229 relations: Acadians, Acid, Africa, Agni, Almond butter, American Dairy Science Association, Anaxandrides, Andrew Dalby, Annatto, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Apple butter, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea, Asia, Australia, Baby Bottom Butter, Bacteria, Baking, Barbarian, Barley, Batter (cooking), Béarnaise sauce, Beef, Belgium, Beurre blanc, Beurre d'Ardenne, Beurre d'Isigny, Beurre fondue, Beurre monté, Beurre noir, Beurre noisette, Beurre Rose, Bhutan, Bog, Bog butter, Brine, Brittany, Butter grading, Butter lamb, Butter tea, Butterfat, Buttermilk, Butyric acid, By-product, Cake, Carotene, Casein, Catholic Church, Cattle, ..., Centrifuge, Charles Scribner's Sons, Cheese, Churning (butter), Clarified butter, Cocoa butter, Condiment, Continental Europe, Cookie, Cooking, Cream, Creaming (food), Crystal, Dairy product, Dairy salt, Deep-fried butter, Dessert, Developing country, Diacetyl, Domestic yak, Domestication, Dough, Egg as food, Elgin, Illinois, Emulsion, Energy conservation, Ester, Europe, European Union, Fat, Fatty acid, Fermentation in food processing, Flavor, Food coloring, Food science, France, French butter dish, French cuisine, Fruit butter, Frying, Galen, Garlic butter, Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, Georges d'Amboise, Germanic languages, Germany, Ghee, Glycerol, Goat, Greek language, Gustaf de Laval, Hard sauce, Herb, Himalayas, Hindu, Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, Hollandaise sauce, Homogenization (chemistry), Hunza Valley, Hydrogenation, Hyena butter, Ice, India, JBS USA, Krishna, Lactic acid, Lactococcus, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Lard, Latin, Latinisation of names, Leavening agent, Lemon, Lent, Leuconostoc, Linear B, Liquor, List of dairy products, List of spreads, Luxembourg, Mammal, Maple butter, Margarine, Mayonnaise, Mediterranean climate, Melting point, Microorganism, Microscopic scale, Middle Ages, Middle class, Milk, Milk allergy, Morocco, Mycenaean Greek, Napoleon III, National Geographic Society, National Museum of Ireland – Archaeology, Natural History (Pliny), Near East, Nepal, New York City, New Zealand, Nitrogen, Normandy, Nut (fruit), Nut butter, Oregon State University, Otto Frederick Hunziker, Ounce, Parchment, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Pasteurization, Pastry, Pathogen, Peanut butter, Peasant, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Phospholipid, Pie, Pliny the Elder, Preservative, Protein, Purée, Rancidification, Redox, Refrigeration, Refrigerator, Rendering (animal products), Rigveda, Rock butter, Room temperature, Root (linguistics), Rouen Cathedral, Russia, Salt, Saturated fat, Sauce, Sautéing, Scandinavia, Scotch hands, Separator (milk), Shea butter, Sheep, Shelf life, Shortbread, Shortening, Smen, Smoke point, Soured milk, Spain, Spice, Spread (food), Staple food, Strabo, Sudan (region), Suet, Sugar, Sweden, Tallow, Tea, Teaspoon, Thracians, Tibet, Tremella mesenterica, Triglyceride, Tsampa, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Vegetable oil, Vinegar, Vitamin A, Water buffalo, Whey, Wine, Yak butter, Yellow. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agni (अग्नि, Pali: Aggi, Malay: Api) is an Indian word meaning fire, and connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism.
Almond butter is a food paste made from almonds.
The American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of dairy science.
Anaxandrides (Greek: Ἀναξανδρίδης), was an Athenian Middle Comic poet.
Andrew Dalby, (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts.
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Apple butter is a highly concentrated form of apple sauce produced by long, slow cooking of apples with cider or water to a point where the sugar in the apples caramelizes, turning the apple butter a deep brown.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Baby Bottom Butter is a balm sold by English supermarket chain Waitrose, used upon babies' bottoms to soothe them and prevent nappy rash.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Batter is thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan.
Béarnaise sauce is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks and white wine vinegar and flavored with herbs.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beurre blanc—literally translated from French as "white butter"—is a hot emulsified butter sauce made with a reduction of vinegar and/or white wine (normally Muscadet) and grey shallots into which cold, whole butter is blended off the heat to prevent separation.
Beurre d'Ardenne is a type of cow's milk Butter made in the Ardennes of Belgium.
Beurre d'Isigny is a type of cow's milk butter made in the Veys Bay area and the valleys of the rivers running into it, comprising several French communes surrounding Isigny-sur-Mer and straddling the Manche and Calvados departments of northern France.
Beurre fondue is a food prepared by melting butter in water.
Beurre monté refers to melted butter that remains emulsified, even at temperatures higher than that at which butter usually breaks down.
Beurre noir (black butter) is melted butter that is cooked over low heat until the milk solids turn a very dark brown.
Beurre noisette (literally: hazelnut butter, loosely: brown butter) is a type of warm sauce used in French cuisine.
Beurre Rose is a cultured milk butter produced in Luxembourg under the Marque nationale of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and has PDO classification in Europe, which it received in 2000.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
"Bog butter" refers to an ancient waxy substance found buried in peat bogs, particularly in Ireland and Great Britain.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Butter grading involves the grading, inspection, assessment and sorting of butter to quantify its quality, freshness, and conformity to legal requirements.
