67 relations: Acid, Albania, Ayran, Žinčica, Baking, Butter, Carbon dioxide, Casein, Caucasus, Chaas, Chicken as food, Churning (butter), Clabber (food), Cream, Curdling, Doogh, Fermentation, Fermented milk products, Filmjölk, Food industry, Ghol, Homogenization (chemistry), Ice cream, India, Inoculation, Iran, Kefir, Kenya, Lactic acid, Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactose, Lassi, Leavening agent, Leben (milk product), Leuconostoc, List of dairy products, Marination, Mattha, Middle East, Milk, Mor Kuzhambu, North Africa, Pancake, Paneer, Pasteurization, PH, Pomazánkové máslo, Pork, ..., Powdered milk, Precipitation (chemistry), Punjab, Rajasthan, Ranch dressing, Scandinavia, Slovakia, Soda bread, Sodium bicarbonate, Soured milk, Southern United States, Tamil Nadu, Turkey, United States, University of Cincinnati, Viscosity, Whey. Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Ayran (from ayran, ayran, دوغ "doogh", dew) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Žinčica (in Slovak) or Žinčice (in Czech), Żentyca (in Polish) is a drink made of sheep milk whey similar to kefir consumed mostly in Slovakia.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chhaachh (gu:છાશ)(hi:छाछ) is a dahi (yogurt)-based drink popular across Indian subcontinent.
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
Churning is the process of shaking up cream or whole milk to make butter, usually using a butter churn.
Clabber is a type of soured milk.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
In cookery, curdling is the breaking of an emulsion or colloid into large parts of different composition through the physico-chemical processes of flocculation, creaming, and coalescence.
Doogh, Ayran or Tan (Dhallë; دوغ, dugh; ајран ayran; Arabic: شنينة šinīna or عيران ayran; ayran; թան tan; شلومبې; Kurdish: ماستاو) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
Filmjölk, also known as fil, is a traditional fermented milk product from Sweden, and a common dairy product within the Nordic countries.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Ghol is a village in the Palghar district of Maharashtra, India.
Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.
Lactococcus lactis is a Gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the production of buttermilk and cheese, but has also become famous as the first genetically modified organism to be used alive for the treatment of human disease.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lassi is a popular traditional dahi (yogurt)-based drink that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
The term leben, variously laban, lben (لبن) is used across the Arab World (Middle East and North Africa), to refer to a food or beverage of fermented milk.
Leuconostoc is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the family of Leuconostocaceae.
This is a list of dairy products.
Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking.
Mattha is a beverage made with dahi (yogurt) or buttermilk mixed with spices and sugar.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Buttermilk Kuzhambu or mor Kuzhambu is commonly prepared in South India.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.
Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in India.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pomazánkové máslo (literally: "spread butter") is a traditional Czech and Slovak dairy product.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Ranch dressing is a type of salad dressing made of some combination of buttermilk, salt, garlic, onion, mustard, herbs (commonly chives, parsley, and dill), and spices (commonly black pepper, paprika, and ground mustard seed), mixed into a sauce based on mayonnaise, or another oil emulsion.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Soda bread is a variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as "baking soda") is used as a leavening agent instead of the traditional yeast.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.