177 relations: Aerodynamics, Alloy, American Civil War, Ammunition, Antimony, Armor-piercing shell, Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, Arquebus, Atmospheric pressure, Automatic Colt Pistol, Ballistic coefficient, Bean bag round, Bismuth, Black Talon, Blank (cartridge), Blended-metal bullets, Brass, Brenneke, British Army, Brown Bess, Bullet bow shockwave, Bullwhip, Caliber, Cannelure, Caplock mechanism, Cartridge (firearms), Cast bullet, Casting (metalworking), Claude-Étienne Minié, Colloquialism, Combat, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Copper, Cordite, Culverin, Cupronickel, Depleted uranium, Diminutive, Eduard Rubin, Europe, Explosive material, External ballistics, Federal Premium Ammunition, Firearm, Flechette, Flintlock, Frangible bullet, Full metal jacket bullet, Gas, Gas check, ..., Geneva Conventions, Gilding metal, Glaser Safety Slug, Grain (unit), Gun barrel, Gunpowder, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Heat capacity, Henri-Gustave Delvigne, High Standard HDM, High-explosive incendiary/armor-piercing ammunition, Hollow-base bullet, Hollow-point bullet, Hornady, Humidity, Hunting, Hydra-Shok, Imperial units, Incendiary ammunition, Infantry, Internal ballistics, James Puckle, Jon-Erik Hexum, Joseph Whitworth, Kinetic energy, Lead, Lebel Model 1886 rifle, Lee–Enfield, Lee–Metford, Linotype (alloy), List of handgun cartridges, List of rifle cartridges, Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin, Machine gun, Magnesium, Matchlock, Meplat, Metre per second, Metric system, Middle French, Minié ball, Moose, Multiple projectile ammunition, Musket, Muzzle velocity, Muzzleloading, Natural rubber, Nessler ball, Nickel, Non-lethal weapon, Nylon, Ogive, Paper cartridge, Parasitic drag, Pattern 1853 Enfield, Penetration (weaponry), Perchlorate, Percussion cap, Percussion instrument, Plastic bullet, Plastic-tipped bullet, Polygonal rifling, Polymer, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Primer (firearms), Projectile, Propellant, Puckle gun, Remington Arms, Rifle, Rifling, Riot, RUAG, Rubber bullet, Sabot, Saboted light armor penetrator, Saint Petersburg Declaration of 1868, Sectional density, Semiwadcutter, Shooting, Shooting range, Shooting sports, Sierra Bullets, Silencer (firearms), Sintering, Smart bullet, Smokeless powder, Soft-point bullet, Sonic boom, Speed of sound, Spitzer (bullet), Steel, Stopping power, Strasbourg Agreement (1675), Strontium, Subsonic ammunition, Supersonic speed, Swaging, Table of handgun and rifle cartridges, Tamisier, Teflon-coated bullet, Tellurium, Temperature, Terminal ballistics, Tin, Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, Tracer ammunition, Training, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Typesetting, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Very-low-drag bullet, Wadcutter, Wax, Wax bullet, William Ellis Metford, William Greener, Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Wind speed, .22 Long Rifle, .223 Remington, .303 British, .45 ACP, .45 GAP, .50 BMG, 9×19mm Parabellum. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armour.
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Automatic Colt Pistol (ACP) denotes various John Browning cartridge designs primarily used in Colt and Fabrique Nationale de Herstal semi-automatic pistols.
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
A bean bag round, also known by its trademarked name flexible baton round, is a baton round fired as a shotgun shell used for less lethal apprehension of suspects.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Black Talon is a brand of hollow-point pistol and rifle ammunition introduced in 1991 by Winchester, primarily intended for law enforcement and personal defense use.
A blank is a type of cartridge for a firearm that contains gunpowder but no bullet or shot.
The US Navy defines blended-metal bullets as, "projectiles which utilize cores manufactured with materials other than lead, using processes other than melting." The solicitation elaborates as follows: Blended-metal bullets are not commercially available at this time.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brenneke GmbH is a German manufacturer of ammunition and bullets, based in Langenhagen, Lower Saxony.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
"Brown Bess" is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives.
A bullet bow shockwave is a physical and audible wave created in the air when a bullet travels at supersonic speeds; meaning faster than the speed of sound.
A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
A cannelure is a groove or channel around ammunition, either bullets or cartridge cases. The cannelure may be pressed into or cast with the bullet or case.