The butter lamb, also known as a buttered lamb, is a traditional butter sculpture accompanying the Easter meal for many Russian, Slovenian and Polish Catholics.
Butter tea, also known as po cha ("Tibetan tea"), cha süma ("churned tea"), Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India (particularly in Ladakh, Sikkim) and, most famously, Tibet.
Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong.
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Churning is the process of shaking up cream or whole milk to make butter, usually using a butter churn.
Clarified butter is milk fat rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat.
Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
Creaming is used to refer to several different culinary processes.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Dairy salt is a salt product used in the preparation of butter and cheese products that serves to add flavor and act as a food preservative.
Deep-fried butter is a snack food made of butter coated with a batter or breading and then deep-fried.
Dessert is a confectionery course that concludes a main meal.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Elgin is a city in Cook and Kane counties in the northern part of the U.S. state of Illinois.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A French butter dish is a container used to maintain the freshness and spreadable consistency of butter without refrigeration.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
A fruit butter is a sweet spread made of fruit cooked to a paste, then lightly sweetened.
Frying is the cooking of food in oil or another fat.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Garlic butter, also known as beurre à la bourguignonne, is a compound butter used as a flavouring for Escargots à la bourguignonne.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Georges d'Amboise (1460 – May 25, 1510) was a French Roman Catholic cardinal and minister of state.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Karl Gustaf Patrik de Laval (9 May 1845 – 2 February 1913) was a Swedish engineer and inventor who made important contributions to the design of steam turbines and dairy machinery.
Hard sauce is a sweet, rich dessert sauce made by creaming or beating butter and sugar with rum (rum butter), brandy (brandy butter), whiskey, sherry (sherry butter), vanilla or other flavorings.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès (Draguignan 24 October 1817 – Paris 31 May 1880) was a French chemist and the inventor of margarine.
Hollandaise sauce, formerly also called Dutch sauce, is an emulsion of egg yolk, melted butter, water and lemon juice (or a white wine or vinegar reduction).
Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout.
Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi, and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hyena butter is a secretion from the anal gland of hyenas used to mark territory and to identify individuals by odor.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
JBS USA Holdings, Inc. is an American food processing company and a wholly owned subsidiary of JBS S.A. (B3:JBSS3), a Brazilian company that is the world's largest processor of fresh beef and pork, with more than US$49 billion in annual sales as of 2017.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that were formerly included in the genus Streptococcus Group N1.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Leuconostoc is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the family of Leuconostocaceae.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
This is a list of dairy products.
This is a list of spreads.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Maple butter, also known as maple cream or maple spread, is a confection that is made from maple syrup, by heating the syrup to approximately 10 °C (18 °F) above the boiling point of water, cooling it to around 52 °C (125 °F), and stirring until it reaches a smooth consistency.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Milk allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Museum of Ireland – Archaeology (Ard-Mhúsaem na hÉireann - Seandálaíocht) is a branch of the National Museum of Ireland located on Kildare Street in Dublin, Ireland, and dealing with Irish and other antiquities.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
A nut butter is a spreadable foodstuff made by grinding nuts into a paste.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
Otto Frederick Hunziker (25 December 1873 – 16 November 1959) was a pioneer in the American and international dairy industry, as both an educator and a technical innovator.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parmigiano-Reggiano is an Italian hard, granular cheese.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry roasted peanuts.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A purée (or mash) is cooked food, usually vegetables, fruits or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid.
Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, usable materials.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rock butter (also known as stone butter) is a soft mineral substance found oozing from alum slates.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Rouen Cathedral (primatiale Notre-Dame de l'Assomption de Rouen) is a Roman Catholic church in Rouen, Normandy, France.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods.
Sautéing (in reference to tossing while cooking) is a method of cooking food that uses a small amount of oil or fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotch hands (also known as butter beaters, butter hands, butter workers or butter pats) are wooden spatulas used when making butter.
A separator is a centrifugal device that separates milk into cream and skimmed milk.
Shea butter is a fat extracted from the nut of the African shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa).
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.
Shortbread is a Scottish biscuit traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts flour.
Shortening is any fat that is a solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry and other food products.
Smen (from سمن or سمنة also called sman, semn, semneh, or sminn) is salted fermented butter, an important cooking ingredient widely used in Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian cuisine and most common in other North African and Middle Eastern cuisines.
The smoke point also known as burning point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, it begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible.
Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
A spread is a food that is spread, generally with a knife, onto foods such as bread and crackers.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
Suet is the raw, hard fat of beef or mutton found around the loins and kidneys.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A teaspoon is an item of cutlery, a measuring instrument, of approximately 5ml, or a unit of measurement of volume (usually abbreviated tsp.).
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tremella mesenterica (common names include yellow brain, golden jelly fungus, yellow trembler, and witches' butter) is a common jelly fungus in the Tremellaceae family of the Agaricomycotina.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tsampa or Tsamba (साम्पा) is a Tibetan and Himalayan Nepalese staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Yak butter/ "Dri Butter" འབྲི་མར། is butter made from the milk of the domesticated female yak known as Dri འབྲི། (Bos grunniens).
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.