578 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Age of Enlightenment, Alans, Alexander the Great, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Alternative for Bulgarian Revival, Ancient Greece, April Uprising of 1876, Archaeology, Archbishopric of Ohrid, Argentina national football team, Article (grammar), Asen dynasty, Asparuh of Bulgaria, Association football, Athanasius of Alexandria, Authoritarianism, Autocephaly, Axis powers, Aytos Logistics Center, Bachelor's degree, Bagpipes, Baikushev's pine, Baklava, Balkan Insight, Balkan Mountains, Balkan Wars, Balkans, Ballistic missile, Ballon d'Or, Banitsa, Bansko, Basil II, Battle of Dobrich, Battle of Doiran (1917), Battle of Kleidion, Battle of Nicopolis, Battle of Pliska, Belgrade, Benghazi, Bezmer Air Base, Biodiversity, Biofuel, Black Sea, Blagoevgrad Province, Bliznashki Government, Bloomberg Businessweek, Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, Bogdan Filov, Bogomilism, ..., Boris Christoff, Boris I of Bulgaria, Boris III of Bulgaria, Borovets, Boxing, Boyana 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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The Alternative for Bulgarian Revival (Алтернатива за българско възраждане, АБВ; Alternativa za balgarsko vazrazhdane) is a centre-left political party in Bulgaria.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The April Uprising (Априлско въстание, Aprilsko vǎstanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, which indirectly resulted in the re-establishment of Bulgaria in 1878.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Archbishopric of Ohrid (Охридска архиепископија/Ohridska arhiepiskopija), also known as the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid (Българска Охридска архиепископия), originally called Ohrid Archbishopric of Justiniana prima and all Bulgaria (Αρχιεπίσκοπος της πρωτης 'Ιουστινιανης και πάσης Βουλγαριας), was an autonomous Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and 1767.
The Argentina national football team (Selección de fútbol de Argentina) represents Argentina in football and is controlled by the Argentine Football Association (AFA), the governing body for football in Argentina.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
The Asen dynasty (Асеневци, Asenevtsi) founded and ruled a medieval Bulgarian state, called in modern historiography the Second Bulgarian Empire, between 1187 and 1256.
Asparukh (also Ispor; Asparuh or (rarely) Isperih) was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Aytos Logistics Center comprises military storage facilities located near the town of Aytos, designated for development in support of the Novo Selo Range.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
Baikushev's pine (Байкушевата мура) (also known as the Baikushev white fir, or the Baikushev fir) is a coniferous tree from the species Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii) situated in Pirin, southwestern Bulgaria.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") is an annual football award presented by France Football.
Banitsa (баница, also transliterated as banica and banitza) is a traditional Bulgarian food in the börek family prepared by layering a mixture of whisked eggs and pieces of cheese between filo pastry and then baking it in an oven.
Bansko (Банско) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, located at the foot of the Pirin Mountains at an elevation of 927 m above sea level.
Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
The battle of Dobrich, also known as the Battle of Bazargic or the Dobrich epopee (Добричка епопея), took place between 5 and 7 September 1916 between the armies of Bulgaria and Romania, Serbia and the Russian Empire.
The Battle of Doiran was a 1917 battle between the United Kingdom and Bulgaria during World War I.
The Battle of Kleidion (or Clidium, after the medieval name of the village of Klyuch, "(the) key"; also known as the Battle of Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire.
The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Bezmer Air Base is an air base for the Bulgarian Air Force.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blagoevgrad Province (област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria.
The Bliznashki Government was the ninetieth cabinet of Bulgaria which took office on 6 August 2014, following the resignation of the previous government.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft.
Bogdan Dimitrov Filov (Богдан Димитров Филов) (10 April 1883 – 1 February 1945) was a Bulgarian archaeologist, art historian and politician.
Bogomilism (Богомилство, Bogumilstvo/Богумилство) was a Christian neo-Gnostic or dualist sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest Bogomil during the reign of Tsar Peter I in the 10th century.
Boris Christoff (Bulgarian: Борис Кирилов Христов, official transliteration Boris Kirilov Hristov; 18 May 1914 – 28 June 1993) was a Bulgarian opera singer, widely considered one of the greatest basses of the 20th century.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Borovets (Боровец), known as Chamkoria (Чамкория) until the middle of the 20th century, is a popular Bulgarian mountain resort situated in Sofia Province, on the northern slopes of Rila, at an altitude of 1350 m. Borovets is 10 km from Samokov, 73 km from Sofia and 125 km from Plovdiv.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Boyana Church (Боянска църква, Boyanska tsărkva) is a medieval Bulgarian Orthodox church situated on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, in the Boyana quarter.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Бойко Методиев Борисов,; born 13 June 1959) is a Bulgarian politician who has been serving as the 50th Prime Minister of Bulgaria since 4 May 2017.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Bulgaria for Citizens Movement (Движение „България на гражданите“, Dvizhenie „Bulgariya na grazhdanite“; Movement 'Bulgaria of the Citizens') is a political party in Bulgaria, founded by former European Commissioner and National Movement for Stability and Progress member Meglena Kuneva on July 1, 2012.