The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen.The caplock mechanism consists of a hammer, similar to the hammer used in a flintlock, and a nipple (sometimes referred to as a "cone"), which holds a small percussion cap.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
A cast bullet is made by allowing molten metal to solidify in a mold.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
Claude-Etienne Minié (13 February 1804 – 14 December 1879) was a French Army officer famous for solving the problem of designing a reliable muzzle-loading rifle by inventing the Minié ball in 1846, and the Minié rifle in 1849.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW or CCWC), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
A culverin was a relatively simple ancestor of the musket, and later a medieval cannon, adapted for use by the French as "couleuvrine" (from couleuvre "grass snake") in the 15th century, and later adapted for naval use by the English in the late 16th century.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
Eduard Alexander Rubin (17 July 1846 – 6 July 1920) was a Swiss mechanical engineer who is most notable for having invented the full metal jacket bullet in 1882.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
Federal Premium Ammunition, a wholly owned subsidiary of Vista Outdoor Inc., is located in Anoka, Minnesota.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
A flechette is a pointed steel projectile with a vaned tail for stable flight.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
Frangible bullets are intended to disintegrate into tiny particles upon target impact to minimize their penetration of other objects.
A full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet is a small-arms projectile consisting of a soft core (often lead) encased in a shell of harder metal, such as gilding metal, cupronickel, or less commonly a steel alloy.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas check is a gasket type component of firearms ammunition.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Gilding metal is a copper alloy, a brass, comprising 95% copper and 5% zinc.
Glaser Safety Slug is a frangible bullet made by Cor-Bon/Glaser, a subsidiary of Dakota Ammo, an American ammunition company based in Sturgis, South Dakota.
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Henri-Gustave Delvigne (April 10, 1800 in Hamburg – October 18, 1876 in Toulon) was a French soldier and inventor.
The High Standard HDM is a semiautomatic pistol equipped with an integral silencer.
High-explosive incendiary/armor-piercing ammunition (HEIAP) is a form of shell which combines armor-piercing capability and a high-explosive effect.
A hollow-base bullet is an expanding bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its base often intended to cause the bullet to expand upon firing a cartridge in order to expand the base against the barrel grooves and obturate the bullet more as it travels through the barrel.
A hollow-point bullet is an expanding bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its tip often intended to cause the bullet to expand upon entering a target as it penetrates and disrupts more tissue.
Hornady Manufacturing Company is an American manufacturer of ammunition and handloading components, based in Grand Island, Nebraska.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Hydra-Shok is a type of cartridge with expanding bullets made by Federal Premium Ammunition.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
Incendiary ammunition is a type of firearm ammunition containing a compound that burns rapidly and causes fires.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Internal ballistics (also interior ballistics), a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the propulsion of a projectile.
James Puckle (1667–1724) was an English inventor, lawyer and writer from London chiefly remembered for his invention of the Defence Gun, better known as the Puckle gun, a multi-shot gun mounted on a stand capable of (depending on which version) firing up to nine rounds per minute.
Jon-Erik Hexum (November 5, 1957 – October 18, 1984) was an American actor.
Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Lebel Model 1886 rifle (French: Fusil Modèle 1886 dit "Fusil Lebel") is also known as the "Fusil Mle 1886 M93", after a bolt modification was added in 1893.
The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century.
The Lee–Metford rifle (a.k.a. Magazine Lee–Metford, abbreviated MLM) was a bolt action British army service rifle, combining James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system and detachable magazine with an innovative seven groove rifled barrel designed by William Ellis Metford.
Linotype or eutectic alloy is a broad name applied to five categories of lead alloys used in manufacture of type, each with three to five sub-classifications.
List of repeating handgun cartridges, approximately in order of increasing caliber.
List of rifle cartridges, by category, then by name.
Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin (1791–1882) was a French Army general.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
Meplat (from the French word "méplat" meaning "flat") is the technical term for the flat or open tip on the nose of a bullet.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Multiple projectile ammunition are rounds with more than one projectile inserted in the cartridge.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.
Muzzleloading is the shooting sport of firing muzzleloading guns.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Nessler ball, or balle Nessler, is a type of muzzle-loading bullet.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
An ogive is the roundly tapered end of a two-dimensional or three-dimensional object.
This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms).
Parasitic drag is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium.
The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a.577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider–Enfield rifle.
Strictly speaking, penetration occurs when a projectile enters a target without passing through it and perforation occurs when the projectile completely passes through the target, but the word penetration is commonly used to refer to either.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
A plastic bullet or plastic baton round (PBR) is a less-lethal projectile fired from a specialised gun.
Plastic-tipped bullets are a type of bullet designed to bring the aerodynamics of the spitzer to hollow-point bullets.
Polygonal rifling is a type of gun barrel rifling where the traditional sharp-edged lands and grooves are replaced by less-edged "hills and valleys" in a polygonal pattern, usually taking the form of a hexagon or octagon.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
In firearms, the primer is a component of handgun cartridges, rifle cartridges and shotgun shells, and is responsible for initiating the propellant combustion that will push the projectiles out of the gun barrel.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
The Puckle gun (also known as the Defence gun) was a primitive crew-served, manually-operated flintlock revolver patented in 1718 by James Puckle (1667–1724) a British inventor, lawyer and writer.
