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Index Bupropion

Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. [1]

168 relations: Active metabolite, Alcohol (drug), Allosteric modulator, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-3 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, Aminoketone, Anorexia nervosa, Antidepressant, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Atomoxetine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical antidepressant, Benzodiazepine, Bethesda, Maryland, Biological half-life, Biological target, Bipolar disorder, Boxed warning, British Approved Name, Bulimia nervosa, Bupropion/naltrexone, Canada, Carbamazepine, Carbapenem, Cathinone, Chemical classification, Chloroquine, Cholinergic, Clomipramine, Clopidogrel, Clotrimazole, Cochrane Library, Combination drug, ConsumerLab.com, Corticosteroid, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Delusion, Dextromethorphan, Dextrorphan, ..., Diazepam, Dissociation constant, Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Drug withdrawal, Duloxetine, Enzyme induction and inhibition, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Escitalopram, Feces, First pass effect, Fluoxetine, Food and Drug Administration, Generic drug, GlaxoSmithKline, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Health care in Australia, Health care in New Zealand, Health care in the United Kingdom, Heart arrhythmia, Histamine H1 receptor, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroxybupropion, Hypericum perforatum, Hypertension, Hypertensive crisis, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, IC50, Inflammatory bowel disease, Insufflation (medicine), Interferon, International nonproprietary name, Intravenous therapy, Isozyme, Ketone halogenation, Kidney, Kidney disease, Ligand (biochemistry), Lindane, Liver, Major depressive disorder, Medication, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Medscape, Mefloquine, Metabolite, Mirtazapine, Modified-release dosage, Molar concentration, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, Mood stabilizer, MSNBC, Naltrexone, Nariman Mehta, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Neuropathic pain, Nicotine, Nicotine replacement therapy, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nicotinic antagonist, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine releasing agent, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine transporter, Norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Nucleophilic substitution, Obesity, Oral administration, Orlistat, Orphenadrine, Over-the-counter drug, Paranoia, Paroxetine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Potency (pharmacology), Prednisone, Prefrontal cortex, Press release, Propiophenone, Psychosis, Quinolone antibiotic, Radafaxine, Receptor antagonist, Rifampicin, Ritonavir, Sanofi, Seasonal affective disorder, Seizure threshold, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Sertraline, Sexual dysfunction, Sibutramine, Smoking cessation, Somnolence, Squirrel monkey, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substituted cathinone, Substituted phenethylamine, Suicidal ideation, Tert-Butylamine, Theophylline, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United States, United States Adopted Name, Varenicline, Venlafaxine, Weight loss, World Health Organization, Yellow Card Scheme, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (118 more) »

Active metabolite

An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.

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Alcohol (drug)

Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).

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Allosteric modulator

In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.

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Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alpha-3 beta-2 nicotinic receptor

The alpha-3 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of α3 and β2 subunits.

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Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor

The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor,Pharmacology, (Rang, Dale, Ritter & Moore,, 5th ed., Churchill Livingstone 2003) p. 138.

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Alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor

The alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α4β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in learning, consisting of α4 and β2 subunits.

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Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor

The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits.

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Aminoketones are compounds containing both a ketone group and an amine.

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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics)

In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.

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Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Atypical antidepressant

An atypical antidepressant is a type of antidepressant medication which acts in an atypical manner relative to most other antidepressants.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Bethesda, Maryland

Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House (1820, rebuilt 1849), which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Biological target

A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Boxed warning

In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.

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British Approved Name

A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP).

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Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.

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Bupropion/naltrexone is a combination drug used for weight loss in those that are either obese or overweight with some weight-related illnesses.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.

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Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.

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Chemical classification

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.

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Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).

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Clopidogrel, sold as the brandname Plavix among others, is an antiplatelet medication that is used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk.

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Clotrimazole, sold under the brand name Canesten among others, is an antifungal medication.

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Cochrane Library

The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.