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Българска академия на науките, Balgarska akademiya na naukite, abbreviated БАН) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869.
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union also translated to English as Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union (Български земеделски народен съюз, Bǎlgarski Zemedelski Naroden Sǎjuz; BZNS) is a political party devoted to representing the causes of the Bulgarian peasantry.
The Bulgarian Air Force (Voennovëzdušni sili) is one of the three branches of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces.
The Bulgarian Army (Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast (Chеrnomoriе) covers the entire eastern bound of Bulgaria stretching from the Romanian Black Sea resorts in the north to European Turkey in the south, along 378 km of coastline.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
Bulgarian cuisine (translit) is a representative of the cuisine of Eastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Land Forces (Сухопътни войски на България) are the ground warfare branch of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian National Radio (Българско национално радио, Bŭlgarsko natsionalno radio; abbreviated to БНР, BNR) is Bulgaria's national radio broadcasting organization.
The Bulgarian National Revival (Българско национално възраждане, Balgarsko natsionalno vazrazhdane or simply: Възраждане, Vazrazhdane), sometimes called the Bulgarian Renaissance, was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people under Ottoman rule.
The Bulgarian Navy (Военноморски сили на Република България, Voennomorski sili na Republika Bǎlgariya) is the navy of the Republic of Bulgaria and forms part of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 5 July 2009.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 12 May 2013, two months ahead of schedule.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 5 October 2014 to elect the 43rd National Assembly.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 26 March 2017.
Presidential elections were held in Bulgaria on 6 November 2016, alongside a referendum on changes to the electoral system and political party funding.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party.
The Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir is an internationally renowned World Music ensemble that performs modern arrangements of traditional Bulgarian folk melodies.
Bulgarian Turks (български турци, Bǎlgarski Turci, Bulgaristan Türkleri) are a Turkish ethnic group from Bulgaria.
Grape growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the times of the Thracians.
Bulgarian–American Joint Military Facilities were established by a Defence Cooperation Agreement signed by the United States and Bulgaria in April 2006.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Burgas Province (Област Бургас - Oblast Burgas, former name Burgas okrug) is a province in southeastern Bulgaria, including southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catholic Church is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria, after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Protestantism.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.
Charles Champaud (Шарл Шампо), also spelled Sharl Shampov (Шарл Шампов), was a Swiss gymnast.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chiprovtsi uprising (Чипровско въстание, Chiprovsko vastanie) was an uprising against Ottoman rule organized in northwestern Bulgaria by Roman Catholic Bulgarians, but also involving many Eastern Orthodox Christians.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity.
Christo Vladimirov Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude are a married couple who created environmental works of art.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Computer recycling, electronic recycling or e-waste recycling is the disassembly and separation of components and raw materials of waste electronics.
The 1876–77 Constantinople Conference (Tersane Konferansı "Shipyard Conference", after the venue Tersane Sarayı "Shipyard Palace") of the Great Powers (Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) was held in Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 23 December 1876 until 20 January 1877.
The Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (Конституция на Република България, Konstitutsia na Republika Balgaria) is the supreme and basic law of the Republic of Bulgaria.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Cozonac or Kozunak (козунак), is a traditional Bulgarian and Romanian sweet leavened bread, which is a type of Stollen.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danubian Plain (Дунавска равнина, Dunavska ravnina) constitutes the northern part of Bulgaria, situated north of the Balkan Mountains and south of the Danube.
The davul or atabal or tabl is a large double-headed drum that is played with mallets.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria (Демократи за силна България, Demokrati za silna Bălgarija, ДСБ, DSB) is a political party in Bulgaria established by former Bulgarian Prime Minister Ivan Kostov (1997–2001).
Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.
The Principality of Karvuna or Despotate of Dobruja (Добруджанско деспотство or Карвунско деспотство; Despotatul Dobrogei or Țara Cărvunei) was a 14th-century quasi-independent polity in the region of modern Dobruja, that split off from the Second Bulgarian Empire under the influence of the Byzantine Empire.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
Dimyat (димят) is a white Bulgarian wine grape.
Dimitar Ivanov Berbatov (Димитър Иванов Бербатов; born 30 January 1981) is a Bulgarian professional footballer.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Dnevnik (Дневник) is a business-oriented Bulgarian daily newspaper, that is published Monday - Friday in Sofia since 2001.
Dobrich Province (Област Добрич, Oblast Dobrich, former name Dobrich okrug) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Southern Dobruja geographical region.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Rumelia (Източна Румелия, Iztochna Rumeliya; روم الى شرقى, Rumeli-i Şarkî; Ανατολική Ρωμυλία, Anatoliki Romylia) was an autonomous territory (oblast in Bulgarian, vilayet in Turkish) in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Education in Bulgaria is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Electropop is a variant of synth-pop that places more emphasis on a harder, electronic sound.
Elias Canetti (Елиас Канети; 25 July 1905 – 14 August 1994) was a German-language author, born in Ruse, Bulgaria to a merchant family.
Emanuil Manolov (7 January 1860 – 2 February 1902) was a Bulgarian composer.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The European Athletics Championships is a biennial (from 2010) athletics event organised by the European Athletics Association.
