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Index Bukhara

Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan. [1]

126 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdurauf Fitrat, Afghanistan, Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, Albracca, Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda, Aliyah, Amir Kulal, An Lushan, Angelica (character), Arabic, Aryan, Ashgabat, Avicenna, Baghdad, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, Bahoutdin Architectural Complex, Bibi-Khanym Mosque, Bolo Haouz Mosque, Bukhara International Airport, Bukhara operation (1920), Bukhara Region, Bukharan Jews, Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, Bukhori dialect, Capital city, Cathay, Central Asia, Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum, Chor Minor, Common Era, Dushanbe, Eastern Approaches, Emirate of Bukhara, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epic poetry, Fayzulla Khodzhayev, Genghis Khan, George Trebeck, Government of the Soviet Union, Greater Khorasan, Hadith, Hijri year, I.B. Tauris, Isma'il ibn Ahmad, Israel, Israeli settlement, Italian Renaissance, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Job (biblical figure), ..., Kabul, Kalyan minaret, Karachi, Kashmir Valley, Khanate of Bukhara, Kirom Bukhoroi, Koreans, List of sovereign states, List of World Heritage Sites in Uzbekistan, Lyab-i Hauz, M37 highway (Turkmenistan), Madrasa, Magok-i-Attari Mosque, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Mazar-e-Quaid, Mikhail Frunze, Minaret, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Mohammed Alim Khan, Mosque, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Aufi, Muhammad Bal'ami, Muhammad Shaybani, Muhammadjon Shakuri, Multan, Muslim world, Naqshbandi, Narshakhi, Nasreddin, Oksana Chusovitina, Orlando Innamorato, Pakistan, Paul Bergne, Persian Empire, Persian language, Po-i-Kalyan, Qumri, Quran, Red Army, Regions of Uzbekistan, Russian Civil War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Sadriddin Ayni, Samanid Empire, Samanid Mausoleum, Silk Road, Sir Fitzroy Maclean, 1st Baronet, Sogdian language, Soviet Union, Sufism, Tajik language, Tajikistan, Tajikistani Civil War, Tajiks, Tartary, Tatars, Timur, Turkmen rug, Turkmenistan, Turkmens, Ukrainians, UNESCO, United States, University of Amsterdam, Uzbek alphabet, Uzbek language, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks, War in Afghanistan (1978–present), Wilayah, William Moorcroft (explorer), World Heritage site. Expand index (76 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abdurauf Fitrat

Abdurauf Fitrat (sometimes spelled Abdulrauf Fitrat or Abdurrauf Fitrat) (Abdurauf Fitrat / Абдурауф Фитрат) (1886 – 4 October 1938) was an author, journalist and politician in Central Asia under Russian and Soviet rule.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ajall Shams al-Din Omar

Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din Omar al-Bukhari (سید اجل شمس‌الدین عمر) (1211–1279) was Yunnan's first provincial governor, appointed by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.

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Albracca (also spelled Albraca and Albrace) is a major city of Cathay in the Italian romantic epics Orlando innamorato by Matteo Maria Boiardo and Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto.

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Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda

Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhodā (علی‌اکبر دهخدا; 1879–March 9, 1956) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of Dehkhoda dictionary, the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published.

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Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).

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Amir Kulal

Amir Kulal (1278–1370), امیر کلال, امیر کلال, birth name Shams ud-Dīn (شمس الدین, شمس الدین), was a Persian Sufi Islamic scholar, widely considered to be one of the most influential in history.

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An Lushan

An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.

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Angelica (character)

Angelica is a princess in the epic poem Orlando innamorato by Matteo Maria Boiardo.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.

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Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخاری) (1318–1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi.

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Bahoutdin Architectural Complex

Bahoutdin Architectural Complex is a complex in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Bibi-Khanym Mosque

The mosque Bibi-Khanym Mosque (مسجد بی بی خانم; Bibi-Xonim masjidi; Мечеть Бибиханым.; also:... Khanum / Khanom / Hanum / Chanym / Hanim, etc.) is one of the most important monuments of Samarkand.

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Bolo Haouz Mosque

Bolo Haouz Mosque is a historical mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Bukhara International Airport

Bukhara International Airport is an airport serving Bukhara, the capital city of the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan.

