123 relations: Adrenergic agonist, Agomelatine, Amiodarone, Amitriptyline, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Analgesic, Angiogenesis, Antiarrhythmic agent, Anticarcinogen, Anticoagulant, Antidepressant, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Antiviral drug, Arachidonic acid, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Arteriole, Asthma, Atypical antipsychotic, Bactericide, Beta blocker, Beta-Naphthoflavone, Broad-spectrum antibiotic, Broccoli, Brussels sprout, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Carcinogen, Cauliflower, Chemotherapy, Cimetidine, Ciprofloxacin, Clearance (pharmacology), Clomipramine, Clozapine, Cumin, Cyclobenzaprine, Cytochrome P450, Depressant, Diabetes mellitus, Docosahexaenoic acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme induction and inhibition, Epoxide, Epoxide hydrolase, Epoxide hydrolase 2, Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid, Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Epoxygenase, ..., Erlotinib, Estradiol, Eugeroic, Flavanone, Fluvoxamine, Formulary (pharmacy), Gene, Grapefruit juice, Grilling, H2 antagonist, Haloperidol, Hypericum perforatum, Hypoestrogenism, Imipramine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Inflammation, Insulin, Interferon, Isoniazid, Β-lactam antibiotic, Local anesthetic, Meat, Melatonin, Methoxsalen, Methylcholanthrene, Mexiletine, Mibefradil, Modafinil, Monooxygenase, Muscle relaxant, Nafcillin, Naproxen, Naringenin, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Olanzapine, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omeprazole, Ondansetron, Paracetamol, Parasympathomimetic drug, Phenacetin, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Potency (pharmacology), Propranolol, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psoriasis, Quinolone antibiotic, Respiratory disease, Riluzole, Ropivacaine, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin receptor agonist, Stimulant, Substrate (chemistry), Tacrine, Tamoxifen, Theophylline, Tizanidine, Tobacco, Tricyclic antidepressant, Turmeric, Typical antipsychotic, Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, Verapamil, Warfarin, Xanthine, Xenobiotic, Zileuton, Zolmitriptan, 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HT3 antagonist. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An anticarcinogen (also known as a carcinopreventive agent) is a substance that counteracts the effects of a carcinogen or inhibits the development of cancer.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
beta-Naphthoflavone, also known as 5,6-benzoflavone, is a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and as such is an inducer of such detoxification enzymes as cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs).
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
The Brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Cyclobenzaprine, sold under the brand name Flexeril among others, is a muscle relaxer medication used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products.
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EPHX2 gene.
Epoxide docosapentaenoic acids (epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, EDPs, or EpDPEs) are metabolites of the 22-carbon straight-chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs or EpETEs) are a set of biologically active epoxides that various cell types make by metabolizing the omega 3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with certain cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
Epoxygenases are a set of membrane-bound, heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP P450 or just CYP) enzymes that metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids to epoxide products that have a range of biological activities.
Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
The flavanones, a type of flavonoids, are various aromatic, colorless ketones derived from flavone that often occur in plants as glycosides.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
At its most basic level, a formulary is a list of medicines.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Grapefruit juice is the juice from grapefruits.
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
The Indiana University School of Medicine is a medical school and medical research center connected to Indiana University; its principal research and medical center is on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in Indianapolis.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Methoxsalen (also called xanthotoxin, marketed under the trade names Oxsoralen, Deltasoralen, Meladinine) is a drug used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and some cutaneous lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to UVA light from lamps or sunlight.
Methylcholanthrene is a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon produced by burning organic compounds at very high temperatures.
Mexiletine (INN) (sold under the trade name Mexitil) is a non-selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker which belongs to the Class IB anti-arrhythmic group of medicines.
Mibefradil (Posicor) is a drug for the treatment of hypertension and chronic angina pectoris.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Monooxygenases are enzymes that incorporate one hydroxyl group into substrates in many metabolic pathways.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Nafcillin sodium is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
Naringenin is a bitter, colourless flavanone, a type of flavonoid.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Riluzole (marketed as Rilutek and Teglutik) is a drug used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Ropivacaine (rINN) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Tacrine is a centrally acting anticholinesterase and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic).
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Tizanidine has been found to be as effective as other antispasmodic drugs and is more tolerable than baclofen and diazepam. Tizanidine can be very strong even at the 2 mg dose and may cause hypotension, so caution is advised when it is used in patients who have a history of orthostatic hypotension, or when switching from gel cap to tablet form and vice versa. Tizanidine can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of treatment. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is US$100200.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases.
Verapamil, sold under various trade names, is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina (chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart), and supraventricular tachycardia.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used for the maintenance treatment of asthma.
Zolmitriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist of the 1B and 1D subtypes.
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, also known as 20-HETE or 20-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, is an eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid that has a wide range of effects on the vascular system including the regulation of vascular tone, blood flow to specific organs, sodium and fluid transport in the kidney, and vascular pathway remodeling.
The 5-HT3 antagonists, informally known as "setrons", are a class of drugs that act as receptor antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor, a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain.