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Buyid dynasty

Index Buyid dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin. [1]

111 relations: 'Adud al-Dawla, Abbasid Caliphate, Abu Ali Fana-Khusrau, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, Abu Kalijar, Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun, Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah, Afghanistan, Al-Malik al-Aziz, Al-Malik al-Rahim, Ali, Ali ibn Kama, Amir al-umara, Arabic, Arabic name, Asfar ibn Kurduya, Baghdad, Baha' al-Dawla, Bahram V, Baloch people, Basra, Behbahan, Christian, Daylam, Daylami language, Daylamites, Diminutive, Diya' al-Dawla, Donald Hill, Edward Granville Browne, Egypt, Emir, Fakhr al-Dawla, Fana-Khusrau, Farm (revenue leasing), Fars Province, Fasanjas family, Ghaznavids, Gilan Province, Gorgan, Hereditary monarchy, Heredity, Imad al-Dawla, In kind, Iqta', Iran, Iranian Intermezzo, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Isfahan, ..., Islam, Izz al-Dawla, Jalal al-Dawla, Jibal, Judaism, Karaj, Kerman Province, Khuzestan Province, Kurds, Kuwait, Lingua franca, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Shia Islamic dynasties, Mahmud of Ghazni, Majd al-Dawla, Makan ibn Kaki, Malik, Mardavij, Marwanids, Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar, Middle East, Middle Persian, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, Mu'izz al-Dawla, Muʿtazila, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Musharrif al-Dawla, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nestorianism, Oman, Pakistan, Persian language, Qawam al-Dawla, Questia Online Library, Rey, Iran, Rukn al-Dawla, Sahib ibn Abbad, Sama' al-Dawla, Samsam al-Dawla, Sasanian Empire, Seljuk Empire, Shah, Shams al-Dawla, Sharaf al-Dawla, Shia Islam, Shiraz, Sultan al-Dawla, Sunni Islam, Syria, Taj al-Dawla, Tughril, Turkey, Turkish people, Twelver, United Arab Emirates, Upper Mesopotamia, Vizier, Zaidiyyah, Ziyar ibn Shahrakuya, Ziyarid dynasty, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (61 more) »

'Adud al-Dawla

Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw (فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abu Ali Fana-Khusrau

Abu Ali Fana-Khusrau (Persian: ابو علی فنا-خسرو), was the son of the Buyid ruler Abu Kalijar.

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Abu Ishaq Ibrahim

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, also known by his honorific title of Umdat al-Dawla ("Mainstay of the Empire"), was a Buyid prince, who was the youngest son of the Buyid ruler Mu'izz al-Dawla.

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Abu Kalijar

Abu Kalijar Marzuban (died October 1048) was the Buyid amir of Fars (1024–1048), Kerman (1028–1048) and Iraq (1044–1048).

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Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun (ابو منصور فولاد ستون, died 1062) was the last Buyid amir of Fars, ruling more or less continuously from 1048 until his death.

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Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah

Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah (ابو سعد خسرو شاه), was the Buyid amir of Fars (1049 and 1051-1054).

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Al-Malik al-Aziz

Abu Mansur Khusrau Firuz (ابو منصور خسرو فیروز), better known by his laqab of Al-Malik al-Aziz (Arabic: الملك العزيز, "the strong king"), was a Buyid prince who served as the governor of Wasit.

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Al-Malik al-Rahim

Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz (ابونصر خسرو فیروز, died 1058 or 1059), better known by his laqab of Al-Malik al-Rahim (الملک الرحیم, "the merciful king") was the last Buyid amir of Iraq (October 1048 – 1055).

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Ali

Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Ali ibn Kama

Ali ibn Kama, the uncle of the Buyid ruler Rukn al-Dawla and the latter's other brothers Mu'izz al-Dawla and Imad al-Dawla, was a Buyid military officer who became prominent among the Buyids of Jibal, and was greatly honored among his Daylamite kinsmen.

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Amir al-umara

The office of amir al-umara (أمير الأمراء, amīr al-umarāʾ), variously rendered in English as emir of emirs, chief emir,Zetterstéen (1960), p. 446 and commander of commanders,Kennedy (2004), p. 195 was a senior military title in the 10th-century Abbasid Caliphate, whose holders in the decade after 936 came to supersede the civilian bureaucracy under the vizier and become effective regents, relegating the caliphs to a purely ceremonial role.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic name

Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.

