153 relations: Abdomen, Absorbed dose, Acute radiation syndrome, Airport security, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, American Society of Radiologic Technologists, Anaphylaxis, Anatomical plane, Ancient Greek, Appendicitis, Arm, Artery, Attenuation, Background radiation, Barium sulfate, Barium sulfate suspension, Bleeding, Bone fracture, Brain, Bronchus, Calcification, Cancer, Choosing Wisely, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Colonoscopy, Compton scattering, Computed tomography dose index, Computer vision, Contrast agent, Contrast CT, Contrast-induced nephropathy, Coronal plane, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery disease, Coronary CT angiography, Coronary CT calcium scan, CT pulmonary angiogram, CT scan, CTX (explosive-detection device), Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, DNA repair, Dosimetry, Dynamic range, Edema, Edge detection, Effective dose (radiation), Electron beam tomography, Emergency physician, ..., EMI, Equivalent dose, Fibrosis, Full-body CT scan, General Electric, Geometry processing, Godfrey Hounsfield, Gout, Gray (unit), Harvard Medical School, Headache (journal), Heart, High-resolution computed tomography, Hounsfield scale, Human error, Image-guided surgery, Incidental imaging finding, Industrial computed tomography, Infarction, Injury, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Commission on Radiological Protection, Intracranial pressure, Intravenous therapy, Iodinated contrast, Ionizing radiation, Isotropy, Kidney, Kidney failure, Lead, Leg, Lower gastrointestinal series, Lung, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammography, Maximum intensity projection, Medical imaging, Medical imaging in pregnancy, Medical Subject Headings, Medical ultrasound, Monochrome, N-localizer, National Cancer Institute, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Neoplasm, Neuroimaging, Nondestructive testing, Nuclear power, Nuclear weapon, Operation of computed tomography, Opportunity cost, Peritonitis, Phong shading, Photon, Photon energy, Photon-counting computed tomography, Pixel, Positron emission tomography, Posterior cranial fossa, Preventive healthcare, Projectional radiography, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary embolism, Radiation, Radiation-induced cancer, Radiocontrast agent, Radiodensity, Radiographer, Radiography, Radiopaedia, Radiosurgery, Radon transform, Rotation around a fixed axis, Sagittal plane, Screening (medicine), Sievert, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Society for Pediatric Radiology, Stereotactic surgery, Stroke, Three-dimensional space, Tomographic reconstruction, Tomography, Tomosynthesis, Transverse plane, Traumatic brain injury, Ubiquity Press, United Kingdom, University of Connecticut Health Center, Vascular disease, Vein, Virtopsy, Virtual colonoscopy, Volume rendering, Voxel, World Health Organization, World War II, X-ray, X-ray detector, X-ray generator, X-ray microtomography, X-ray tube, Xenon-enhanced CT scanning. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and planes which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a scientific, educational, and professional organization of Medical Physicists.
The (ACR), founded in 1923, is a professional medical society representing more than 38,000 diagnostic radiologists, radiation oncologists, interventional radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians and medical physicists.
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is a professional membership association for medical imaging technologists, radiation therapists and radiologic science students.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An anatomical plane is a hypothetical plane used to transect the human body, in order to describe the location of structures or the direction of movements.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
Barium sulfate suspension, often simply called barium, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a commonly used radiation exposure index in X-ray computed tomography (CT), first defined in 1981.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
Contrast CT is X-ray computed tomography (CT) using radiocontrast.
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a form of kidney damage in which there has been recent exposure to medical imaging contrast material without another clear cause for the acute kidney injury.
A coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography to assess the coronary arteries of the heart.
A coronary CT calcium scan is a computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart for the assessment of severity of coronary artery disease.
CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The CTX (Computer Tomography X-ray) is an explosive detection device, a family of x-ray devices developed by InVision Technologies in 1990 that uses CAT scans and sophisticated image processing software to automatically screen checked baggage for explosives.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Edge detection includes a variety of mathematical methods that aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of computed tomography (CT) in which the X-ray tube is not mechanically spun in order to rotate the source of X-ray photons.
An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients.
EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is an area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation and transmission of complex 3D models.
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of head and face pain.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a type of computed tomography (CT) with specific techniques to enhance image resolution.
The Hounsfield scale or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.
Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).
Image-guided surgery (IGS) is any surgical procedure where the surgeon uses tracked surgical instruments in conjunction with preoperative or intraoperative images in order to directly or indirectly guide the procedure.
In medical imaging, an incidental finding (commonly known as an "incidentaloma") is an unanticipated finding which is not related to the original diagnostic inquiry.
Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually X-ray computed tomography, that uses irradiation to produce three-dimensional internal and external representations of a scanned object.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent, international, non-governmental organization, with the mission to provide recommendations and guidance on radiation protection.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iodinated contrast is a form of intravenous radiocontrast (radiographic dye) containing iodine, which enhances the visibility of vascular structures and organs during radiographic procedures.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.
A lower gastrointestinal series is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
In scientific visualization, a maximum intensity projection (MIP) is a method for 3D data that projects in the visualization plane the voxels with maximum intensity that fall in the way of parallel rays traced from the viewpoint to the plane of projection.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical imaging in pregnancy may be indicated because of pregnancy complications, intercurrent diseases or routine prenatal care.
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
The N-localizer or N-bar is a device that enables guidance of stereotactic surgery or radiosurgery using tomographic images that are obtained via medical imaging technologies such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET).
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), formerly the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and before that the Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection (ACXRP), is a U.S. organization.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
X-ray computed tomography operates by using an X-ray generator that rotates around the object; X-ray detectors are positioned on the opposite side of the circle from the X-ray source.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.
Phong shading refers to an interpolation technique for surface shading in 3D computer graphics.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.
Photon-counting computed tomography (CT) is a computed tomography technique currently under research and development, both within academia and by major vendors of CT systems.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The posterior cranial fossa is part of the cranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.
Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radiopaedia is a wiki-based international collaborative radiology educational web resource containing reference articles, radiology images, and patient cases.
Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.
In mathematics, the Radon transform is the integral transform which takes a function f defined on the plane to a function Rf defined on the (two-dimensional) space of lines in the plane, whose value at a particular line is equal to the line integral of the function over that line.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
A sagittal plane or longitudinal plane is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
The Society for Pediatric Radiology is a professional association of pediatric radiologists.
Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Tomographic reconstruction is a type of multidimensional inverse problem where the challenge is to yield an estimate of a specific system from a finite number of projections.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
Tomosynthesis, also digital tomosynthesis, is a method for performing high-resolution limited-angle tomography at radiation dose levels comparable with projectional radiography.
The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Ubiquity Press is a United Kingdom-based academic publisher focusing on open access publication.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
UConn Health (formerly known as the UConn Health Center) is the branch of the University of Connecticut that oversees clinical care, advanced biomedical research, and academic education in medicine.
Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Virtopsy is a virtual alternative to a traditional autopsy, conducted with scanning and imaging technology.
Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen.
In scientific visualization and computer graphics, volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field.
A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.
X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Xenon-enhanced CT scanning is a method of computed tomography (CT scanning) used for neuroimaging in which the subject inhales xenon gas while CT images are made.
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