245 relations: Acrocomia, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria brassicicola, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Andira, Annual plant, Anthimus (physician), Aphid, Apicius, Appendicitis, Arecaceae, Baby colic, Bandage, Basic research, Biennial plant, Bigos, Biological life cycle, Black rot, Bloating, Boil, Bolting (horticulture), Boron deficiency (plant disorder), Botanical name, Braising, Brassica, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassicaceae, Breast engorgement, Broccoli, Brussels sprout, Bubble and squeak, Cabbage looper, Cabbage moth, Cabbage roll, Calcium deficiency (plant disorder), Capitulare de villis, Carl Peter Thunberg, Cash, Caterpillar, Cato the Elder, Cauliflower, Celtic languages, Celts, Charlemagne, Chlorosis, Chrysippus of Cnidos, ..., Clostridium botulinum, Clubroot, Coleslaw, Collard greens, Colorectal cancer, Columella, Common name, Cotyledon, Croup, Cruciferous vegetables, Crucifix, Cultivar, Cultivar group, Cumae, De Agri Cultura, Dehiscence (botany), Delia radicum, Depression (mood), Diamondback moth, Dietary fiber, Digestion, Downy mildew, Egypt, Epicuticular wax, Escherichia coli, European cuisine, Evolution, Fermentation, First Fleet, Flatulence, Fluoride, Folate, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Foodborne illness, Fusarium, Genetically modified food, Glucoside, Glucosinolate, Gołąbki, Goitre, Gout, Guinness World Records, Hangover, Harlequin cabbage bug, Heat stroke, Herbal, Herbalism, High Middle Ages, Hoarse voice, Hyaloperonospora parasitica, Hydrogen sulfide, Illuminated manuscript, Indeterminate growth, Indole-3-carbinol, Inflorescence, Iodine deficiency, Jacques Cartier, Jean Ruel, John II of France, Kimchi, Kohlrabi, Lateral root, Latin, Laxative, Legume, Lentil, Leptosphaeria maculans, Liniment, List of cabbage dishes, Listeria monocytogenes, Low Countries, Lucullus, Mastitis, Materia medica, Mauritia, Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Micronutrient deficiency, Middle Ages, Middle English, Mildew, Morphology (biology), Mushroom poisoning, Native Americans in the United States, Natural History (Pliny), Near East, Necrosis, Nitrogen, No-till farming, Norfolk Island, Old French, Oomycete, Ovary (botany), Oxford English Dictionary, Palmer, Alaska, Papyrus Harris I, Pedanius Dioscorides, Persistent vegetative state, Pest (organism), Pesticide resistance, Petal, Petiole (botany), Phosphorus, Phosphorus deficiency, Phytochemical, Picard language, Pickling, Pieris brassicae, Pieris rapae, Pierogi, Plant breeding, Pliny the Elder, Pneumonia, Polish cuisine, Pollination, Pompeii, Potassium, Potassium deficiency (plants), Potato, Poultice, Powdery mildew, Proto-Slavic borrowings, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Raceme, Radish, Raffinose, Ramesses III, Rapeseed, Raw foodism, Red cabbage, Reference Daily Intake, Rheumatism, Rhizoctonia solani, Root-knot nematode, Roystonea oleracea, Sabellians, Salve, Sanskrit, Sauerkraut, Sautéing, Savoy cabbage, Scurvy, Seedling, Selective breeding, Self-pollination, Selim III, Sepal, Shigella, Silique, Sir Anthony Ashley, 1st Baronet, Slime mold, Small intestine, Soil pH, Sore throat, Species, Spring greens, Stamen, Staple food, Steaming, Stew, Stigma (botany), Striped flea beetle, Sulforaphane, Sulfur, Sydney Markets, Taproot, Theoderic the Great, Theophrastus, Thiocyanate, Thrips, Tobacco, Tofu, Tonne, Trade route, Traditional medicine, Transplanting, Trench foot, Triangle of U, Trisaccharide, Turnip, Ulcer, United Nations, Vacuum cooling, Vernalization, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Vitis, Wart, Waterlogging (agriculture), Wheat, Wilting, Wimborne St Giles, Xanthomonas campestris. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
Acrocomia is a genus of palms which is native to the Neotropics, ranging from Mexico in the north, through Central America and the Caribbean, and through South America south to Argentina.
Alternaria brassicae is a plant pathogen able to infect most Brassica species including important crops such as broccoli, cabbage and oil seed rape.
