236 relations: Abdomen, Aerodynamics, Afrotropical realm, Agathymus, Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Ant, Ant colony, Antenna (biology), Anthocharis cardamines, Apolysis, Aposematism, Archaeolepis, Aztecs, Bacillus thuringiensis, Batesian mimicry, Beauveria bassiana, Bee, Boambee, New South Wales, Braconidae, Brassica, Butterfly Alphabet, Calpodes, Camouflage, Carl Michael Bellman, Caterpillar, Caterpillar (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Censer, Chitin, CITES, Clade, Colias, Coremata, Courtship, Crypsis, Cuticle, Dave Goulson, Dazzled and Deceived, Deimatic behaviour, Devon, Diapause, Diurnal cycle, Doleschallia bisaltide, Ecdysis, Ecdysone, Egg, Encyclopédie, Entomopathogenic fungus, ..., Eocene, Epidermis, Epithelium, Erebia, Eric Carle, Euchloe, External morphology of Lepidoptera, Eyespot (mimicry), Fjäriln vingad syns på Haga, Flavones, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Flower constancy, Fly, Frederick William Frohawk, Fredmans sånger, Fur Formation, Geometer moth, Giacomo Puccini, Gonad, Gonepteryx rhamni, Great spangled fritillary, Grizzled skipper, Hedylidae, Heliconius, Hemolymph, Hill-topping (biology), Holocene, Honeydew (secretion), Hookah, Hummingbird hawk-moth, Hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry, Iberian Peninsula, Imago, Insect, Insect migration, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Instar, Iridescence, Jaguar, John Luther Long, John Tenniel, Jurassic, Kjell Bloch Sandved, Kyoto, Lafcadio Hearn, Large blue, Larva, Lepidoptera, Lewis Carroll, Lift (force), Light-emitting diode, Liphyra brassolis, List of butterflies of Australia, List of butterflies of Great Britain, List of butterflies of India, List of butterflies of Menorca, List of butterflies of North America, List of butterflies of Taiwan, List of butterflies of Tasmania, List of butterflies of Trinidad and Tobago, List of butterflies of Victoria, List of U.S. state butterflies, Lycaenidae, Macrolepidoptera, Madama Butterfly, Mandible, Manipur, Mating plug, Maya civilization, Müllerian mimicry, Melanin, Mesoamerica, Metamorphosis, Miletinae, Milkweed butterfly, Mimicry, Mircea Eliade, MoClay, Monarch butterfly, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Monophyly, Monsoon, Moth, Mud-puddling, Mutualism (biology), Myrmecophily, Myrmica, Naga people, Nanotechnology, Natural history, Nearctic realm, Nectar, Neotropical realm, Neurohormone, New South Wales, Norwegians, Nuptial gift, Nymphalidae, Nymphalis antiopa, Oceania, Ocybadistes knightorum, Oeneis melissa, Old Dutch, Old English, Old High German, Omen, Opera, Order (biology), Osmeterium, Oxford English Dictionary, Pachliopta aristolochiae, Pachliopta hector, Palearctic realm, Paleocene, Papilio cresphontes, Papilio machaon, Papilio polytes, Papilionoidea, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Parasitoid, Parasitoid wasp, Parnassius, Parthenogenesis, Pheromone, Phylogenetic tree, Pieridae, Pieris brassicae, Pieris rapae, Plant defense against herbivory, Pollen, Pollination, Polymorphism (biology), Polyphenism, Predation, Proboscis, Prodryas, Proleg, Protein, Prothoracicotropic hormone, Protozoa, Pupa, Queen Alexandra's birdwing, Reincarnation, Riodinidae, Scale insect, Sclerotin, Sensillum, Seta, Sex-determination system, Sexual dimorphism, Simple eye in invertebrates, Skipper (butterfly), Sodium, Spalgis epius, Spermatophore, Spiracle, Stridulation, Structural coloration, Substrate (biology), Swallowtail butterfly, Sweden, Symbiosis, Taira no Masakado, Taxonomic rank, Taylor & Francis, Temperate climate, Teotihuacan, The Very Hungry Caterpillar, Thorax (insect anatomy), Torkel Weis-Fogh, Transgender, Tropics, Turbulence, Uric acid, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa cardui, Viola (plant), Voltinism, Vortex, Wasp, Wind tunnel, Wing coupling, Zapotec peoples, ZW sex-determination system. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
The Afrotropical realm is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms.
Agathymus is a genus of butterflies in the skipper family, Hesperiidae.
Alice is a fictional character and protagonist of Lewis Carroll's children's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871).
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
An ant colony is the basic unit around which ants organize their lifecycle.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
Anthocharis cardamines, the orange tip, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae, which contains 1100 species of butterfly.
Apolysis (ἀπόλυσις "discharge, lit. absolution") is the separation of the cuticle from the epidermis in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa).
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
Archaeolepis mane is the earliest known Lepidopteran fossil.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Boambee is a suburb in the city of Coffs Harbour on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia.
The Braconidae are a family of parasitoid wasps.
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
The Butterfly Alphabet is a photographic artwork by the Norwegian naturalist Kjell Bloch Sandved.