Remington Arms Company, LLC is an American manufacturer of firearms and ammunition in the United States.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
RUAG (originally Rüstungs Unternehmen Aktiengesellschaft; Joint Stock Defense Company) is a Swiss technology company, with its headquarters in Bern.
Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns.
A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a relatively small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a significantly smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used.
The saboted light armor penetrator (SLAP) family of ammunition is designed to penetrate armor more efficiently than standard armor-piercing ammunition.
The Saint Petersburg Declaration of 1868 or in full Declaration Renouncing the Use, in Time of War, of Explosive Projectiles Under 400 Grammes Weight is an international treaty agreed in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, November 29 / December 11, 1868.
Sectional density is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross-sectional area with respect to a given axis.
A semiwadcutter or SWC is a type of all-purpose bullet commonly used in revolvers.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
A shooting range or firing range or archery range or pistol range or rifle range or shooting gallery or shooting ground is a specialized facility designed for archery or firearms practice.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
Founded in 1947 in California, Sierra Bullets is an American manufacturer of bullets intended for firearms.
A silencer, suppressor, sound suppressor, or sound moderator is a device that reduces the sound intensity and muzzle flash when a firearm or air gun is discharged.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
A smart bullet is a bullet that is able to do something other than simply follow its given trajectory, such as turning, changing speed or sending data.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
A soft-point bullet (SP), also known as a soft-nosed bullet, is a jacketed expanding bullet with a soft metal core enclosed by a stronger metal jacket left open at the forward tip.
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
The spitzer bullet, also commonly referred to as a spire point bullet, is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the late 19th and early 20th century, driven by military desire for aerodynamic bullet designs that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stopping power is the ability of a firearm or other weapon to cause enough ballistic trauma to a target (human or animal) to immediately incapacitate (and thus stop) the target.
The Strasbourg Agreement of 27 August 1675 is the first international agreement banning the use of chemical weapons.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Subsonic ammunition is ammunition designed to operate at speeds below the speed of sound, which at standard conditions is.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.
Table of selected pistol/submachine gun and rifle/machine gun cartridges by common name.
François Tamisier (22 January 1809, Lons-le-Saunier, Jura – 20 May 1880, Paris) was a French artillery captain of the 19th century.
Teflon-coated bullets, sometimes colloquially, but incorrectly known as "cop killer bullets", are bullets that have been covered with a coating of polytetrafluoroethylene.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Terminal ballistics (also known as wound ballistics), a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed by the United States Congress in 1976 and administered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, that regulates the introduction of new or already existing chemicals.
Tracer ammunition (tracers) are bullets or cannon caliber projectiles that are built with a small pyrotechnic charge in their base.
Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The very-low-drag bullet (VLD) is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the 1980s–1990s, driven by shooters' desire for bullets that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.
A wadcutter is a special-purpose flat-fronted bullet specifically designed for shooting paper targets, usually at close range and at subsonic velocities typically under approximately 900 ft/s (274 m/s).
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
A wax bullet is a bullet made of wax, often paraffin wax or some mixture of waxes and other substances that produce the desired consistency.
William Ellis Metford (4 October 1824 – 14 October 1899) was a British engineer best known for designing the Metford rifling used in the.303 calibre Lee–Metford and Martini–Metford service rifles in the late 19th century.
William Greener (1806–1869) was an English inventor and gunmaker.
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut.
Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.
The.22 Long Rifle (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) cartridge is a long-established variety of.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today.
The.223 Remington (.223 Rem) is a rifle cartridge.
The.303 British (designated as the 303 British by the C.I.P. and SAAMI) or 7.7×56mmR, is a calibre (with the bore diameter measured between the lands as is common practice in Europe) rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford rifle.
The.45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol), or.45 Auto (11.43×23mm) is a handgun cartridge designed by John Browning in 1905, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic pistol.
The.45 GAP (often called the.45 "GAP") pistol cartridge was designed by Ernest Durham, an engineer with CCI/Speer, at the request of firearms manufacturer Glock to provide a cartridge that would equal the power of the.45 ACP, have a stronger case head to reduce the possibility of case neck blowouts, and shorter to fit in a more compact handgun.
The.50 Browning Machine Gun (.50 BMG, 12.7×99mm NATO and designated as the 50 Browning by the C.I.P.) is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s.
The 9×19mm Parabellum is a firearms cartridge that was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) (German Weapons and Munitions Factory) for their Luger semi-automatic pistol.