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Asfar ibn Kurduya

Asfar ibn Kurduya (also spelled Kurdawayh, Kardawayh and Kurdawaih), was a Daylamite officer who served the Buyid dynasty.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Baha' al-Dawla

Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh (died December 22, 1012), better known by his laqab of Baha' al-Dawla (meaning "Splendour of the State") was the Buyid amir of Iraq (988–1012), along with Fars and Kerman (998–1012).

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Bahram V

Bahram V (𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭 Wahrām, New Persian: بهرام پنجم Bahrām), also known as Bahram Gor (بهرام گور, "onager ") was the fifteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, ruling from 420 to 438.

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Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Behbahan

Behbahan (بهبهان, also Romanized as Behbahān and Behbehān) is a city and capital of Behbahan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Daylam

Daylam, also known in the plural form Daylaman (and variants such as Dailam, Deylam, and Deilam), was the name of a mountainous region of inland Gilan, Iran.

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Daylami language

The Deilami language, also known as Daylamite, Daylami, Dailamite, or Deylami (دیلمی, from the name of the Daylam region), is an extinct language that was one of the northwestern branch of the Iranian languages.

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Daylamites

The Daylamites or Dailamites (Middle Persian: Daylamīgān; دیلمیان Deylamiyān) were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.

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Diminutive

A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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Diya' al-Dawla

Abu Tahir Firuzshah (ابو طاهر فیروز شاه), better known by his laqab of Diya' al-Dawla, was the Buyid ruler of Basra during the 980s.

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Donald Hill

Donald Routledge Hill (August 6, 1922 – May 30, 1994)D.

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Edward Granville Browne

Edward Granville Browne, FBA (7 February 1862 – 5 January 1926) was a British orientalist.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Emir

An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Fakhr al-Dawla

Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn al-Hasan (ابوالحسن علی بن حسن), better known by his laqab of Fakhr al-Dawla ('فخر الدولة, "Pride of the Dynasty") (died October or November 997) was the Buyid amir of Jibal (976–980, 984–997), Hamadan (984–997) and Gurgan and Tabaristan (984–997).

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Fana-Khusrau

Fana-Khusrau was a son of the Buyid amir Majd al-Dawla.

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Farm (revenue leasing)

Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Fasanjas family

The Fasanjas family (also spelled Fasanjus), was an Iranian noble-family which served the Buyid dynasty.

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Ghaznavids

The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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Gilan Province

Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Gorgan

Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.

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Hereditary monarchy

A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.

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Heredity

Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Imad al-Dawla

Ali ibn Buya (علی بن بویه), known by his laqab (honorific epithet) Imad al-Dawla (c. 891/2 – December 949), was the founder of the Buyid dynasty in Iran (in Shiraz, 934–949).

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In kind

In economics and finance, in kind refers to goods, services, and transactions not involving money or not measured in monetary terms.

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Iqta'

Iqta‘ (اقطاع) was an Islamic practice of tax farming that became common in Muslim Asia during the Buyid dynasty.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Intermezzo

The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Isfahan

Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Izz al-Dawla

Bakhtiyar (Persian: بختیار, died 978), better known by his laqab of ʿIzz al-Dawla (Arabic: عز الدولة،, "Glory of the Dynasty"), was the Buyid amir of Iraq (967–978).

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Jalal al-Dawla

Abu Tahir Firuz Khusrau (ابوطاهر فیروزخسرو), better known by his laqab of Jalal al-Dawla (993 or 994 – March 1044), was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1027–1044).

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Jibal

Jibāl (جبال) was the name given by the Arabs to a region and province located in western Iran, under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Karaj

Karaj (کرج) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran.

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Kerman Province

Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Khuzestan Province

Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of monarchs of Persia

This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

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List of Shia Islamic dynasties

The following is a list of Shia Islamic dynasties.

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Mahmud of Ghazni

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.

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Majd al-Dawla

Abu Taleb Rostam ('ابو طالب رستم), known as Majd al-Dawla, was the Buyid emir of Rayy, a city in Iran (997–1029).