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Combination drug

A combination drug is a fixed-dose combination (FDC) that includes two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) combined in a single dosage form, which is manufactured and distributed in fixed doses.

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ConsumerLab.com, LLC. is a privately held American company registered in White Plains, NY.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.

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Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).

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Dextrorphan (DXO) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Dissociation constant

In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine transporter

The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.

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Drug withdrawal

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

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Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.

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Enzyme induction and inhibition

Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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First pass effect

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

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Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Generic drug

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.

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GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.

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Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.

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Health care in Australia

Health care in Australia is delivered as a mixed system: universal health care (public) and private providers (insurance).

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Health care in New Zealand

The health care system of New Zealand has undergone significant changes throughout the past several decades.

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Health care in the United Kingdom

Health care in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each having their own systems of publicly funded healthcare, funded by and accountable to separate governments and parliaments, together with smaller private sector and voluntary provision.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Histamine H1 receptor

The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydroxybupropion (code name BW 306U), or 6-hydroxybupropion, is the major active metabolite of the antidepressant and smoking cessation drug bupropion.

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Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertensive crisis

Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.

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Hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.

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The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Insufflation (medicine)

Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.

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Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.

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Ketone halogenation

In organic chemistry ketone halogenation is a special type of halogenation.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.

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Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.

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Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.

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Modified-release dosage

Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).

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Molar concentration

Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.

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Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).

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Monoamine releasing agent

A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.

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Mood stabilizer

A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.

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MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.

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Nariman Mehta

Nariman Bomanshaw Mehta (April 8, 1920 – August 22, 2014) was an Indian-born American organic chemist and pharmacologist who designed, synthesized, and patented the organic compound Bupropion, marketed under the name Wellbutrin as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.

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Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Nicotine replacement therapy

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Nicotinic antagonist

A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Norepinephrine releasing agent

A norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA), also known as an adrenergic releasing agent, is a catecholaminergic type of drug which induces the release of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) from the pre-synaptic neuron into the synapse.

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Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).

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Norepinephrine transporter

The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.

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Norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent

A norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent (NDRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of norepinephrine (and epinephrine) and dopamine in the body and/or brain.

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Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor

A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.

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Nucleophilic substitution

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Oral administration

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Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity.

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Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.

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Over-the-counter drug

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

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Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

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Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.

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Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Potency (pharmacology)

In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.

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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Press release

A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy.

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Propiophenone (shorthand: benzoylethane or BzEt) is an aryl ketone.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Quinolone antibiotic

A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.

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Radafaxine is drug candidate designated GW-353,162 by GlaxoSmithKline, investigated for treatment of restless leg syndrome and as an NDRI antidepressant.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.

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Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.

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Seasonal affective disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year, most commonly in the winter.

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Seizure threshold

The term seizure threshold is used to describe the balance between excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain which affect how susceptible a person is to seizures.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.

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Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.

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Smoking cessation

Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

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Squirrel monkey

Squirrel monkeys are New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. They are the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae. The name of the genus is of Tupi origin (sai-mirim or gai-mbirin Simpson, George Gaylord. 1941. "Vernacular Names of South American Mammals." In Journal of Mammalogy 22(1): 1-17. and was also used as an English name by early researchers. Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central and South America in the canopy layer. Most species have parapatric or allopatric ranges in the Amazon, while S. oerstedii is found disjunctly in Costa Rica and Panama. The common squirrel monkey is captured for the pet trade and for medical research but it is not threatened. Two squirrel monkey species are threatened: the Central American squirrel monkey and the black squirrel monkey are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN.

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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Substituted cathinone

Substituted cathinones, which include some stimulants and entactogens, are derivatives of cathinone.

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Substituted phenethylamine

Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

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Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.

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tert-Butylamine is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3)3CNH2.

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Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.

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Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Adopted Name

United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.

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Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.

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Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Yellow Card Scheme

The Yellow Card Scheme is the UK system for collecting information on suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to medicines.

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11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in key metabolic tissues including liver, adipose tissue, and the central nervous system.

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5-HT3 receptor

The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bupropion

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