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Bukhara operation (1920)

The Bukhara operation (1920), was a military conflict fought between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Young Bukharians against the Emirate of Bukhara.

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Bukhara Region

Bukhara Region (Buxoro Region) (Buxoro viloyati/Бухоро вилояти, بۇحارا ۋىلايەتى) is a region of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country.

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Bukharan Jews

Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; בוכרים Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: and), are Jews of the Mizrahi branch from Central Asia who historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language.

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Bukharan People's Soviet Republic

The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (Buxoro Xalq Shoʻro Jumhuriyati; Ҷумҳурии Халқии Шӯравии Бухоро; r) was a short-lived Soviet state that governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the years immediately following the Russian Revolution.

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Bukhori dialect

Bukhori (Tajiki: бухорӣ – buxorī, Hebrew script: בוכארי buxori), also known as Bukhari and Bukharian, is a dialect of the Tajiki language spoken in Central Asia (and in the diaspora) by Bukharian Jews.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Cathay is the Anglicized rendering of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum

Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum is located near the Samani Mausoleum, in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Chor Minor

Chor Minor (Char Minar, Chor minor), alternatively known as the Madrasah of Khalif Niyaz-kul, is a historic mosque in the historic city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.

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Eastern Approaches

Eastern Approaches (1949) is an autobiographical account of the early career of Fitzroy Maclean.

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Emirate of Bukhara

The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Fayzulla Khodzhayev

Fayzulla Ubaydullayevich Khodzhayev (Fayzulla Ubaydulloyevich Xo‘jayev, Файзулла Убайдуллоевич Хўжаев; Файзулла Убайдуллаевич Ходжаев; b. 1896 Bukhara – March 1938, Moscow) was a Bukharan politician.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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George Trebeck

George Trebeck (1800-1825) was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800.

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Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hijri year

The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Isma'il ibn Ahmad

Abū Ibrāhīm Ismā'īl ibn Aḥmad (ابو ابراهیم اسماعیل بن احمد سامانی; May 849 – November 907), better simply known as Isma'il ibn Ahmad (اسماعیل بن احمد), and also known as Ismail Samani (اسماعیل سامانی), was the Samanid emir of Transoxiana (892–907) and Khorasan (900–907).

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israeli settlement

Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari

Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (سید جلال الدین سرخ پوش بخاری, c. 595-690 AH, 1198 – 1292 CE) was a Sufi saint and missionary.

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Job (biblical figure)

Job is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible.

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Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.

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Kalyan minaret

The Kalyan minaret is a minaret of the Po-i-Kalyan mosque complex in Bukhara, Uzbekistan and one of the most prominent landmarks in the city.

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Kashmir Valley

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India.

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Khanate of Bukhara

The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (خانات بخارا; Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century.

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Kirom Bukhoroi

Abdulatif Kiromi Bukhoroi (Кироми Бухороӣ/کرام بخارائی) one of the poets of Tajik literature in the 18th century.

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Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.

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List of sovereign states

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Uzbekistan

This is a list of World Heritage Sites in Uzbekistan with properties of cultural and natural heritage in Uzbekistan as inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.

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Lyab-i Hauz

Lyab-i Hauz (from Persian: لب حوض meaning: by the pond), or Lyab-i Khauz, is the name of the area surrounding one of the few remaining hauz (ponds) that have survived in the city of Bukhara.

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M37 highway (Turkmenistan)

The M37 highway is the most important highway in Turkmenistan.

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Magok-i-Attari Mosque

Magok-i-Attari Mosque is a historical mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Matteo Maria Boiardo

Matteo Maria Boiardo (144019/20 December 1494) was an Italian Renaissance poet.

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Mazar-e-Quaid, also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam ("Great Leader") Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.

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Mikhail Frunze

Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.

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Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (میر سید علی ہمدانی‎; 1314–1384) was a Persian Sūfī of the Kubrawiya order, a poet and a prominent Shafi'i Muslim scholar.

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Mohammed Alim Khan

Emir Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (Said Mir Muhammad Olimxon, 3 January 1880 – 28 April 1944) was the last emir representative of the Uzbek Manghit Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Bukhara in Central Asia.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muhammad al-Bukhari

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Aufi

Sadiduddin Muhammad Aufi (1171-1242) (سدید الدین محمد عوفی) was a Persian historian, scientist, and author.