Calpodes is a genus of skipper butterflies in the family Hesperiidae.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Carl Michael Bellman (4 February 1740 – 11 February 1795) was a Swedish songwriter, composer, musician, poet and entertainer.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
The Caterpillar (also known as the Hookah-Smoking Caterpillar) is a fictional character appearing in Lewis Carroll's book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
A censer, incense burner or perfume burner (these may be hyphenated) is a vessel made for burning incense or perfume in some solid form.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Colias is a genus of butterflies in the family Pieridae.
Coremata is a monotypic moth genus of the family Crambidae described by Hans Georg Amsel in 1956.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
Dave Goulson (born 1965) FRSE FRES University of Sussex, 2014.
Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage is a 2009 book on camouflage and mimicry, in nature and military usage, by the science writer and journalist Peter Forbes.
Deimatic behaviour, threat display, or startle display in animals means any pattern of behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, thus giving the prey animal an opportunity to escape.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
A diurnal cycle is any pattern that recurs every 24 hours as a result of one full rotation of the Earth around its own axis.
Doleschallia bisaltide, the autumn leaf, is a nymphalid butterfly found in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australasia.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erebia is a Holarctic genus of brush-footed butterflies, family Nymphalidae.
Eric Carle (born June 25, 1929) is an American designer, illustrator, and writer of children's books.
Euchloe is a genus of pierid butterflies from the orangetip tribe (Anthocharini). They are Holarctic in distribution, with most species in Europe, Central Asia, and North America. Like other Anthocharini, the American species are usually called marbles; the Old World species are known as dappled whites.
The external morphology of Lepidoptera is the physiological structure of the bodies of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, also known as butterflies and moths.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
Fjäril'n vingad syns på Haga (The butterfly wingèd is seen in Haga) is one of the most popular of Carl Michael Bellman's collection of songs called Fredmans sånger, published in 1791, where it is No.
The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is a national monument located in Teller County, Colorado.
Flower constancy or pollinator constancy is defined as the tendency of individual pollinators to exclusively visit certain flower species or morphs within a species, bypassing other available flower species that could potentially be more rewarding (i.e. contain more nectar).
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
Frederick William Frohawk (16 July 1861 – 10 December 1946) was an English zoological artist and lepidopterist.
Fredmans sånger (in English, Fredman's Songs or Songs of Fredman) is a collection of 65 poems and songs published in 1791 by the Swedish poet Carl Michael Bellman.
The Fur Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (Lower Eocene Epoch, c. 56.0-54.5 Ma) age which crops out in the Limfjord region of Denmark from Silstrup via Mors and Fur to Ertebølle, and can be seen in many cliffs and quarries in the area.
The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonepteryx rhamni (known as the common brimstone) is a butterfly of the family Pieridae.
The great spangled fritillary (Speyeria cybele) is a North American butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.
The grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) is a common butterfly from the family Hesperiidae that is widespread throughout Europe.
Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the order Lepidoptera, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea.
Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterflies commonly known as the longwings or heliconians.
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.
Hill-topping (more often spelt hilltopping) is a mate-location behaviour seen in many insects including butterflies, dragonflies, bumblebees, wasps, beetles and flies.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
The hummingbird hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum) is a species of moth.
Hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry is the scientific study of biological, geological, and chemical processes in the environment using the distribution and relative abundance of hydrogen isotopes.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.
Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
John Luther Long (January 1, 1861 – October 31, 1927) was an American lawyer and writer best known for his short story "Madame Butterfly", which was based on the recollections of his sister, Jennie Correll, who had been to Japan with her husband—a Methodist missionary.
Sir John Tenniel (28 February 1820 – 25 February 1914)Johnson, Lewis (2003).
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kjell Bloch Sandved (October 20, 1922 – December 20, 2015) was a Norwegian born publisher, author, lecturer and nature photographer, most known for his Butterfly Alphabet which contains pictures of Butterfly Wings resembling all the 26 letters in the latin alphabet and the arabic numerals 0 to 9.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (Πατρίκιος Λευκάδιος Χερν; 27 June 1850 – 26 September 1904), known also by the Japanese name, was a writer, known best for his books about Japan, especially his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things.
The large blue (Phengaris arion) is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Liphyra brassolis, the moth butterfly, is a butterfly found in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia that belongs to the lycaenid family.
Australia has more than 400 species of butterfly, the majority of which are continental species, and more than a dozen endemic species from remote islands administered by various Australian territorial governments.
This is a list of butterflies of Great Britain, including extinct, naturalised species and those of dubious origin.
India has extremely diverse terrain, climate and vegetation, which comprises extremes of heat cold, desert and jungle, of low-lying plains and the highest mountains, of dryness and dampness, islands and continental areas, widely varying flora, and sharply marked seasons.
Menorca is a small island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain, with a population of approximately 88,000.
This list contains links to lists with the common and scientific names of butterflies of North America north of Mexico.
At least 377 species of butterfly have been recorded in Taiwan, with some reports putting the number at over 400.
Tasmania is located south of the mainland of Australia, separated from the state of Victoria by the 240 km wide Bass Strait.