The European Athletics Indoor Championships is a biennial indoor track and field competition for European athletes that is organised by the European Athletic Association.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.
The European Golden Shoe, is a shoe that is golden presented each season to the leading goalscorer in league matches from the top division of every European national league.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Fatherland Front (OF) (Отечествен фронт, ОФ) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II.
The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (English: International Volleyball Federation), commonly known by the acronym FIVB, is the international governing body for the sports of indoor, beach and grass volleyball.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 took place in Potrero de los Funes, San Luis Province in Argentina from September 27 to October 16, 2005.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
The First Tarnovo uprising (Първо търновско въстание, Parvo tarnovsko vastanie) was a Bulgarian uprising against the Ottoman rule based in the former Bulgarian capital, Tarnovo, that broke out in 1598 and was severely crushed by the Ottoman authorities.
The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) is an international conservation organisation founded in 1858 with headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
FSB (ФСБ) (abbreviation for Formation Studio Balkanton) are an influential Bulgarian progressive rock band, formed in 1975 in Sofia as a studio project.
Functional illiteracy is reading and writing skills that are inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level".
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gabrovo Province (Област Габрово (Oblast Gabrovo), former name Gabrovo okrug) is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria.
The gadulka (Гъдулка) is a traditional Bulgarian bowed string instrument.
A gaida is a bagpipe from the Balkans and Southeast Europe.
Güveç is the name of a variety of earthenware pots used in Turkish cuisine, and of a number of casserole/stew dishes that are cooked in them.
The Bulgarian Gendarmerie' (Жандармерия - Zhandarmeriya) is a part of the Bulgarian Ministry of Internal Affairs or "MIA".
Georgi Rangelov Asparuhov (Георги Рангелов Аспарухов) (sometimes also spelled Asparoukhov), nicknamed Gundi (4 May 1943 – 30 June 1971) was a Bulgarian footballer who played as a striker.
Georgi Atanasov (Георги Атанасов) (May 6, 1882 – November 17, 1931), was a Bulgarian composer.
Georgi Bliznashki (Георги Близнашки; born 4 October 1956 in Skravena, Sofia Oblast) is a Bulgarian politician and a former Member of the European Parliament (MEP).
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
Major general Georgi Ivanov Kakalov (Георги Иванов Какалов; born July 2, 1940) is a retired Bulgarian military officer and the first Bulgarian cosmonaut.
GERB (ГЕРБ, Граждани за европейско развитие на България, "Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria") is a conservative Bulgarian political party established on 13 March 2006.
The ninety-second Cabinet of Bulgaria took office on 27 January 2017, following the resignation of the Second Borisov Government.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germany national football team (deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft or Die Mannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.
Ghena Dimitrova (Гeна Димитpова) (6 May 1941 – 11 June 2005) was a Bulgarian operatic soprano.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
Golden Sands (Bulgarian: Златни пясъци, Zlatni pyasatsi) is a major seaside resort town on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, adjacent to a national park of the same name in the municipality of Varna.
The Gothic Bible or Wulfila Bible is the Christian Bible as allegedly translated by the Arian bishop and missionary Wulfila in the fourth century into the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic (Gothic) tribes.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
Graf Ignatievo Air Base, is located in the village of Graf Ignatievo, about north of Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second largest city.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
The Granit oak (in Bulgarian: Гранитски дъб) is an English (Pedunculate) oak tree that grows within the boundaries of Granit village, Bulgaria.
The Greece national football team (Εθνική Ελλάδος, Ethniki Ellados) represents Greece in association football and is controlled by the Hellenic Football Federation, the governing body for football in Greece.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hamangia culture is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of Dobruja (Romania and Bulgaria) between the Danube and the Black Sea and Muntenia in the south.
Haskovo Province (Област Хасково - Oblast Haskovo, former name Haskovo okrug) is a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast, comprising parts of the Thracian valley along the river Maritsa.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Bulgaria had the third highest mortality in Europe, at 708 per 100,000 population in 2015.
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials, appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, causing an epidemic at El-Fatih Children's Hospital in Benghazi, Libya.
Hristo Stoichkov (Христо Стоичков,; born 8 February 1966) is a Bulgarian former footballer who is currently a football commentator for Univision Deportes.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hurdling is the act of running and jumping over an obstacle at speed.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
These are the international rankings of Bulgaria.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Trade Administration (ITA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of nonagricultural U.S. services and goods.
The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC; Confédération syndicale internationale (CSI); Internationaler Gewerkschaftsbund (IGB); Confederación Sindical Internacional (CSI)) is the world's largest trade union federation.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Iskar (Искър; Oescus) is a right tributary of the Danube.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Ivan Asen I, also known as Asen I or John Asen I (Иван Асен I) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1187 or 1188 to 1196 as the co-ruler of his elder brother, Peter II.
Ivan Asen II, also known as John Asen II or John Asan II (Иван Асен II,; 1190s – June 1241) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241.
Ivan Minchov Vazov (Иван Минчов Вазов) (June 27, 1850 OS – September 22, 1921) was a Bulgarian poet, novelist and playwright, often referred to as "the Patriarch of Bulgarian literature".