Alternaria brassicicola is a plant pathogen.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andira is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Anthimus (Ἄνθιμος; fl. 511–534) was a Byzantine physician at the court of the Ostrogoth king Theodoric the Great and author of De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods"), which is a valuable source for Late Latin linguistics as well as Byzantine dietetics.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Apicius is a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin; later recipes using Vulgar Latin (such as ficatum, bullire) were added to earlier recipes using Classical Latin (such as iecur, fervere).
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Baby colic, also known as infantile colic, is defined as episodes of crying for more than three hours a day, for more than three days a week, for three weeks in an otherwise healthy child.
A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.
Bigos (бігас,, or бігус), often translated into English as hunter's stew, is a Polish dish of finely chopped meat of various kinds stewed with sauerkraut and shredded fresh cabbage.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Black rot is a name used for various diseases of cultivated plants caused by fungi or bacteria, producing dark brown discoloration and decay in the leaves of fruit and vegetables.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle.
Bolting is the production of a flowering stem (or stems) on agricultural and horticultural crops before the crop is harvested, in a natural attempt to produce seeds and reproduce.
Boron deficiency is a common deficiency of the micronutrient boron in plants.
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).
Braising (from the French word braiser) is a combination-cooking method that uses both lit wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
Brassica juncea, commonly brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant.
Brassica nigra, the black mustard, is an annual plant cultivated for its black or dark brown seeds, which are commonly used as a spice.
Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohlrabi, and gai lan.
Brassica rapa is a plant consisting of various widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed which has many common names, including turnip rape, field mustard, bird rape, and keblock.
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.
Breast engorgement occurs in the mammary glands due to expansion and pressure exerted by the synthesis and storage of breast milk.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
The Brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds.
Bubble and squeak is a traditional British breakfast made from boiled potatoes and cabbage.
The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is a moth in the family Noctuidae, a family commonly referred to as owlet moths.
Note: the small white species of butterfly is commonly called a "cabbage moth" in North America. Mamestra brassicae, or the cabbage moth, is primarily known as a pest that is responsible for severe crop damage of a wide variety of plants species.
A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.
Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient level of available calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue.
The Capitulare de villis is a text composed in c. 771–800 that guided the governance of the royal estates during the later years of the reign of Charlemagne (c. 768–814).
Carl Peter Thunberg, also known as Karl Peter von Thunberg, Carl Pehr Thunberg, or Carl Per Thunberg (11 November 1743 – 8 August 1828), was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll.
Chrysippus of Cnidos (Χρύσιππος ὁ Κνίδιος, 4th century BC) was a Greek physician.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.
Clubroot is a common disease of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, radishes, turnips, stocks, wallflowers and other plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).
Coleslaw (from the Dutch term koolsla meaning 'cabbage salad'), also known as cole slaw or slaw, is a salad consisting primarily of finely-shredded raw cabbage with a salad dressing, commonly either vinaigrette or mayonnaise.
Collard greens (collards) describes certain loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, the same species as many common vegetables, including cabbage (Capitata Group) and broccoli (Botrytis Group).
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
A Group (previously cultivar-groupInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, 4th edition (1969), 5th edition (1980) and 6th edition (1995)) is a formal category in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) used for cultivated plants that share a defined characteristic.
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written by Cato the Elder, is the oldest surviving work of Latin prose.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
Delia radicum, known variously as the cabbage fly, cabbage root fly, root fly or turnip fly, is a pest of crops.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), sometimes called the cabbage moth, is a moth species belonging to the family Plutellidae and genus Plutella.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Epicuticular wax is a coating of wax covering the outer surface of the plant cuticle in land plants.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries,.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
A glucoside is a glycoside that is derived from glucose.
The glucosinolates are natural components of many pungent plants such as mustard, cabbage, and horseradish.
Gołąbki is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central and Eastern Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.
A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
The harlequin cabbage bug (Murgantia histrionica), also known as calico bug, fire bug or harlequin bug, is a black stinkbug of the family Pentatomidae, brilliantly marked with red, orange, yellow and white markings.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
A herbal is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their medicinal, tonic, culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, and the legends associated with them.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
Hyaloperonospora parasitica is an oomycete from the family Peronosporaceae.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
In biology and botany, indeterminate growth is growth that is not terminated in contrast to determinate growth that stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely formed.
Indole-3-carbinol (C9H9NO) is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin, which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collard greens and kale.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Jean Ruel (1474 – 24 September 1537), also known as Jean Ruelle or Ioannes Ruellius in its Latinised form, was a French physician and botanist noted for the 1536 publication in Paris of De Natura Stirpium, a Renaissance treatise on botany.
