187 relations: Admiralty, Akolouthos, Alexios I Komnenos, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Angel, Anna Komnene, Anthypatos, Aristocracy, Armenia, Asekretis, Autokrator, Barbarian, Basil Lekapenos, Basileopator, Basileus, Béla III of Hungary, Born in the purple, Bulgarian language, Bulgars, Bureaucracy, Byzantine army, Byzantine battle tactics, Byzantine dress, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Byzantine navy, Byzantine Senate, Byzantinism, Caesar (Byzantine title), Catalan Company, Catepanate of Italy, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Centurion, Chamberlain (office), Chancellor, Chartoularios, Chiliarch, Constantine the Great, Constantine VII, Count of the Stable, Crusades, Cubicularius, Despot (court title), Despotate of the Morea, Diocletian, Diplomacy, Dishypatos, Divine right of kings, Doge of Venice, ..., Domestic of the Schools, Domestikos, Dromon, Droungarios, Dux, Early Muslim conquests, Emperor, Epi tes trapezes, Ethnarch, Eunuch, Exarch, Fall of Constantinople, Foederati, Franks, George II of Georgia, George Kodinos, Grand Domestic, Greek language, Groom (profession), Heraclius, Hetaireia, Hypatos, Imperator, John I Tzimiskes, Justinian I, Justinian II, Kaloyan and Desislava, Kanikleios, Katepano, Kephale (Byzantine Empire), King's College London, Kingdom of Iberia, Kletorologion, Komnenos, Konostaulos, Kouropalates, Kyrios, Landed nobility, Late antiquity, Late Roman army, Latin, Leo III the Isaurian, Leo VI the Wise, List of Augustae, List of Byzantine emperors, Logothete, Logothetes ton oikeiakon, Logothetes tou dromou, Logothetes tou genikou, Logothetes tou stratiotikou, Louis XIV of France, Magister militum, Magister officiorum, Mail, Mandator, Manglabites, Manuel I Komnenos, Megas doux, Megas logothetes, Merarches, Mercenary, Mesazon, Metropolis, Middle Ages, Monarch, Monarchy, Monk, Mystras, Narses, Navarch, Nikephoros II Phokas, Nipsistiarios, Nobilissimus, Ostiarios, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Palace of Blachernae, Palaiologos, Papias (Byzantine office), Parakoimomenos, Patrician (ancient Rome), Persian Empire, Pinkernes, Portmanteau, Praefectus urbi, Praepositus sacri cubiculi, Praetor, Praetorian prefect, Primicerius, Primogeniture, Proconsul, Proedros, Protasekretis, Prothonotary, Protospatharios, Protostrator, Protovestiarios, Quaestor sacri palatii, Republic, Rex (title), Roger de Flor, Roman consul, Roman Empire, Romanos I Lekapenos, Sakellarios, Scholae Palatinae, Sebastokrator, Sebastos, Serbia, Silentiarius, Slavic languages, Spatha, Spatharios, Spatharokandidatos, Spatharokoubikoularios, Stable Master, Stefan the First-Crowned, Stratelates, Stratopedarches, Stylianos Zaoutzes, Tagma (military), Taktikon Uspensky, Taxiarch, Tervel of Bulgaria, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodosius I, Topoteretes, Tribune, Tsar, Turma, Varangians, Vestarches, Vestes, Vestiarion, Vestitor, Viceroy, Widow, Zoste patrikia. Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Akolouthos (ἀκόλουθος, "follower, attendant") was a Byzantine office with varying functions over time.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
Anthypatos (ἀνθύπατος) is the translation in Greek of the Latin proconsul.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The term asēkrētis (ἀσηκρῆτις, invariable form) designated a senior class of secretaries in the Byzantine imperial court in the 6th–12th centuries.
Autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, autokrátor, αὐτοκράτορες, autokrátores, Ancient Greek pronunciation, Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Basil Lekapenos (Βασίλειος Λεκαπηνός; ca. 925 – ca. 985), also called Basil the Parakoimomenos or Basil the Nothos (Βασίλειος ο Νόθος, "Basil the Bastard"), was an illegitimate child of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos who served as the parakoimomenos and chief minister of the Byzantine Empire for most of the period 947–985, under emperors Constantine VII (his brother-in-law), Nikephoros II Phokas, John I Tzimiskes, and Basil II (his half-sister's grandson).
Basileopatōr (βασιλεοπάτωρ, literally "father of the basileus ") was one of the highest secular titles of the Byzantine Empire.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.
Traditionally, born in the purple was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy.