James David Bourchier (18 December 1850 at Baggotstown House, Bruff, County Limerick – 30 December 1920 in Sofia, Bulgaria) (his last name is frequently misspelled as Boucher, Baucher or Bauchar) was an Irish journalist and political activist.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
John Koukouzelis or Jan Kukuzeli ((Shën) Jan Kukuzeli; Йоан Кукузел, Yoan Kukuzel; Ιωάννης Κουκουζέλης, Ioannis Koukouzelis; 1280 – 1360) was an Albanian-Bulgarian medieval Orthodox Christian composer, singer and reformer of Orthodox Church music.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The kallikantzaros (καλλικάντζαρος, pl. καλλικάντζαροι kallikantzaroi; караконджул; караконџула/karakondžula) is a malevolent goblin in Southeastern European and Anatolian folklore.
Kaloyan, also known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa (Калоян; 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207.
Kardzhali District (Област Кърджали, Oblast Kǎrdžali) is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek regional units of Xanthi, Rhodope and Evros to the south and east.
Karposh’s rebellion or Karposh’s uprising was a Christian anti-Ottoman uprising in the Central Balkans that took place in October 1689.
The kaval is a chromatic end-blown flute traditionally played throughout Armenia, the Balkans and Turkey.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kotoōshū Katsunori (琴欧洲 勝紀) (legal name: Karoyan Andō, born February 19, 1983 as Kaloyan Stefanov Mahlyanov, Калоян Стефанов Махлянов, in Dzhulyunitsa, Veliko Tarnovo Province, Bulgaria) is a former professional sumo wrestler or rikishi.
The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Bulgaria situated north of Sofia and east of Kozloduy, a town on the Danube river, near the border with Romania.
Kristen R. Ghodsee (born April 26, 1970) is an American ethnographer and Professor of Russian and East European Studies at the University of Pennsylvania known primarily for her ethnographic work on post-communist Bulgaria as well as being a contributor to the field of postsocialist gender studies.
Krum (Крум, Κρούμος/Kroumos) was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814.
Kukeri (кукери; singular: kuker, кукер) are elaborately costumed Bulgarian men, and sometimes women, who perform traditional rituals intended to scare away evil spirits.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Kyustendil Province (Област Кюстендил, trl Oblast Kyustendil) is a province in southwestern Bulgaria, extending over an area of 3084.3 km² (constituting 2.7% of the total territory of the Republic of Bulgaria), and with a population of 163,889.
Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Liberation Day is a day, often a public holiday, that marks the liberation of a place, similar to an independence day.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Below is a list of all countries in Europe, in order of geographical area.
This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Bulgarian state, from the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria to the present day.
This is a list of protected areas in Bulgaria which includes 3 national parks, 11 nature parks and 55 nature reserves.
This is a list of the cultures of Slavic Europe.
This is a list of places in Bulgaria having standing links to local communities in other countries.
There are ten UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bulgaria.
World records in athletics are ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.
Ljutenica, lyutenitsa or lutenica (lyuto or luto meaning "hot") is a spicy vegetable relish or chutney in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian cuisines.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Lovech Province (Област Ловеч, transliterated Oblast Lovech, former name Lovech okrug) is one of the 28 provinces of Bulgaria, lying at the northern centre of the country.
Lukanka (луканка) is a Bulgarian (sometimes spicy) salami unique to Bulgarian cuisine.
Lyudmila Todorova Zhivkova (Людмила Тодорова Живкова; 26 July 1942 – 21 July 1981) was the daughter of Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov, who reached the rank of senior Bulgarian Communist Party functionary and Politburo member.
The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.
The Madara Rider or Madara Horseman (Мадарски конник, Madarski konnik) is an early medieval large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria, near the village of Madara.
or is the top division of the six divisions of professional sumo.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.
Marathon swimming is a class of open water swimming defined by long distances (at least 10 kilometers) and traditional rules based in English Channel swimming.
Maria Gigova (Мария Гигова; born 24 April 1947) is a Bulgarian rhythmic gymnast.
Maria Petrova (Мария Петрова) (born November 13, 1975 in Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a Bulgarian rhythmic gymnast.
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.
The Maritsa Iztok Complex is the largest energy complex in South Eastern Europe.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
A Martenitsa (мартеница, pronounced, мартинка, μάρτης, mărțișor) is a small piece of adornment, made of white and red yarn and usually in the form of two dolls, a male and a female.
Mavrud (from Greek, mavro, "black") is a red wine grape that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines, indigenous to the region of Thrace in Bulgaria.
The media of Bulgaria refers to mass media outlets based in Bulgaria.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Men's European Volleyball Championship (EuroVolley) is the official competition for senior men's national volleyball teams of Europe, organized by the European Volleyball Confederation (CEV).
The Mexico national football team represents Mexico in international football and is governed by the Mexican Football Federation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
Mila Rodino ("Мила Родино", translated as "Dear Motherland" or "Dear native land") is the current national anthem of Bulgaria.
