287 relations: Acclimatization, Africa, Agave, Aizoaceae, Alberta, Algeria, Amazon basin, Americas, Ancient Greek, Andes, Ant, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, Areole, Argentina, Ariocarpus, Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus, Arizona, Astrophytum capricorne, Atacama Desert, Australia, Auxin, Axillary bud, Aztecs, Bark (botany), Basal (phylogenetics), Bat, Bee, Big Bend National Park, Biological pest control, Bipolaris cactivora, Bird, Bird migration, Blossfeldia, Bolivia, Botanical garden, Bract, Branch, Brazil, British Columbia, Browningia candelaris, C3 carbon fixation, Cactoblastis cactorum, Cactoideae, Cactus fence, Cactus virus X, California, Callus (cell biology), Canada, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, ..., Cardoon, Caribbean Sea, Carl Linnaeus, Carmine, Caryophyllales, Catholic Church, Cellular respiration, Central America, Cephalocereus, Cephalocereus senilis, Cereus (plant), Cereus repandus, Chile, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Chlorosis, CITES, Cladogram, Cleistocactus, Cleistogamy, Coastal plain, Coat of arms of Mexico, Cochineal, Conserved name, Convergent evolution, Copiapoa, Copiapoa atacamensis, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cultivar, Curt Backeberg, Cutting (plant), Cylindropuntia, Datura ferox, David Hunt (botanist), Desert Botanical Garden, Didiereaceae, Discocactus, Disocactus, Drought, Early Cretaceous, Echinocactus grusonii, Echinocactus platyacanthus, Echinocereus, Echinopsis, Echinopsis atacamensis, Echinopsis pachanoi, El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve, Enzyme, Eocene, Epiphyllum hybrid, Epiphyte, Eudicots, Eulychnia, Euphorbiaceae, Family (biology), Fasciation, Ferocactus, Ferocactus cylindraceus, Ferocactus echidne, Ferocactus latispinus, Ferocactus pilosus, Floral symmetry, Flower, Frailea, Fruit, Fungicide, Fungus gnat, Fusarium oxysporum, Galápagos Islands, Galápagos tortoise, Gastrointestinal tract, Glochid, Gondwana, Grafting, Ground tissue, Growing season, Growth medium, Gulf of Mexico, Gymnocalycium, Gynoecium, Habit (biology), Hard water, Hatiora, Hawaii, Herbalism, Herbarium, Herbivore, Houseplant, Hummingbird, Humus, Hydroponics, Hylocereeae, Hylocereus, Hylocereus undatus, Hypanthium, India, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Organization for Succulent Plant Study, Isotopic signature, Joshua Tree National Park, Late Cretaceous, Leaf, Madagascar, Maihuenia, Maihuenia poeppigii, Maihueniopsis, Malic acid, Mammillaria, Mammillaria elongata, Mammillaria rekoi, Mealybug, Mediterranean Basin, Melocactus, Meristem, Mescaline, Mexico, Mexico City, Midden, Miocene, Miquihuana, Tamaulipas, Molecular phylogenetics, Monophyly, Moonlight cactus, Myrtillocactus, Nahuatl, Native American Church, Nectar, Neoraimondia, Neowerdermannia vorwerkii, New Mexico, New World, Nopal, North America, Old World, Oligocene, Opuntia, Opuntia chlorotica, Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia microdasys, Opuntia stricta, Opuntioideae, Organ (anatomy), Ovary (botany), Pachycereus, Pachycereus pringlei, Pachycereus schottii, Paleogene, Palisade cell, Pan de Azúcar National Park, Patagonia, Pelecyphora strobiliformis, Peniocereus, Pereskia, Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, Pereskiopsis, Perlite, Peru, Pesticide resistance, Petal, Peyote, Philip Miller, Photosynthesis, Pilosocereus, Pitaya, Plant, Plant cuticle, Plant stem, Pliocene, Pollination, Pollination syndrome, Pollinator, Polyploid, Psychoactive drug, Pumice, Radiocarbon dating, Rebutia, Rebutia minuscula, Receptacle (botany), Repotting, Rhipsalideae, Rhipsalis, Rhipsalis baccifera, Rhipsalis paradoxa, Rootstock, Saguaro, Saguaro National Park, Saint Peter, Scale insect, Schlumbergera, Schlumbergera truncata, Sciaridae, Sclerocactus papyracanthus, Seed, Sepal, Seri people, Serra da Capivara National Park, Shrub, Sicily, Singapore Botanic Gardens, Slug, Snail, Sonoran Desert, South America, Species Plantarum, Sri Lanka, Stamen, Stem succulent, Stenocereus eruca, Stenocereus queretaroensis, Stenocereus thurberi, Stigma (botany), Stoma, Succulent plant, Suffix, Taproot, Taxonomy of the Cactaceae, Tenochtitlan, Tepal, Tetranychus urticae, Theophrastus, Thorns, spines, and prickles, Thrips, Transpiration, Trichome, Trunk (botany), Type (biology), Upiga, Vacuole, Wattle and daub, Weeds of National Significance, West Indies, Whitefly, Xeriscaping, Xerophyte, Zimapán, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (237 more) » « Shrink index
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
The Aizoaceae Martynov, nom.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
In botany, areoles are small light- to dark-colored bumps on cacti out of which grow clusters of spines.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ariocarpus is a genus of 8 species of succulent, subtropical plants of the Cactaceae family.
Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Astrophytum capricorne, the goat's horn cactus, is a species of flowering plant in the cactus family Cactaceae, that is native to the Coahuila regions of Northern Mexico.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
The axillary bud (or lateral bud) is an embryonic shoot located in the axil of a leaf.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
For the Texas state park see: Big Bend Ranch State Park Big Bend National Park is an American national park located in West Texas, bordering Mexico.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
Bipolaris cactivora is a plant pathogen causing cactus stem rot and pitaya fruit rot.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
Blossfeldia is a genus of cactus (family Cactaceae) containing only one species, Blossfeldia liliputiana, native to South America in northwestern Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca and Mendoza Provinces) and southern Bolivia (Santa Cruz and Potosí Departments).
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
A branch or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Browningia candelaris is a species of cactus from northern Chile and southern Peru.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, South American cactus moth or nopal moth, is native to Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil.
The Cactoideae are the largest subfamily of the cactus family, Cactaceae.
A cactus fence is a hedge or fence made of closely spaced cactus plants, sometimes with barbed wire or wood interwoven with the cacti.
Cactus virus X (CVX) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Plant callus (plural calluses or calli) is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), also called the artichoke thistle or globe artichoke, is a thistle in the sunflower family.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carmine, also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color.
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Cephalocereus is a genus of slow-growing, columnar-shaped, blue-green cacti.
Cephalocereus senilis, the old man cactus, is a species of cactus native to Guanajuato and Hidalgo in eastern Mexico.
Cereus is a genus of cacti (family Cactaceae) including around 33 species of large columnar cacti from South America.
Cereus repandus (syn. Cereus peruvianus), the Peruvian apple cactus, is a large, erect, thorny columnar cactus found in South America as well as the nearby ABC Islands of the Dutch Caribbean.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Cleistocactus is a genus of flowering plants in the cactus family Cactaceae, native to mountainous areas - to - of South America (Peru, Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina).
Cleistogamy is a type of automatic self-pollination of certain plants that can propagate by using non-opening, self-pollinating flowers.
A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast.
The current coat of arms of Mexico (Escudo Nacional de México, literally "national shield of Mexico") has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries.
The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.
A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda, abbreviated as nom. cons.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Copiapoa is a genus of flowering plants in the cactus family Cactaceaea, from the dry coastal deserts, particularly the Atacama Desert, of northern Chile.
Copiapoa atacamensis is a species of cactus from the Atacama Desert in the province of Antofagasta in northern Chile.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Curt Backeberg (2 August 1894 in Lüneburg, Germany – 14 January 1966) was a German horticulturist especially known for the collection and classification of cacti.
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation.
Cylindropuntia is a genus of cacti (family Cactaceae), containing the cholla, native to northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Datura ferox, commonly known as long spined thorn apple and fierce thornapple, as well as Angel's-trumpets, is a species of Datura.
David Richard Hunt (born 1938) is an English botanist and taxonomist.
The Desert Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located in Papago Park, at 1201 N. Galvin Parkway in Phoenix, central Arizona.
Didiereaceae is a family of flowering plants found in continental Africa and Madagascar.
Discocactus is a genus of tropical cacti.
Disocactus is a genus of epiphytic cacti in the tribe Hylocereeae found in Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
Echinocactus grusonii, popularly known as the golden barrel cactus, golden ball or mother-in-law's cushion, is a well known species of cactus, and is endemic to east-central Mexico.
Echinocactus platyacanthus, also known as the giant barrel cactus, giant viznaga, or biznaga de dulce, is a species of cactus (family Cactaceae).
Echinocereus is a genus of ribbed, usually small to medium-sized cylindrical cacti, comprising about 70 species native to the southern United States and Mexico in very sunny rocky places.
Echinopsis is a large genus of cacti native to South America, sometimes known as hedgehog cactus, sea-urchin cactus or Easter lily cactus.
Echinopsis atacamensis (cardón) is a species of cactus from Chile, Argentina and Bolivia.
Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.
El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (Reserva de la Biosfera El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar), is a biosphere reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site managed by the Federal government of Mexico, specifically by Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources, in collaboration with state government of Sonora and the Tohono O'odham.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The plants known as epiphyllum hybrids, epiphyllums, epicacti or just epis, widely grown for their flowers, are artificial hybrids of species within the group of cacti placed in the tribe Hylocereeae, particularly species of Disocactus, Pseudorhipsalis and Selenicereus.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
Eulychnia is a genus of candelabriform or arborescent cacti, comprising between 6 and 9 species depending on the authority.