List of the butterfly species of Trinidad and Tobago, an islands nation located in the Caribbean region off the northeast coast of South America.
Victoria is a south-eastern Australian state.
This is a list of official U.S. state butterflies.
Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 6,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies.
Macrolepidoptera is a group within the insect order Lepidoptera.
Madama Butterfly (Madam Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
A mating plug in a female Richardson's ground squirrel (''Spermophilus richardsonii'') A mating plug, also known as a copulation plug, sperm plug, vaginal plug, sement or sphragis (Latin, from Greek σφραγίδα 'sfragida' a seal), is gelatinous secretion used in the mating of some species.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more unprofitable (often, distasteful) species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's honest warning signals, to their mutual benefit, since predators can learn to avoid all of them with fewer experiences.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Miletinae is a subfamily of the family Lycaenidae of butterflies, commonly called harvesters and woolly legs, and virtually unique among butterflies in having predatory larvae.
Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
The Moclay (Moclay.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
The Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (Reserva de Biosfera de la Mariposa Monarca) is a World Heritage Site containing most of the over-wintering sites of the eastern population of the monarch butterfly.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
Mud-puddling, or simply puddling, is a behaviour most conspicuous in butterflies, but occurs in other animals as well, mainly insects; they seek out certain moist substances such as rotting plant matter, mud and carrion and they suck up the fluid.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Myrmecophily (literally "ant-love") is the term applied to positive interspecies associations between ants and a variety of other organisms such as plants, other arthropods, and fungi.
Myrmica is a genus of ants within the subfamily Myrmicinae.
The Naga people are an ethnic group conglomerating of several tribes native to the North Eastern part of India and north-western Myanmar (Burma).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Nuptial gifts are food items or inedible tokens that are transferred to females by males during courtship or copulation.
The Nymphalidae are the largest family of butterflies with more than 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea.
Nymphalis antiopa, known as the mourning cloak in North America and the Camberwell beauty in Britain, is a large butterfly native to Eurasia and North America.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Ocybadistes knightorum is a butterfly of the Hesperiidae family.
In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The osmeterium is a defensive organ found in all papilionid larvae, in all stages.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pachliopta aristolochiae, the common rose, is a swallowtail butterfly belonging to the genus Pachliopta, the roses, or red-bodied swallowtails.
Pachliopta hector, the crimson rose, is a large swallowtail butterfly belonging to the genus Pachliopta (roses) of the red-bodied swallowtails.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.
The giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes) is the largest butterfly in North America.
Papilio machaon, the Old World swallowtail, is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae.
Papilio polytes, the common Mormon, is a common species of swallowtail butterfly widely distributed across Asia.
The superfamily Papilionoidea (from the genus Papilio, meaning "butterfly") contains all the butterflies except for the moth-like Hedyloidea.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.
Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita.
Parnassius is a genus of northern circumpolar and montane (alpine and Himalayan) butterflies usually known as Apollos or snow Apollos.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies with about 76 genera containing about 1,100 species, mostly from tropical Africa and tropical Asia with some varieties in the more northern regions of North America.
Pieris brassicae, the large white, also called cabbage butterfly, cabbage white, cabbage moth (erroneously), or in India the large cabbage white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae.
Pieris rapae, the small white, is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.
Prodryas persephone is an extinct butterfly, known from a single specimen from the Chadronian-aged Florissant Shale Lagerstatte of Late Eocene Colorado.
A proleg is a small, fleshy, stub structure found on the ventral surface of the abdomen of most larval forms of insects of the order Lepidoptera, though they can also be found on other larval insects such as sawflies and a few types of flies.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.
Ornithoptera alexandrae, the Queen Alexandra's birdwing, is the largest butterfly in the world, with females reaching wingspans slightly in excess of 25 cm (9.8 inches).
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Riodinidae is the family of metalmark butterflies.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
A sensillum (pl.
In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
Skippers are a family, Hesperiidae, of the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies).
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Spalgis epius, the apefly, is a small butterfly found in Asia that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family, found in Indomalayan realm.
A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts.
Structural coloration is the production of colour by microscopically structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, and include over 550 species.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
was a samurai in the Heian period of Japan, who led one of the largest insurgent forces in the period against the central government of Kyoto.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
The Very Hungry Caterpillar is a children's picture book designed, illustrated, and written by Eric Carle, first published by the World Publishing Company in 1969, later published by Penguin Putnam.
The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.
Torkel Weis-Fogh (25 March 1922 – 13 November 1975) was a Danish zoologist and Professor at the University of Cambridge and the University of Copenhagen.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Vanessa atalanta, the red admiral or previously, the red admirable, is a well-characterized, medium-sized butterfly with black wings, orange bands, and white spots.
Vanessa cardui is a well-known colorful butterfly, known as the painted lady, or in North America as the cosmopolitan.
Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.
Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
Some four-winged insect orders, such as the Lepidoptera, have developed a wide variety of morphological wing coupling mechanisms in the imago which render these taxa as "functionally dipterous" (effectively two-winged) for efficient insect flight.
The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
The ZW sex-determination system is a chromosomal system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including Komodo dragons.