Milcho Leviev (Милчо Левиев) (December 19, 1937, Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a Bulgarian composer, arranger, jazz performer and pianist.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
The Ministry of Education and Science (Министерство на образованието и науката, Ministerstvo na obrazovanieto i naukata) of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with regulating and promoting the educational and scientific work in the country.
The Ministry of Interior (Bulgarian: Mинистерство на вътрешните работи, Ministerstvo na vutreshnite raboti, abbreviated МВР, MVR) of the Republic of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with the national security and the upholding of law and order in the country.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Mira Aroyo (Мира Аройо; born July 11, 1977) is a Bulgarian musician, known as the secondary vocalist and one of the keyboardists and songwriters of the electronic band Ladytron, as well as a DJ.
Misket Cherven, meaning Red Misket, is a variety of grape used for wine.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
The Monastery of Saint Athanasius (манастир „Свети Атанасий“) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery located close to the village of Zlatna livada in Chirpan municipality, Stara Zagora Province.
During the Mongol invasion of Europe, Mongol tumens led by Batu Khan and Kadan invaded Serbia and then Bulgaria in the spring of 1242 after defeating the Hungarians at the battle of Mohi and ravaging the Hungarian regions of Croatia, Dalmatia and Bosnia.
Montana Province (Област Монтана, transliterated: Oblast Montana) is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia in the southwest and Romania in the north.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Moussaka is an eggplant- (aubergine) or potato-based dish, often including ground meat, in the Levant, Middle East, and Balkans, with many local and regional variations.
The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Движение за права и свободи (ДПС), Dvizhenie za prava i svobodi (DPS); Hak ve Özgürlükler Hareketi (HÖH)) is a centrist political party in Bulgaria.
A1 Bulgaria (previously known as Mtel or Mobiltel /network code 284-01/), is the first and largest GSM mobile phone operator in Bulgaria.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The 28 provinces of Bulgaria are divided into 265 municipalities (община, obshtina).
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
Musala (Мусала); from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish: from Musalla, "near God" or "place for prayer" is the highest peak in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m (9,596 ft).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian nationalism emerged in the early 19th century under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French revolution, mostly via Greece, although there were stirrings in the 18th century.
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (Национален център за суперкомпютърни приложения) is a research institution located in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The National Police Service is an independent agency of the Ministry of the Interior responsible for general law enforcement in Bulgaria.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nesebar (often transcribed as Nessebar and sometimes as Nesebur, Несебър, pronounced, Thracian: Melsambria, Μεσημβρία, Mesembria) is an ancient city and one of the major seaside resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located in Burgas Province.
Nestinarstvo (нестинарство, αναστενάρια, anastenária) is a fire ritual originally performed in several Bulgarian- and Greek-speaking villages in the Strandzha Mountains close to the Black Sea coast in the very southeast of Bulgaria.
The Nicaraguan Revolution (Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States-backed Contras from 1981-1990.
Nicolai Ghiaurov (or Nikolai Gjaurov, Nikolay Gyaurov, Николай Гяуров) (September 13, 1929 – June 2, 2004) was a Bulgarian opera singer and one of the most famous basses of the postwar period.
Nicopolis ad Istrum (Νικόπολις ἡ πρὸς Ἴστρον) or Nicopolis ad Iatrum was a Roman and Early Byzantine town.
Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
Nikolay Diulgheroff (Николай Дюлгеров, Nikolay Dyulgerov; 20 December 1901 – 9 June 1982) was a Bulgarian artist, designer and architect who was active in Italy as a prominent representative of interwar Italian Futurism (il secondo Futurismo).
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Novo Selo Training Area is a major Bulgarian military training facility established in 1962, presently used by other NATO nations as well.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
Ognyan Stefanov Gerdzhikov (Огнян Стефанов Герджиков) (born 19 March 1946) is a Bulgarian politician and jurist who served as the interim Prime Minister from 27 January 2017 to 4 May 2017, following the resignation of Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and the failure of Bulgarian parties to form a government.
Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.
The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School).
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Όνόγουροι, Οὒρωγοι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke Oğhuric language.
Opalchentsi (опълченци) were Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
OTR-21 Tochka (оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка» ("dot"); Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
In North American financial context an out-of-pocket expense (or out-of-pocket cost) is the direct outlay of cash that may or may not be later reimbursed from a third-party source.
The location of Bulgaria An enlargeable relief map of the Republic of Bulgaria The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bulgaria: Bulgaria – country located in Southeastern Europe, and a member of the European Union.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
The painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School was the mainstream of the Bulgarian fine arts between 13th and 14th centuries named after the capital and the main cultural center of the Second Bulgarian Empire, Tarnovo.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Pamporovo (Пампорово, pronunciation: /pam'porovo/) is a popular ski resort in Smolyan Province, southern Bulgaria, one of the best-known in Southeastern Europe.
Pancho Haralanov Vladigerov (or Wladigeroff, or Wladigerow, or Vladiguerov, or Vladigueroff; Панчо Хараланов Владигеров; 13 March 18998 September 1978) was a Bulgarian composer, pedagogue, and pianist.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Patriotic Front (Bulgarian Патриотичен фронт) is a nationalist electoral alliance in Bulgaria around the political parties IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement (IMRO) and National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria (NFSB).
