23 relations: Alum, C57BL/6, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CTLA-4, Cytokine, Freund's adjuvant, Gene, ICOSLG, Immune checkpoint, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, In vitro, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Ipilimumab, Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, Ligand, Protein dimer, T cell, T helper cell.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 black 6", "C57" or "black 6" (standard abbreviation: B6), is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Freund's adjuvant is a solution of antigen emulsified in mineral oil and used as an immunopotentiator (booster).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
ICOS ligand is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOSLG gene.
Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.