The Byzantine army evolved from that of the late Roman Empire.
Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire, but was essentially conservative.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Empire or Byzantium is a term conventionally used by historians to describe the Greek ethnic and speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered on its capital of Constantinople.
The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Palaiologoi dynasty in a period spanning from 1261 to 1453 AD, from the restoration of Byzantine rule to Constantinople by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos following its recapture from the Latin Empire, founded after the Fourth Crusade (1204), up to the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire.
The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate (Σύγκλητος, Synklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed, the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century.
Byzantinism, or Byzantism, is the political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors, in particular, the Christian Balkan states (Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia) and Orthodox countries in Eastern Europe (Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus and most importantly, Russia).
Caesar or kaisar (καῖσαρ) was a senior court title in the Byzantine Empire.
The Catalan Company or the Great Catalan Company (Catalan: Gran Companyia Catalana, Latin: Exercitus francorum, Societatis exercitus catalanorum, Societatis cathalanorum, Magna Societas Catalanorum) was a company of mercenaries led by Roger de Flor in the early 14th century and hired by the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos to combat the increasing power of the Turks.
The Catepanate (or Catapanate) of Italy (κατεπανίκιον Ἰταλίας Katepaníkion Italías) was a province of the Byzantine Empire, comprising mainland Italy south of a line drawn from Monte Gargano to the Gulf of Salerno.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
A centurion (centurio; κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
A chamberlain (Medieval Latin: cambellanus or cambrerius, with charge of treasury camerarius) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
The chartoularios or chartularius (χαρτουλάριος), Anglicized as chartulary, was a late Roman and Byzantine administrative official, entrusted with administrative and fiscal duties, either as a subaltern official of a department or province or at the head of various independent bureaus.
Chiliarch (from χιλίαρχος, chiliarchos, sometimes χιλιάρχης, chiliarches or χειλίαρχος, cheiliarchos; meaning "commander of a thousand" and occasionally rendered "thousandman" in English) is a military rank dating back to Antiquity.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
The Count of the Stable (comes stabuli; κόμης τοῦ σταύλου/στάβλου, komēs tou staulou/stablou) was a late Roman and Byzantine office responsible for the horses and pack animals intended for use by the army and the imperial court.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cubicularius, Hellenized as koubikoularios (κουβικουλάριος), was a title used for the eunuch chamberlains of the imperial palace in the later Roman Empire and in the Byzantine Empire.
Despot or despotes (from δεσπότης, despótēs, "lord", "master") was a senior Byzantine court title that was bestowed on the sons or sons-in-law of reigning emperors, and initially denoted the heir-apparent.
The Despotate of the Morea (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Dishypatos, Latinized as dishypatus (δισύπατος, "twice hypatos"), was a Byzantine honorary dignity (διὰ βραβείου ἀξία, dia brabeiou axia) in the 9th–11th centuries, intended for "bearded men" (i.e. non-eunuchs).
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).
The office of the Domestic of the Schools (δομέστικος τῶν σχολῶν, domestikos tōn scholōn) was a senior military post of the Byzantine Empire, extant from the 8th century until at least the early 14th century.
Domestikos (δομέστικος, from the Latin domesticus, "of the household"), in English sometimes Domestic, was a civil, ecclesiastic and military office in the late Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire.
A dromon (from Greek δρόμων, dromōn, "runner") was a type of galley and the most important warship of the Byzantine navy from the 5th to 12th centuries AD, when they were succeeded by Italian-style galleys.
A droungarios, also spelled drungarios (δρουγγάριος, drungarius) and sometimes anglicized as Drungary, was a military rank of the late Roman and Byzantine empires, signifying the commander of a formation known as droungos.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
The epi tēs trapezēs (ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης, "the one in charge of the table") was a Byzantine court post, responsible for the imperial banquets.
Ethnarch, pronounced, the anglicized form of ethnarches (ἐθνάρχης), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
George II (გიორგი II, Giorgi II) (1054 – 1112), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1072 to 1089.
George Kodinos or Codinus (Γεώργιος Κωδινός), also Pseudo-Kodinos, kouropalates in the Byzantine court, is the reputed 14th-century author of three extant works in late Byzantine literature.
The title of Grand Domestic (μέγας δομέστικος, mégas doméstikos) was given in the 11th–15th centuries to the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army, directly below the Byzantine Emperor.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A groom or stable boy is a person who is responsible for some or all aspects of the management of horses and/or the care of the stables themselves.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The Hetaireia or Hetaeria (ἑταιρεία) was a term for a corps of bodyguards during the Byzantine Empire.
