (programming language), Scanf format string, Security-focused operating system, Segmentation fault, Self-modifying code, Server (computing), Shellcode, Smalltalk, Software bug, SQL Slammer, Stack buffer overflow, Stack overflow, Standard Template Library, Static program analysis, System administrator, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, Uncontrolled format string, Unix, Virtual memory, Vulnerability (computing), Wii, Wii homebrew, W^X, Xbox (console), .NET Framework, 64-bit computing. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a computer security technique involved in protection from buffer overflow attacks.
Alphanumeric (sometimes shortened to alphameric) is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.
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In computer security alphanumeric shellcode is a shellcode that consists of or assembles itself on execution into entirely alphanumeric ASCII or Unicode characters such as 0-9, A-Z and a-z. This type of encoding was created by hackers to hide working machine code inside what appears to be text.
In computer science, an array data structure or simply an array is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme (the IANA prefers the name US-ASCII).
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In computer security, a billion laughs attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack which is aimed at parsers of XML documents.
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In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.
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In computer security and programming, a buffer over-read is an anomaly where a program, while reading data from a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and reads (or tries to read) adjacent memory.
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Buffer overflow protection refers to various techniques used during software development to enhance the security of executable programs by detecting buffer overflows on stack-allocated variables, and preventing them from causing program misbehavior or from becoming serious security vulnerabilities.
Bugtraq is an electronic mailing list dedicated to issues about computer security.
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C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C dynamic memory allocation refers to performing manual memory management for dynamic memory allocation in the C programming language via a group of functions in the C standard library, namely malloc, realloc, calloc and free.
The C programming language provides many standard library functions for file input and output.
The C standard library is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
C string handling refers to a group of functions implementing operations on strings in the C standard library.
C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus) is a general-purpose programming language.
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In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
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Code Red was a computer worm observed on the Internet on July 15, 2001.
In electronic engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization and implementation of computer systems.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.
A computer program or app is a sequence of instructions, written to perform a specified task on a computer.
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Computer programming (often shortened to programming) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs.
Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, is the protection of information systems from theft or damage to the hardware, the software, and to the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
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A crash (or system crash) in computing is when a computer program (such as a software application or an operating system) stops functioning properly.
The Cyclone programming language is intended to be a safe dialect of the C language.
The D programming language is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information.
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Data (or; treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of symbols giving meaning by specific acts of interpretation.
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In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.
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Data Execution Prevention (DEP) is a security feature included in modern operating systems.
Dynamic-link library (also written unhyphenated), or DLL, is Microsoft's implementation of the shared library concept in the Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
Eiffel is an ISO-standardized, object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
Elias Levy (also known as Aleph One) was the moderator of "Bugtraq", a full disclosure vulnerability mailing list, from May 14, 1996 until October 15, 2001.
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In formal language theory, the empty string is the unique string of length zero.
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In computing, End Of File (commonly abbreviated EOF) is a condition in a computer operating system where no more data can be read from a data source.
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Endianness is the ordering or sequencing of bytes of a word of digital data in computer memory storage or during transmission.
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Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
Exec Shield is a project started at Red Hat, Inc in late 2002 with the aim of reducing the risk of worm or other automated remote attacks on Linux systems.
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Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.
An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "using something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).
In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information.
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Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and programming environment.
Fuzz testing or fuzzing is a software testing technique, often automated or semi-automated, that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data to the inputs of a computer program.
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The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) is a Microsoft Windows application programming interface and core operating system component responsible for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers.
A heap overflow is a type of buffer overflow that occurs in the heap data area.
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In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.
Homebrew is a term frequently applied to video games or other software produced by consumers to target proprietary hardware platforms (usually with hardware restrictions) not typically user-programmable or that use proprietary storage methods.
Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is an extensible web server created by Microsoft for use with Windows NT family.
An interpreted language is a programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.
Intrusion prevention systems (IPS), also known as intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS), are network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity.
Java is a set of several computer software and specifications developed by Sun Microsystems, later acquired by Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
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Legacy code is source code that relates to a no-longer supported or manufactured operating system or other computer technology.
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Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation.
In computing, memory address is a data concept used at various levels by software and hardware to access the computer's primary storage memory.