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Muhammad Bal'ami

Abu Ali Muhammad Bal'ami (ابو علی محمد), also called Amirak Bal'ami (امیرک بلعمی) and Bal'ami-i Kuchak (بلعمی کوچک, "Bal'ami the Younger"), was a Persian historian, writer, and vizier to the Samanids.

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Muhammad Shaybani

Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Muhammad Shayboniy, شیبک خان) also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader whose original name: shibägh, stands for wormwood and also black obsidian.

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Muhammadjon Shakuri

Muhammadjon Shakuri (Муҳаммадҷон Шакурӣ, محمدجان شکوری; February, 1925, Bukhara – September 16, 2012, Dushanbe), also known as Muhammad Sharifovich Shukurov, was a prominent Tajik intellectual and one of the notable literary figures of the Persian language of the 20th century.

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Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.

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Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi (or Narshaki) (ca. 899–959), from the village of Narshak in the Bukhara oasis is the first known historian in Central Asia.

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Nasreddin or Nasreddin Hodja was a Seljuq satirical Sufi, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in 13th century in Akşehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, in today's Turkey.

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Oksana Chusovitina

Oksana Aleksandrovna Chusovitina (Оксана Александровна Чусовитина; born 19 June 1975) is a world and Olympic level gymnast who has competed for the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan, and Germany.

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Orlando Innamorato

Orlando Innamorato (known in English as "Orlando in Love"; in Italian titled "Orlando innamorato" as the "I" is never capitalized) is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paul Bergne

Alexander Paul A'Court Bergne CBE (9 January 1937 – 5 April 2007) was a British diplomat and noted historian of Central Asia.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Po-i-Kalan or Poi Kalan (Poi Kalon, پای کلان Pā-i Kalān, which means "The Foot of the Great"), is an Islamic religious complex located around the Kalan minaret in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Abu Mansur al-Hasan ibn Nuh al-Qumri (ابو منصور حسن بن نوح قمری)(also transliterated as “al-Qamari” and "al-Qumri")(fl. mid 10th Century, d. 980-990) was a Persian tenth century court physician to the Samanid Prince al-Mansur, and was based in the city of Bukhara.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Regions of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is divided into 13 regions (viloyatlar, singularviloyat, viloyati in compound, e.g. Toshkent viloyati), 1 autonomous republic (respublika, respublikasi in compound, e.g. Qaraqalpaqstan Avtonom Respublikasi), and 1 independent city (shahar or shahri in compounds, e.g. Toshkent shahri).

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Sadriddin Ayni

Sadriddin Ayni (Tajik: Садриддин Айнӣ, Persian: صدرالدين عينى, also Sadriddin Aini; 15 April 1878 - 15 July 1954) was a Tajik intellectual who wrote poetry, fiction, journalism, history and lexicography.

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Samanid Mausoleum

The Samanid mausoleum is located in a park just outside the historic urban center of Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sir Fitzroy Maclean, 1st Baronet

Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, 1st Baronet, (11 March 1911 – 15 June 1996) was a Scottish soldier, writer and politician.

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Sogdian language

The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Tajik language

Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Tajikistani Civil War

The Tajikistani Civil War (Ҷанги шаҳрвандии Тоҷикистон, Jangi şahrvandi‘i Tojikiston/Çangi şahrvandiji Toçikiston); also known as the Tajik Civil War or the War in Tajikistan, began in May 1992 when regional groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions of Tajikistan rose up against the government of President Rahmon Nabiyev, which was dominated by people from the Khujand and Kulyab regions.

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Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

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Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.

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The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.

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Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Turkmen rug

A Turkmen rug (Türkmen haly; or Turkmen carpet or Turkoman carpet) is a type of handmade floor-covering textile traditionally originating in Central Asia.

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Uzbek alphabet

The Uzbek language has been written in various scripts: Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.

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Uzbek language

Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.

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Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Uzbekistan is the common English name for the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and later, the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), that refers to the period of Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1991.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.

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War in Afghanistan (1978–present)

This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.

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A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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William Moorcroft (explorer)

William Moorcroft (1767 – 27 August 1825) was an English explorer employed by the East India Company.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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Redirects here:

Bokhara, Bokhara the Noble, Buchara, Bucharan, Bukhar, Bukharan, Bukhoro, Buxoro, Historic Centre of Bukhara.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukhara

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