Paul Robert Magocsi (born January 26, 1945, Englewood, New Jersey, United States) is an American professor of history, political science, and Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto.
Pazardzhik Province (Област Пазарджик Oblast Pazardzhik, former name Pazardzhik okrug) is a province in Southern Bulgaria, named after its administrative and industrial centre - the city of Pazardzhik.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pencho Petkov Slaveykov (Пенчо Петков Славейков) (27 April 1866 O.S. – 10 June 1912 (O.S. 28 May 1912)) was a noted Bulgarian poet and one of the participants in the Misal ("Thought") circle.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
Pernik Province is a province in western Bulgaria, neighbouring Serbia.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Petar Stoychev (Петър Стойчев; born 24 October 1976 in Momchilgrad) is a Bulgarian swimmer who is one of the most successful long distance marathon swimmers of the last decade.
Petar II Delyan (reigned 1040 – 1041) (Петър II Делян) was the leader of an uprising against Byzantine rule in the Theme of Bulgaria during the summer of 1040.
Peter II, born Theodor, also known as Theodor-Peter (Теодор-Петър; died in 1197) was the first emperor (or tsar) of the restored Bulgarian Empire from 1185 to 1197.
Peyo Yavorov (Пейо (Кр.) Яворов; born Peyo Totev Kracholov, Пейо Тотев Крачолов; 13 January 1878 – 29 October 1914) was a Bulgarian Symbolist poet.
CSKA (ЦСКА) is a Bulgarian professional association football club based in Sofia and currently competing in the country's premier football competition, the First League.
Levski (Левски) is a professional association football club based in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The Pirin Mountains (Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren at an altitude of 2,914 m being the highest peak.
Pirin National Park (Национален парк "Пирин"), originally named Vihren National Park, encompasses the larger part of the Pirin Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria, spanning an area of.
Plamen Vasilev Oresharski (Пламен Василев Орешарски; born 21 February 1960) is a Bulgarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2013 to 2014.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Pleven Province (Област Плевен or Plevenska Oblast Плевенска Област, former name Pleven okrug) is a province located in central northern Bulgaria, bordering the Danube river, Romania and the Bulgarian provinces of Vratsa, Veliko Tarnovo and Lovech.
Pliska (Пльсковъ, romanized: Plĭskovŭ) is the name of both the first capital of the First Bulgarian Empire and a small town situated 20 km Northeast of the provincial capital Shumen.
Plovdiv Province (Област Пловдив: Oblast Plovdiv, former name Plovdiv okrug) is a province in central southern Bulgaria.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The President of the Republic of Bulgaria is the head of state of Bulgaria and the commander-in-chief of the Military of Bulgaria.
The Preslav Literary School (Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School, was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria (Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel) is the head of government of Bulgaria.
Primorsko (Приморско) is a town and seaside resort in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Burgas Province.
The Principality of Bulgaria (Княжество България, Knyazhestvo Balgariya) was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Turkic languages.
The provinces of Bulgaria (области на България Oblasti na Bǎlgarija) are the first level administrative subdivisions of the country.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
RADOM is a Bulgarian Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instrument, designed to precisely measure cosmic radiation around the Moon.
Rakia or Rakija is the collective term for fruit brandy popular in the Balkans.
A rayah or reaya (from ra`aya, a plural of رعيّة ra`iya "flock, subject", also spelled raya, raja, raiah, re'aya; Ottoman Turkish رعايا; Modern Turkish râya or reaya) was a member of the tax-paying lower class of Ottoman society, in contrast to the askeri (upper class) and kul (slaves).
Razgrad Province (Област Разград (Oblast Razgrad), former name Razgrad okrug) is a province in Northeastern Bulgaria, geographically part of the Ludogorie region.
The Reformist Bloc (Bulgarian: Реформаторски блок) is a centre-right electoral alliance in Bulgaria.
Religion in Bulgaria has been dominated by Christianity since its adoption as the state religion in 865.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Rescue of Bulgarian Jews was a historical event that consisted of the planned rescue of about 50,000 Jews living on Bulgarian soil during World War II.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).
Rila (Рила) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. The massif is also the sixth highest mountain in Europe (when each mountain is represented by its highest peak only), coming after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and Mount Etna, and the highest between the Alps and the Caucasus.
The Monastery of Saint Ivan of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery (Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria.
The rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) is a gamebird in the pheasant family, Phasianidae, of the order Galliformes (gallinaceous birds).
The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (Ивановски скални църкви, Ivanovski skalni tsarkvi) are a group of monolithic churches, chapels and monasteries hewn out of solid rock and completely different from other monastery complexes in Bulgaria, located near the village of Ivanovo, 20 km south of Rousse, on the high rocky banks of the Rusenski Lom, 32 m above the river.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romani people (tsiɡɐni, роми) in Bulgaria constitute one of the country's largest ethnic minorities.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence) is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose.