John II (Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death.
Kimchi (gimchi), a staple in Korean cuisine, is a traditional side dish made from salted and fermented vegetables, most commonly napa cabbage and Korean radishes, with a variety of seasonings including chili powder, scallions, garlic, ginger, and jeotgal (salted seafood).
Kohlrabi (from the German; German turnip or turnip cabbage; Brassica oleracea Gongylodes Group) is a biennial vegetable, a low, stout cultivar of wild cabbage.
Lateral roots extend horizontally from the primary root (radicle) and serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph Phoma lingam) is a fungal pathogen of the phylum Ascomycota that is the causal agent of blackleg disease on Brassica crops.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
This is a list of cabbage dishes and foods.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.
Materia medica (medical material/substance) is a Latin term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines).
Mauritia is a genus of fan palms which is native to northern South America and to the Island of Trinidad in the Caribbean.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is not enough of one or more of the micronutrients required for optimal plant or animal health.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Mildew is a form of fungus.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism or mycetismus) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage.
Norfolk Island (Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palmer is a city in and the borough seat of the Matanuska-Susitna Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.
Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection).
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
Pieris brassicae, the large white, also called cabbage butterfly, cabbage white, cabbage moth (erroneously), or in India the large cabbage white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae.
Pieris rapae, the small white, is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae.
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium deficiency, also known as potash deficiency, is a plant disorder that is most common on light, sandy soils, because potassium ions (K+) are highly soluble and will easily leach from soils without colloids.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
A poultice, also called a cataplasm, is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed or painful part of the body.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants.
Numerous lexemes that are reconstructible for the Proto-Slavic language have been identified as borrowings from the languages of various tribes that Proto-Slavic speakers came into contact with, either in prehistorical times or during their expansion when they first appeared in history in the 6th century (the Common Slavic period).
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.
Usermaatre Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
Raw foodism, also known as following a raw food diet, is the dietary practice of eating only (or mostly) food that is uncooked and unprocessed.
The red cabbage (purple-leaved varieties of Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is a kind of cabbage, also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a plant pathogenic fungus with a wide host range and worldwide distribution.
Root-knot nematodes are plant-parasitic nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne.
Roystonea oleracea, sometimes known as the Caribbean royal palm, palmiste, imperial palm or cabbage palm, is a species of palm which is native to the Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago.
Sabellians is a collective ethnonym for a group of Italic peoples or tribes inhabiting central and southern Italy at the time of the rise of Rome.
A salve is a medical ointment used to soothe the surface of the body.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
Sautéing (in reference to tossing while cooking) is a method of cooking food that uses a small amount of oil or fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat.
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda L. or Brassica oleracea Savoy Cabbage Group), is a variety of the plant species Brassica oleracea.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
A silique or siliqua (plural siliques or siliquae) is a type of fruit (seed capsule) having two fused carpels with the length being more than three times the width.
Sir Anthony Ashley, 1st Baronet, PC (1551 – 13 January 1628) was Clerk of the Privy Council, which was the most senior civil servant in the Privy Council Office.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a soil.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spring Greens are a cultivar of Brassica oleracea in the cultivar Acephala Group, similar to kale, in which the central leaves do not form a head or form only a very loose one.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Steaming is a method of cooking using steam.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
The striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata) is a small flea beetle, shiny black with a greenish tinge, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, having a wavy amber line running the length of each elytron (wing cover).
Sulforaphane (sulphoraphane in British English) is a compound within the isothiocyanate group of organosulfur compounds.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Sydney Markets are a commercial enterprise in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
For botanical organ transplant, see Grafting In agriculture and gardening, transplanting or replanting is the technique of moving a plant from one location to another.
Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.
The triangle of U is a theory about the evolution and relationships among members of the plant genus Brassica.
Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides composed of three monosaccharides with two glycosidic bonds connecting them.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Vacuum cooling is known to be the most rapid cooling technique for any porous product which has free water and works on the principle of evaporative cooling.
Vernalization (from Latin vernus, "of the spring") is the induction of a plant's flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae.
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.
Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wilting is the loss of rigidity of non-woody parts of plants.
Wimborne St Giles is a village in east Dorset, England, situated on Cranborne Chase seven miles north of Wimborne Minster and 12 miles north of Poole.
Xanthomonas campestris is bacterial species that causes a variety of plant diseases, including "black rot" in cruciferous vegetables and bacterial wilt of turfgrass.