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Memory safety is a concern in software development that aims to avoid software bugs that cause security vulnerabilities dealing with random-access memory (RAM) access, such as buffer overflows and dangling pointers.
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A metacharacter is a character that has a special meaning (instead of a literal meaning) to a computer program, such as a shell interpreter or a regular expression engine.
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Metamorphic code is code that when run outputs a logically equivalent version of its own code under some interpretation.
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The Metasploit Project is a computer security project that provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development.
Microsoft Corporation (commonly referred to as Microsoft) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services.
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Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows (or simply Windows) is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows OS family employs some exception handling mechanisms that are based on the operating system specifics.
A modchip (short for modification chip) is a small electronic device used to alter or disable artificial restrictions of computers or entertainment devices.
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Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
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The Morris worm or Internet worm of November 2, 1988 was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet.
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In computer science, a NOP or NOOP (short for No Operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
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The null character (also null terminator), abbreviated NUL, is a control character with the value zero.
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In computer programming, a null-terminated string is a character string stored as an array containing the characters and terminated with a null character ('\0', called NUL in ASCII).
The NX bit, which stands for No-eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors.
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OCaml, originally known as Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the Caml programming language, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
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In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
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OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
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The Openwall Project is a source for various software, including Openwall GNU/*/Linux (Owl), a security-enhanced operating system designed for servers.
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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
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OS X (pronounced; originally Mac OS X) is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems (OS) developed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is designed to run on Macintosh computers, having been pre-installed on all Macs since 2002.
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In computer operating systems, paging is one of the memory management schemes by which a computer stores and retrieves data from the secondary storage for use in main memory.
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PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages.
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Payload in computing (sometimes referred to as the actual or body data) is the cargo of a data transmission.
Phrack is an ezine written by and for hackers first published November 17, 1985.
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A ping of death is a type of attack on a computer system that involves sending a malformed or otherwise malicious ping to a computer.
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The PlayStation 2 (PS2), is a home video game console that was manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment.
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In computer terminology, polymorphic code is code that uses a polymorphic engine to mutate while keeping the original algorithm intact.
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A port scanner is a software application designed to probe a server or host for open ports.
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A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
Proprietary software, non-free software (in the sense of missing freedoms), or closed-source software is software, where the developers or distributors reserve all freedoms and rights.
In computing, rebasing is one of the following.
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A “return-to-libc” attack is a computer security attack usually starting with a buffer overflow in which a subroutine return address on a call stack is replaced by an address of a subroutine that is already present in the process’ executable memory, bypassing the NX bit feature (if present) and ridding the attacker of the need to inject their own code.
Rust is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Mozilla Research.
Scanf format string (which stands for "scan formatted") refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the string-processing libraries of various programming languages.
This is a list of operating systems with a sharp security focus.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) about a memory access violation; on x86 computers this is a form of general protection fault.
In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing - usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.
A server is both a running instance of some software that is capable of accepting requests from clients, and the computer that executes such software.
In computer security, a shellcode is a small piece of code used as the payload in the exploitation of a software vulnerability.
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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
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A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
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SQL Slammer is a computer worm that caused a denial of service on some Internet hosts and dramatically slowed down general Internet traffic, starting at 05:30 UTC on January 25, 2003.
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In software, a stack buffer overflow or stack buffer overrun occurs when a program writes to a memory address on the program's call stack outside of the intended data structure, which is usually a fixed-length buffer.
In software, a stack overflow occurs if the stack pointer exceeds the stack bound.
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The Standard Template Library (STL) is a software library for the C++ programming language that influenced many parts of the C++ Standard Library.
Static program analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs (analysis performed on executing programs is known as dynamic analysis).
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
is an action-adventure game developed by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis & Development and published by Nintendo for the GameCube and Wii home video game consoles.
Uncontrolled format string is a type of software vulnerability discovered around 1989 that can be used in security exploits.
Unix (all-caps UNIX for the trademark) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
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In computing, virtual memory is a memory management technique that is implemented using both hardware and software.
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In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which allows an attacker to reduce a system's information assurance.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.
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Wii homebrew refers to the use of Nintendo's Wii game console to run homebrew software that has not been authorized by Nintendo.
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W^X ("Write XOR Execute"; spoken as double-u ex-or ex) is the name of a security feature present in the OpenBSD operating system.
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The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft.
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.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
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