Rosen Asenov Plevneliev (Росен Асенов Плевнелиев; born 14 May 1964) is a Bulgarian politician who was the 4th President of Bulgaria from January 2012 to January 2017.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rumen Georgiev Radev (Румен Георгиев Радев; born 18 June 1963) is a Bulgarian Major General of the Reserve and the current President of Bulgaria since January 2017.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Ruse Province (Област Русе or Rusenska Oblast Русенска област, former name Ruse okrug) is a province in northern Bulgaria, named after its main city - Ruse, neighbouring Romania via the Danube.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samodivas, Samovilas or Vilas are woodland fairies or nymphs found in South and West Slavic folklore.
Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The ninety-first Cabinet of Bulgaria took office on November 7, 2014.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
The Second Tarnovo uprising (Второ търновско въстание, Vtoro tarnovsko vastanie), according to a unique Russian source published in 1847, is thought to be a Bulgarian uprising against Ottoman rule based in the former Bulgarian capital, Tarnovo, that broke out in 1686 and was severely crushed by the Ottoman authorities.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbo-Bulgarian War or Serbian–Bulgarian War (Сръбско-българска война, Српско-бугарски рат, Srpsko-bugarski rat) was a war between the Kingdom of Serbia and Principality of Bulgaria that erupted on and lasted until.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.
Shopska salad, also known as Bulgarian salad (Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian Cyrillic: Шопска салата; Bosnian and Croatian: Šopska salata; Salata bulgărească; Šopský salát; Sałatka szopska; Sallatë Shope; Sopszka saláta), is a Bulgarian cold salad popular throughout the Balkans and Central Europe.
Shumen Province (Област Шумен, transliterated Oblast Shumen, former name Shumen okrug) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria named after its main city Shumen.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Silistra Province (Област Силистра, transliterated Oblast Silistra, former name Silistra okrug) is a province of Bulgaria, named after its main city - Silistra.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Shiroka Melnishka, (Широка мелнишка лоза / Šhiroka Melnišhka loza), often called Melnik (Мелник, distinct from other varieties named after the town) or Broadleafed Melnik, is a red Bulgarian wine grape variety.
A slavic dragon is any dragon in Slavic mythology, including the Russian zmei (or zmey; змей), known in Ukraine as zmiy, and its counterparts in other Slavic cultures: the Bulgarian zmei (змей), the Polish italic, the Serbian and Croatian zmaj (змај, italic).
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sliven Province (Област Сливен, former name Sliven okrug) is a province in southeastern Bulgaria, named after its administrative and industrial centre — the city of Sliven.
Smolyan Province (Област Смолян, Oblast Smolyan; former name Smolyan okrug) is a province in Southern-central Bulgaria, located in the Rhodope Mountains, neighbouring Greece to the south.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Sofia Province (Софийска област, Sofiyska oblast) is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria.
The University of Sofia "St.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Soyuz 33 (Союз 33, Union 33) was a 1979 Soviet manned space flight to the Salyut 6 space station.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
The Srebarna Nature Reserve (Природен резерват Сребърна, transliterated as Priroden rezervat Srebarna) is a nature reserve in northeastern Bulgaria (Southern Dobruja), near the village of the same name, 18 km west of Silistra and 2 km south of the Danube.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stara Zagora (Област Стара Загора oblast Stara Zagora, former name Stara Zagora okrug) is a province of south central Bulgaria.
Stefka Georgieva Kostadinova (Стефка Георгиева Костадинова; born March 25, 1965) is a Bulgarian retired athlete who competed in the high jump.
The Struma or Strymónas (Струма; Στρυμόνας; (Struma) Karasu, 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.
or sumo wrestling is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Slanchev Bryag (Слънчев бряг, Sunny Beach) is a major seaside resort on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located approximately north of Burgas in Nessebar municipality, Burgas Province.
Other than the many gods and goddesses of the Slavs, the ancient Slavs believed in and revered many supernatural beings that existed in nature.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Targovishte Province (Област Търговище, transliterated Oblast Tǎrgovište, former name Targovishte okrug) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, named after its main city - Targovishte.
The Tarnovo Literary School (Търновска книжовна школа) of the late 14th and 15th century was a major medieval Bulgarian cultural academy with important contribution to the Medieval Bulgarian literature established in the capital of Bulgaria Tarnovo.
Telenor (network code 284-05) is the third-largest Bulgarian GSM/UMTS operator.
Telephone numbers in Bulgaria are under an open dialing plan, similar to those of Germany and Austria.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Teres I (Ancient Greek, "Τήρης"), (reigned 460-445 BC) was the first king of the Odrysian state of Thrace.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.
The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (Казанлъшка гробница, Kazanlǎška grobnica) is a vaulted-brickwork "beehive" (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria.
The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari (Свещарска гробница, Sveštarska grobnica) is 2.5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, Razgrad Province, which is 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in northeast Bulgaria.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 40 countries have flown in space.
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, commonly referred to simply as Tottenham or Spurs, is an English football club in Tottenham, London, England, that competes in the Premier League.
Tourism in Bulgaria is a significant contributor to the country's economy.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty of Accession 2005 is an agreement between the member states of European Union and Bulgaria and Romania.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Trud (Труд, Labor), is the largest-circulation Bulgarian daily newspaper.