Hypatos (ὕπατος; plural: ὕπατοι, hypatoi) and the variant apo hypatōn (ἀπὸ ὑπάτων, "former hypatos", literally: "from among the consuls") was a Byzantine court dignity, originally the Greek translation of Latin consul (the literal meaning of hypatos is "the supreme one," which reflects the office, but not the etymology of the Roman consul).
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Justinian II (Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II; Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711.
Kaloyan (Калоян; Old Bulgarian: КАЛѠѢНЪ, Kalōjěnŭ) and Desislava (Десислава; Old Bulgarian: ДЕСИСЛАВА, Desislava) were 13th-century Bulgarian nobles, sebastocrators of Sredets (Sofia) and the surrounding region during the Asen dynasty of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The kanikleios (κανίκλειος), more formally chartoularios tou kanikleiou or epi tou kanikleiou (ἐπὶ τοῦ κανικλείου) was one of the most senior offices in the Byzantine imperial chancery.
The katepánō (κατεπάνω, lit. " placed at the top", or " the topmost") was a senior Byzantine military rank and office.
In the late Byzantine Empire, the term kephale (κεφαλή, kephalē, "head") was used to denote local and provincial governors.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Klētorologion of Philotheos (Κλητορολόγιον), is the longest and most important of the Byzantine lists of offices and court precedence (Taktika).
Komnenos (Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461).
Konostaulos or konostablos ("constable", in Greek variously κονόσταυλος, κονοσταῦλος or κονόσταβλος), later corrupted to kontostaulos/kontostablos (κοντόσταυλος), was a late Byzantine title, adopted from the Normans.
Kouropalatēs, Latinized as curopalates or curopalata (κουροπαλάτης, from cura palatii " charge of the palace").
Kyrios or kurios (translit) is a Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".
Landed nobility or landed aristocracy is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
In modern scholarship, the "late" period of the Roman army begins with the accession of the Emperor Diocletian in AD 284, and ends in 476 with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, being roughly coterminous with the Dominate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
Augusta (plural Augustae; αὐγούστα) was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
Logothete (λογοθέτης, logothétēs, pl. λογοθέται, logothétai; Med. logotheta, pl. logothetae; логотет; logoteta; logofăt; логотет, logotet) was an administrative title originating in the eastern Roman Empire.
The logothetēs tōn oikeiakōn (λογοθέτης τῶν οἰκειακῶν), originally the epi tōn oikeiakōn (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν οἰκειακῶν) was a Byzantine official with varying duties.
The logothetēs tou dromou (λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου), in English usually rendered as Logothete of the Course/Drome/Dromos or Postal Logothete, was the head of the department of the Public Post (cursus publicus, δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmosios dromos, or simply ὁ δρόμος, ho dromos), and one of the most senior fiscal ministers (logothetes) of the Byzantine Empire.
The logothetēs tou genikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ γενικοῦ), often called genikos logothetēs or simply ho genikos (Greek: ὁ γενικός), and usually rendered in English as the General Logothete, was in charge of the "general financial ministry", the genikon logothesion of the middle Byzantine Empire.
The logothetēs toū stratiōtikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ στρατιωτικοῦ), rendered in English as the Logothete of the Military or Military Logothete, was a Byzantine imperial official in charge of the pay and provisioning of the Byzantine army.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
The magister officiorum (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
The mandatōr (μανδάτωρ), deriving from the Latin word for "messenger", was a subaltern official in the middle Byzantine Empire.
The Manglabites or Manglavites (μαγλαβίται, manglabitai; sing. μαγλαβίτης, manglabitēs) were a corps of bodyguards in the Byzantine Empire.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
The megas doux (μέγας δούξ; grand duke) was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy.
The megas logothetēs (μέγας λογοθέτης, "Grand Logothete") was an official who served as effective foreign minister, and frequently as the head of the civil administration (mesazōn) of the Byzantine Empire, in the period from to, after which it continued as a honorific dignity.
The merarchēs (μεράρχης), sometimes Anglicized as Merarch, was a Byzantine military rank roughly equivalent to a divisional general.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The mesazōn (μεσάζων "intermediary") was a high dignitary and official during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, who acted as the chief minister and principal aide of the Byzantine emperor.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Mystras or Mistras (Μυστρᾶς/Μιστρᾶς), also known as Myzithras (Μυζηθρᾶς) in the Chronicle of the Morea, is a fortified town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Narses (also sometimes written Nerses; Նարսես; Ναρσής; 478–573) was, with Belisarius, one of the great generals in the service of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I during the Roman reconquest that took place during Justinian's reign.
