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Building material

Index Building material

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. [1]

178 relations: Adhesive, Aggregate (composite), Alloy, Aluminium, Arch, Architectural metals, Architecture, ASTM International, Basement waterproofing, Beaver, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Binder (material), Biocidal natural building material, Bituminous waterproofing, Branch, Brick, Brick clamp, Brickworks, Bronze Age, Building, Building biology, Building insulation, Bulletproof glass, Carbohydrate, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon footprint, Carpentry, Cattle, Caulking, Cement, Ceramic, Chrome plating, Clay, Composite material, Concrete, Concrete masonry unit, Condensation reaction, Construction, Construction waste, Copper, Copper in architecture, Corrosion, Cost, Curtain wall (architecture), Damp proofing, Dartmoor, Dartmoor longhouse, Deconstruction (building), Density, Domestic roof construction, ..., Douglas fir, Dry stone, Ecological economics, Eden Project, Embodied energy, Energy density, Engineered wood, ETL SEMKO, Fair trade, Feces, Fiberglass, Flat roof, Forest management, Formwork, Framing (construction), Geomembrane, Glass, Glass brick, Glycoside, Gold, Granite, Gravel, Green building, Grout, Gypsum, Hardwood, High-performance plastics, Home, Housewrap, Hydration reaction, Ice hotel, Igloo, Inca Empire, Indoor air quality, Industrialisation, Insulating concrete form, Inuit, Iron, Kiln, Labor rights, Life-cycle assessment, Light clay, Lime (material), Lime mortar, List of building materials, Load-bearing wall, Log cabin, Machine, Marketplace, Masonry, Materiality (architecture), Metal, Middle Ages, Modularity, Mortar (masonry), Mudbrick, Natural fiber, Neolithic, Organic chemistry, Paper, Parge coat, Phenomenology (architecture), Plaster, Plasticity (physics), Plumbing, Pneumatics, Polymerization, Polystyrene, Polyurethane, Portland cement, Prefabrication, Properties of water, Pygmy peoples, Pyramid, Quinzhee, Quonset hut, Rebar, Red List building materials, Red rosin paper, Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011, Reinforced concrete, Rock (geology), Roman brick, Roving, Sand, Sandcrete, Scientific journal, Seismology, Silicate, Silver, Skyscraper, Slate, Slip (ceramics), Sod house, Sod roof, Softwood, Soil, Space frame, Spanish National Research Council, Steel, Straw, Structural clay tile, Structural insulated panel, Sustainable development, Synthetic fiber, Tar paper, Tensile structure, Terracotta, Textile, Thatching, Thermal emittance, Thermal mass, Tile, Timber framing, Tin, Tipi, Titanium, Tourist attraction, Tree, UL (safety organization), Ultimate tensile strength, University of Adelaide, Waterproofing, Wattle and daub, Wigwam, Wood, Woodlot, Yurt. Expand index (128 more) »


An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Aggregate (composite)

Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.

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Architectural metals

Metals used for architectural purposes include lead, for water pipes, roofing, and windows; tin, formed into tinplate; zinc, copper and aluminium, in a range of applications including roofing and decoration; and iron, which has structural and other uses in the form of cast iron or wrought iron, or made into steel.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Basement waterproofing

Basement waterproofing involves techniques and materials used to prevent water from penetrating the basement of a house or a building.

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The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.

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Beijing National Aquatics Center

The Beijing National Aquatics Center, also officially known as the National Aquatics Center, and colloquially known as the Water Cube, is an aquatics center that was built alongside Beijing National Stadium in the Olympic Green for the swimming competitions of the 2008 Summer Olympics.

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Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

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Biocidal natural building material

A biocidal natural building material is a natural building material which has biocidal properties.

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Bituminous waterproofing

Bituminous waterproofing systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings.

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A branch or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub).

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A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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Brick clamp

A brick clamp is a traditional method of baking bricks, done by stacking the unbaked bricks with fuel under or among them and then setting the fuel on fire.

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A brickworks, also known as a brick factory, is a factory for the manufacturing of bricks, from clay or shale.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

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Building biology

Building biology (or Baubiologie) is a field of building science investigating the indoor living environment for a variety of irritants.

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Building insulation

Building insulation is any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose.

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Bulletproof glass

Bulletproof glass (also known as ballistic glass, transparent armor, or bullet-resistant glass) is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

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Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.

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Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.

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A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chrome plating

Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Concrete masonry unit

A concrete masonry unit (CMU) is a standard size rectangular block used in building construction.

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Condensation reaction

A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Construction waste

Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Copper in architecture

Copper has earned a respected place in the related fields of architecture, building construction, and interior design.

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Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore.

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Curtain wall (architecture)

A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, utilized to keep the weather out and the occupants in.

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Damp proofing

Damp proofing in construction is a type of moisture control applied to building walls and floors to prevent moisture from passing into the interior spaces.

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Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England.

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Dartmoor longhouse

The Dartmoor longhouse is a type of traditional stone-built home, typically found on the high ground of Dartmoor, in Devon, England and belonging to a wider tradition of combining human residences with those of livestock (cattle or sheep) under a single roof specific to western Britain; Wales, Cornwall and Devon, where they are more usually referred to simply as 'longhouses' and in general housebarns.

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Deconstruction (building)

In the context of physical construction, deconstruction is the selective dismantlement of building components, specifically for re-use, repurposing, recycling, and waste management.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Domestic roof construction

Domestic roof construction is the framing and roof covering which is found on most suburban detached houses in cold and temperate climates.