The Tsardom of Vidin (Видинско царство, Vidinsko Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state centred in the city of Vidin.
Tsetska Tsacheva Dangovska (Цецка Цачева Данговска; born 24 May 1958) is a Bulgarian jurist and GERB politician who is the current Minister of Justice of Bulgaria as part of the Third Borisov Government, having assumed office on 4 May 2017.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Turkic term oğuz or oğur (in z- and r-Turkic, respectively) is a historical term for "military division, clan, or tribe" among the Turkic peoples.
Tzvetan Todorov (Цветан Тодоров; March 1, 1939 – February 7, 2017) was a Bulgarian-French historian, philosopher, structuralist literary critic, sociologist and essayist and geologist.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
The Union of Democratic Forces (Съюз на демократичните сили, Sayuz na demokratichnite sili, СДС, SDS) is a political party in Bulgaria, founded in 1989 as a union of several political organizations in opposition to the communist government.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
"Unity makes strength" (Съединението прави силата; Iendracht makket macht; Eendracht maakt macht,; L'union fait la force) is a motto that has been used by various nations and entities throughout history.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The Upper Thracian Plain (Горнотракийска низина, Gornotrakiyska nizina) constitutes the northern part of the historical region of Thrace.
The Uprising of Asen and Peter (Въстание на Асен и Петър) was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase.
The Uprising of Peter Delyan (Въстанието на Петър Делян, Επανάσταση του Πέτρου Δελεάνου), which took place in 1040–1041, was a major Bulgarian rebellion against the Byzantine Empire.
Utigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
The Varna culture belongs to the late Chalcolithic of northeastern Bulgaria.
The so-called Varna Necropolis (Варненски некропол) (also Varna Cemetery) is a burial site from 4569–4340 BC in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately half a kilometre from Lake Varna and 4 km from the city centre), internationally considered one of the key archaeological sites in world prehistory.
Varna Province (translit, former name Varna okrug) is a province in eastern Bulgaria, onе of the 28 Bulgarian provinces.
The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
Veliko Tarnovo (Област Велико Търново) is a province in the middle of the northern part of Bulgaria.
Veselin Aleksandrov Topalov (pronounced; Весели́н Александров Топа́лов; born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE World Chess Champion.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vidin Province is the northwesternmost province of Bulgaria.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
Vivacom (Bulgarian: Виваком) is the brand name of "Bulgarian Telecommunications Company EAD" ("BTC"), the largest telecommunications company in Bulgaria and a former state-owned incumbent operator.
Vladimir Dimitrov — Maystora (Владимир Димитров — Майстора) (1 February 1882 – 29 September 1960), was a Bulgarian painter, draughtsman and teacher.
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Volia is an extinct genus of mekosuchine crocodylian from Fiji.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.
Vratsa Province (Област Враца Oblast Vraca, former name Vraca okrug) is a Bulgarian province located in the northwestern part of the country, between Danube river in the north and Stara Planina mountain in the south.
The wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) is a small passerine bird found throughout the high mountains of Eurasia from southern Europe to central China.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The following table shows the world record progression in the women's 100 metres hurdles.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The World Chess Championship 2006 was a match between Classical World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik, and FIDE World Chess Champion Veselin Topalov.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yambol (област Ямбол, oblast Yambol, former name Yambol okrug) is a province in southeastern Bulgaria, neighbouring Turkey to the south.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
Yordan Radichkov (Йордан Радичков; 24 October 1929 – 21 January 2004) was a Bulgarian writer and playwright.
Yordanka Donkova (Йорданка Донкова) (born 28 September 1961) is a Bulgarian former hurdling athlete, notable for winning an Olympic gold medal and bronze medal as well as 9 medals at European indoor and outdoor championships.
Yugozapaden Planning Region (Southwest Planning Region) is a planning region in Bulgaria.
The domain name.bg is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet for Bulgaria.
The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.
The 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état, also known as the 9 September coup d'état (Деветосептемврийски преврат, Devetoseptemvriyski prevrat) and called in pre-1989 Bulgaria the National Uprising of 9 September or the Socialist Revolution of 9 September, was a forcible change in the Kingdom of Bulgaria's administration and government carried out on the eve of 9 September 1944.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 2nd World Championships in Athletics under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations were held in the Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy between August 28 and September 6, 1987.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
The 2007 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup was held from November 18 to December 2, 2007 in Japan.
The 2013 Bulgarian protests against the first Borisov cabinet were civil demonstrations against high electricity and hot water bills resulting from monopolism in the sphere that began in Blagoevgrad on 28 January 2013, subsequently spread to over 30 cities in Bulgaria and ended with the resignation of Boyko Borisov government on 20 February 2013.
The 2013–14 Bulgarian protests against the Oresharski cabinet are series of demonstrations that were held in Bulgaria, mainly in the capital Sofia, against the left-wing coalition cabinet of Oresharski (coalition between Bulgarian Socialist Party and Movement for Rights and Freedoms (DPS), supported by the ultra-nationalist party Ataka).
24 Chasa (24 часа, translated as 24 Hours) is one of the newspapers published in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.