Navarch (ναύαρχος; pronounced návarchos) is a Greek word meaning "leader of the ships", which in some states became the title of an office equivalent to that of a modern admiral.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
The nipsistiarios (νιψιστιάριος) was a Byzantine court position and rank reserved for eunuchs.
Nobilissimus (Latin: "most noble"), in Byzantine Greek nōbelissimos (Greek: νωβελίσσιμος),.
Ostiarios (ὀστιάριος, from the Latin ostiarius, "doorkeeper, usher") was a Byzantine court dignity reserved for eunuch palace officials.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
The Palace of Blachernae (τὸ ἐν Βλαχέρναις Παλάτιον).
The Palaiologos (Palaiologoi; Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
The papias (παπίας) was a eunuch official in the Byzantine court, responsible for the security and maintenance of the buildings of the imperial palaces in Constantinople.
The parakoimōmenos (παρακοιμώμενος, literally "the one who sleeps beside ") was a Byzantine court position, usually reserved for eunuchs.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Pinkernēs (πιγκέρνης), sometimes also epinkernēs (ἐπιγκέρνης), was a high Byzantine court position.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
The praefectus urbanus, also called praefectus urbi or urban prefect in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople.
The praepositus sacri cubiculi ("provost of the sacred bedchamber", in πραιπόσιτος τοῦ εὐσεβεστάτου κοιτῶνος) was one of the senior palace offices in the late Roman Empire.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
The Latin term primicerius, hellenized as primikērios (πριμικήριος), was a title applied in the later Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire to the heads of administrative departments, and also used by the Church to denote the heads of various colleges.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
Proedros (πρόεδρος, "president") was a senior Byzantine court and ecclesiastic title in the 10th to mid-12th centuries.
The prōtasēkrētis (πρωτασηκρῆτις), also found as prōtoasēkrētis (πρωτοασηκρῆτις) and Latinized as protasecretis or protoasecretis, was a senior official in the Byzantine bureaucracy.
The word prothonotary is recorded in English since 1447, as "principal clerk of a court," from L.L. prothonotarius (c. 400), from Greek protonotarios "first scribe," originally the chief of the college of recorders of the court of the Byzantine Empire, from Greek πρῶτος protos "first" + Latin notarius ("notary"); the -h- appeared in Medieval Latin.
Prōtospatharios (πρωτοσπαθάριος) was one of the highest court dignities of the middle Byzantine period (8th to 12th centuries), awarded to senior generals and provincial governors, as well as to foreign princes.
Prōtostratōr (πρωτοστράτωρ) was a Byzantine court office, originating as the imperial stable master.
Protovestiarios (πρωτοβεστιάριος, "first vestiarios") was a high Byzantine court position, originally reserved for eunuchs.
The quaestor sacri palatii (κοιαίστωρ/κυαίστωρ τοῦ ἱεροῦ παλατίου, usually simply ὁ κοιαίστωρ/κυαίστωρ), in English: Quaestor of the Sacred Palace, was the senior legal authority in the late Roman Empire and early Byzantium, responsible for drafting laws.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Latin title rex has the meaning of "king, ruler" (monarch).
Roger de Flor (1267 – 30 April 1305), also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily, Italy and the Byzantine Empire.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos (Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπηνός, Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; c. 870 – June 15, 948), Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944.
A sakellarios (σακελλάριος) is an official entrusted with administrative and financial duties (cf. sakellē or sakellion, "purse, treasury").
The Scholae Palatinae (literally "Palatine Schools", in Σχολαί, Scholai) were an elite military guard unit, usually ascribed to the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great as a replacement for the equites singulares Augusti, the cavalry arm of the Praetorian Guard.
Sebastokrator (σεβαστοκράτωρ, sebastokrátor; Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: севастократор; both pronounced sevastokrator), was a senior court title in the late Byzantine Empire.
Sebastos (σεβαστός, "venerable one", plural σεβαστοί, sebastoi) was an honorific used by the ancient Greeks to render the Roman imperial title of Augustus.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Silentiarius, Hellenized to silentiarios (σιλεντιάριος) and Anglicized to silentiary, was the Latin title given to a class of courtiers in the Byzantine imperial court, responsible for order and silence (silentium) in the Great Palace of Constantinople.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The spatha was a type of straight and long sword, measuring between, in use in the territory of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th centuries AD.