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Makan ibn Kaki

Abu Mansur Makan ibn Kaki (died 25 December 940) was a Daylamite military leader active in northern Iran (esp. Tabaristan and western Khurasan) in the early 10th century.

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Malik

Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.

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Mardavij

Mardavij (مرداویج, meaning "man assailant"), was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935.

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Marwanids

The Marwanids (990–1085) were a Kurdish Muslim dynasty in the Diyar Bakr region of Upper Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq/southeastern Turkey) and Armenia, centered on the city of Amid (Diyarbakır).

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Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar

Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar was a Buyid prince, and the son of the Buyid ruler of Iraq, 'Izz al-Dawla Bakhtiyar.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Mu'ayyad al-Dawla

Abu Mansur Buya (ابو منصور بویه; died 983), better known his honorific title of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla (مویدالدوله; "Helper of the Empire") was the Buyid amir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983).

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Mu'izz al-Dawla

Ahmad ibn Buya (Persian: احمد بن بویه, died April 8, 967), after 945 better known by his laqab of Mu'izz al-Dawla (المعز الدولة البويهي, "Fortifier of the Dynasty"), was the first of the Buyid emirs of Iraq, ruling from 945 until his death.

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Muʿtazila

Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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Muhammad al-Mahdi

Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.

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Musharrif al-Dawla

Abu 'Ali (ابو علی), better known by his laqab of Musharrif al-Dawla (1003 – May 1025), was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1021–1025).

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Nestorianism

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Qawam al-Dawla

Abu'l-Fawaris, better known by his regnal name Qawam al-Dawla (April 1000 – October/November 1028), was the Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012–1028).

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Rey, Iran

Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.

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Rukn al-Dawla

Hasan (died September 976), better known by his laqab as Rukn al-Dawla (Persian: رکن‌الدوله دیلمی), was the first Buyid amir of northern and central Iran (c. 935-976).

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Sahib ibn Abbad

Abu’l-Qāsim Ismāʿīl ibn ʿAbbād ibn al-ʿAbbās (ابوالقاسم اسماعیل بن عباد بن عباس; died 30 March 995), better known as Sahib ibn Abbad (صاحب بن عباد), also known as al-Sahib (ل صاحب), was a Persian scholar and statesman, who served as the grand vizier of the Buyid rulers of Ray from 976 to 995.

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Sama' al-Dawla

Sama' al-Dawla was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan (1021-1023 or 1024).

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Samsam al-Dawla

Abu Kalijar Marzuban, also known as Samsam al-Dawla (c. 963 – December 998) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (983–987), as well as Fars and Kerman (988 or 989 – 998).

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Shah

Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).

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Shams al-Dawla

Abu Taher (died 1021) was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan from 997 to 1021.

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Sharaf al-Dawla

Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris (c. 960-September 7, 988 or September 6, 989) was the Buyid amir of Kerman and Fars (983-988/9), as well as Iraq (987-988/9).

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shiraz

Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Sultan al-Dawla

Abu Shuja (ابو شجاع; 993 – December 1024), better known by his laqab of Sultan al-Dawla (Persian: سلطان الدوله, "Power of the Dynasty"), was the Buyid amir of Fars (1012–1024) and Iraq (1012–1021).

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Taj al-Dawla

Abu'l-Husain Ahmad (ابوالحسین احمد), better known by his laqab of Taj al-Dawla (Arabic: تاج الدولة،, "Crown of the Dynasty"), was the Buyid ruler of Khuzestan during the 980s.

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Tughril

Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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Upper Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.

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Vizier

A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.

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Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.

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Ziyar ibn Shahrakuya

Ziyar ibn Shahrakuya (کوی کشت و ابنشهر; also spelled Shahrakawayh), was a high-ranking Gilaki military officer who served the Buyids.

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Ziyarid dynasty

The Ziyarid dynasty (زیاریان) was an Iranian dynasty of Gilaki origin that ruled Tabaristan from 930 to 1090.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Bowide, Buwaihid, Buwayhid, Buwayhid Dynasty, Buwayhid dynasty, Buwayhids, Buyahid, Buyid, Buyid Dynasty, Buyid Empire, Buyid Persia, Buyid Persian Empire, Buyid confederation, Buyid empire, Buyids, Buyyid, Buyyids, Deylamid dynasty.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buyid_dynasty

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