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Douglas fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America.

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Dry stone

Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.

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Ecological economics

Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

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Eden Project

The Eden Project (Edenva) is a popular visitor attraction in Cornwall, England, UK.

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Embodied energy

Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or 'embodied' in the product itself.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Engineered wood

Engineered wood, also called composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite materials.

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ETL SEMKO (formerly Electrical Testing Laboratory) is a division of Intertek Group plc (LSE: ITRK) specialising in electrical product safety testing, EMC testing, and benchmark performance testing.

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Fair trade

Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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Flat roof

A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs.

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Forest management

Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.

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Formwork is temporary or permanent molds into which concrete or similar materials are poured.

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Framing (construction)

Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape.

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A geomembrane is very low permeability synthetic membrane liner or barrier used with any geotechnical engineering related material so as to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glass brick

Glass brick, also known as glass block, is an architectural element made from glass.

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In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Green building

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.

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Grout is a fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.

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Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.

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High-performance plastics

High-performance plastics are plastics that meet higher requirements than standard or engineering plastics.

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A home, or domicile, is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe.

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Housewrap (or house wrap) generally denotes a synthetic material used to protect buildings.

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Hydration reaction

In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.

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Ice hotel

An ice hotel is a temporary hotel made up of snow and sculpted blocks of ice.

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An igloo (Inuit languages: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics ᐃᒡᓗ (plural: igluit ᐃᒡᓗᐃᑦ)), also known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow, typically built when the snow can be easily compacted.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Indoor air quality

Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.

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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Insulating concrete form

Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs.

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.

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Labor rights

Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.

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Life-cycle assessment

Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.

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Light clay

Light clay (also light straw clay, light clay straw, slipstraw) is a natural building material used to infill between a wooden frame in a timber framed building using a combination of clay and straw, woodchips or some other lighter material.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.

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Lime mortar

Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.

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List of building materials

This is a list of building materials.

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Load-bearing wall

A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building, that is, it bears the weight of the elements above said wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure.

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Log cabin

A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure.

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A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.

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A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

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Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.

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Materiality (architecture)

Materiality in architecture is the concept of, or applied use of, various materials or substances in the medium of building.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Broadly speaking, modularity is the degree to which a system's components may be separated and recombined, often with the benefit of flexibility and variety in use.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.

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Natural fiber

Natural fibers or natural fibres (see spelling differences) are fibres that are produced by plants, animals, and geological processes.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Parge coat

A parge coat is a thin coat of a cementitious or polymeric mortar applied to concrete or masonry for refinement of the surface.

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Phenomenology (architecture)

Phenomenology in architecture can be understood as an aspect of philosophy researching into the experience of built space, and as shorthand for architectural phenomenology, a historical architectural movement.

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Plasticity (physics)

In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.

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Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.

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Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

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Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.

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Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Pygmy peoples

In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.

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A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.

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A quinzhee or quinzee is a snow shelter that is made from a large pile of loose snow which is shaped then hollowed.

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Quonset hut

A Quonset hut is a lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated galvanized steel having a semicircular cross-section.

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Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in compression.

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Red List building materials

Red List Building Materials contain chemicals that have been designated as harmful to living creatures, including humans, or the environment.

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Red rosin paper

Red rosin paper (red building paper, brown rosin paper, slip sheet paper, rosin-sized sheathing paper, and building paper) is a 100% recycled heavy duty felt paper used in construction such as underlayment under flooring and siding.

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Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011

Regulation No.

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Reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Roman brick

Roman brick can refer either to a type of brick used in Ancient Roman architecture and spread by the Romans to the lands they conquered; or to a modern type inspired by the ancient prototypes.

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A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fiber.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sandcrete is a yellow-white building material made from a binder (typically Portland cement), sand in a ratio of circa 1:8, and water.

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Scientific journal

In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

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Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.

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Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.

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Slip (ceramics)

A slip is a liquid mixture or slurry of clay and/or other materials suspended in water.

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Sod house

The sod house or "soddy" was a successor to the log cabin during frontier settlement of Canada and the United States.

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Sod roof

A sod roof, or turf roof, is a traditional Scandinavian type of green roof covered with sod on top of several layers of birch bark on gently sloping wooden roof boards.

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Scots Pine, a typical and well-known softwood Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Space frame

In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, lightweight, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern.

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Spanish National Research Council

The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.

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Structural clay tile

Structural clay tile describes a category of burned-clay building materials used to construct roofing, walls, and flooring for structural and non-structural purposes, especially in fireproofing applications.

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Structural insulated panel

A structural insulated panel, or structural insulating panel, (SIP), is a form of sandwich panel used in the construction industry.

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Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.

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Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.

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Tar paper

Tar paper is a heavy-duty paper used in construction.

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Tensile structure

A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending.

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Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.

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Thermal emittance

Thermal emittance or thermal emissivity is the ratio of the radiant emittance of heat of a specific object or surface to that of a standard black body.

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Thermal mass

In building design, thermal mass is a property of the mass of a building which enables it to store heat, providing "inertia" against temperature fluctuations.

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A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.

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Timber framing

Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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A tipi (also teepee) is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tourist attraction

A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.

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In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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UL (safety organization)

UL is a global safety consulting and certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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University of Adelaide

The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia.

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Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.

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Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.

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A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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A woodlot is a parcel of a woodland or forest capable of small-scale production of forest products (such as wood fuel, sap for maple syrup, sawlogs, and pulpwood) as well as recreational uses like bird watching, bushwalking, and wildflower appreciation.

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A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_material

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