The spatharii or spatharioi (singular: spatharius; σπαθάριος, literally "spatha-bearer") were a class of Late Roman imperial bodyguards in the court in Constantinople in the 5th–6th centuries, later becoming a purely honorary dignity in the Byzantine Empire.
Spatharokandidatos (σπαθαροκανδιδᾶτος), Latinized as spatharocandidatus, was a mid-ranking Byzantine court dignity used in the 7th–11th centuries.
The spatharokoubikoularios (σπαθαροκουβικουλάριος, "sword-chamberlain") was a Byzantine court dignity reserved for eunuch palace officials.
A stable master or head groom is the manager in charge of a stable.
Stefan Nemanjić (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Немањић) or Stefan the First-Crowned (Стефан Првовенчани / Stefan Prvovenčani,; around 1165 – 24 September 1228) was Grand Prince of Serbia from 1196, and the King of Serbia from 1217 until his death in 1228.
Stratēlatēs (στρατηλάτης, "driver/leader of the army") was a Greek term designating a general, which also became an honorary dignity in the Byzantine Empire.
Stratopedarchēs (στρατοπεδάρχης, "master of the camp"), sometimes Anglicized as Stratopedarch, was a Greek term used with regard to high-ranking military commanders from the 1st century BC on, becoming a proper office in the 10th-century Byzantine Empire.
Stylianos Zaoutzes (Στυλιανὸς Ζαούτζης, but Ζαουντζᾶς in Skylitzes) was a high Byzantine official of Armenian origin.
The tagma (τάγμα, pl. τάγματα) is a military unit of battalion or regiment size, especially the elite regiments formed by Byzantine emperor Constantine V and comprising the central army of the Byzantine Empire in the 8th–11th centuries.
The Taktikon Uspensky or Uspenskij is the conventional name of a mid-9th century Greek list of the civil, military and ecclesiastical offices of the Byzantine Empire and their precedence at the imperial court.
Taxiarch, the anglicized form of taxiarchos or taxiarchēs (ταξίαρχος or ταξιάρχης) is used in the Greek language to mean "brigadier".
Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Topotērētēs (τοποτηρητής) was a Byzantine technical term, meaning deputy or lieutenant (literally "place-warden").
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
A turma (Latin for "swarm, squadron", plural turmae) was a cavalry unit in the Roman army of the Republic and Empire.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vestarchēs (βεστάρχης) was a senior Byzantine honorific dignity in use from the late 10th to early 12th centuries.
Vestēs (βέστης) was a Byzantine court title used in the 10th and 11th centuries. The term is etymologically connected to the vestiarion, the imperial wardrobe, but despite earlier attempts to connect the vestai and the related title of vestarchēs, the head of the class of the vestai, with the officials of the vestiarion (cf. Bréhier), no such relation appears to have existed.. The title is first attested for the reign of Emperor John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976), when it was held by Nikephoros Phokas, son of the kouropalatēs Leo Phokas. The title remained high in the Byzantine imperial hierarchy throughout most of the 11th century, being often combined with the title of magistros and awarded to prominent generals, among others Isaac Komnenos (Byzantine emperor in 1057–1059) when he was stratopedarchēs of the East, Leo Tornikios and Nikephoros Botaneiates (Byzantine emperor in 1078–1081) during his tenure as doux of Eddessa and Antioch. The Escorial ''Taktikon'', a list of offices and court titles and their precedence compiled in the 970s, distinguishes between "bearded" (barbatoi) vestai, who also held the titles of patrikios or magistros, and the eunuch (ektomiai) vestai, who held the title of praipositos. As with other titles, the prestige of the vestēs declined towards the end of the 11th century, when it is attested as being held by lower-ranking officials. To counter this devaluation, the superior title of prōtovestēs (Greek: πρωτοβέστης, "first vestēs") appeared at the same time. Both titles, however, do not appear to have survived the reign of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118).
The vestiarion (βεστιάριον, from vestiarium, "wardrobe"), sometimes with the adjectives basilikon ("imperial") or mega ("great"),.
The vestitor, Hellenized as vestētōr (βεστήτωρ) was a lowly Byzantine palace position and rank.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.
Zōstē patrikía (ζωστὴ πατρικία) was a Byzantine court title reserved exclusively for the woman who was the chief attendant and assistant to the Empress.
Byzantine Aristocracy and Bureaucracy, Byzantine aristocracy, Byzantine aristocracy & bureaucracy, Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy, Byzantine bureaucracy, Byzantine court title, Byzantine hierarchy, Byzantine title, Byzantine titles, Krites, Vestiarios.