The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fasciation (pronounced, from the Latin root meaning "band" or "stripe"), also known as cresting, is a relatively rare condition of abnormal growth in vascular plants in which the apical meristem (growing tip), which normally is concentrated around a single point and produces approximately cylindrical tissue, instead becomes elongated perpendicularly to the direction of growth, thus, producing flattened, ribbon-like, crested (or "cristate"), or elaborately contorted tissue.
Ferocactus is a genus of large barrel-shaped cacti, mostly with large spines and small flowers.
Ferocactus cylindraceus is a species of barrel cactus which is known by several common names, including California barrel cactus, Desert barrel cactus, and miner's compass.
Ferocactus echidne is a barrel cactus in the genus Ferocactus.
Ferocactus latispinus is a species of barrel cactus native to Mexico.
Ferocactus pilosus, also known as Mexican lime cactus (Viznaga De Lima) or Mexican fire barrel, is a species of cactus in North America.
Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower, in particular its perianth, can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Frailea is a genus of globular to short cylindrical cacti native to Brazil.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Fungus gnats are small, dark, short-lived gnats, of the families Sciaridae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae, and Mycetophilidae (order Diptera); they comprise six of the seven families placed in the superfamily Sciaroidea.
Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht as emended by Snyder and HansenSnyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1940. The species concept in Fusarium. Am. J. Bot. 27:64-67.), an ascomycete fungus, comprises all the species, varieties and forms recognized by Wollenweber and Reinking within an infrageneric grouping called section Elegans.
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
The Galápagos tortoise complex or Galápagos giant tortoise complex (Chelonoidis nigra and related species) are the largest living species of tortoise.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glochids or glochidia (singular "glochidium") are hair-like spines or short prickles, generally barbed, found on the areoles of cacti in the sub-family Opuntioideae.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together.
The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Gymnocalycium, commonly called chin cactus, is a genus of about 70 South American species of cactus.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Hatiora is a small genus of epiphytic cacti which belongs to the tribe Rhipsalideae within the subfamily Cactoideae of the Cactaceae.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
The Hylocereeae are a tribe of cacti.
Hylocereus is a genus of cacti, often referred to as night-blooming cactus (though the term is also used for many other cacti).
Hylocereus undatus, the white-fleshed pitahaya, is a species of Cactaceae and is the most cultivated species in the genus.
In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
The International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS) describes itself as a "non-governmental organization promoting the study and conservation of succulent and allied plants and encouraging collaboration among scientists and curators of significant living collections of such plants, professional or amateur." In 1984, it was decided that the Cactaceae Section of the IOS should set up a working party, now called the International Cactaceae Systematics Group (ICSG), to produce consensus classifications of cacti down to the level of genera.
An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material.
Joshua Tree National Park is located in southeastern California.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Maihuenia is a genus of cactus (family Cactaceae) and the sole genus of the subfamily Maihuenioideae, which is the smallest subfamily of the Cactaceae.
Maihuenia poepigii (Chilean: maihuén) is a succulent cactus shrub native to Chile and Argentina.
Maihueniopsis (from Greek opsis, "view", referring to its resemblance to the unrelated Maihuenia) is a genus of the cactus family (Cactaceae), containing 18 species.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
The genus Mammillaria is one of the largest in the cactus family (Cactaceae), with currently 200 known species and varieties recognized.
Mammillaria elongata (gold lace cactus, ladyfinger cactus) is a species of flowering plant in the Cactaceae family, native to central Mexico.
Mammillaria rekoi is a species of cactus from Mexico.
Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Melocactus (melon cactus), also known as the Turk's cap cactus, is a genus of cactus with about 30-40 species.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Miquihuana Municipality is a municipality located in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Selenicereus, or moonlight cacti, is an epiphytic, lithophytic, and terrestrial cactus genus found in Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America.
Myrtillocactus (from Latin, "blueberry cactus") is a genus of cacti.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
Neoraimondia is a genus of medium to large cacti from Peru.
Neowerdermannia vorwerkii, also known as achakana (Aymara and Quechua), is a species of cactus from high altitudes in Bolivia and northern Argentina.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nopal (from the Nahuatl word nohpalli for the pads of the plant) is a common name in Mexican Spanish for Opuntia cacti (commonly referred to in English as prickly pear), as well as for its pads.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
Opuntia chlorotica is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family.
Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world.
Opuntia microdasys (angel's-wings, bunny ears cactus, bunny cactus or polka-dot cactus) is a species of flowering plant in the cactus family Cactaceae, native and endemic to central and northern Mexico.
Opuntia stricta is a large sized species of cactus that is endemic in the subtropical and tropical coastal areas of the Americas and the Caribbean.
Opuntioideae is a subfamily of the cactus family, Cactaceae.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
Pachycereus is a genus of 9–12 species of large cacti native to Mexico and just into southern Arizona, United States.
Pachycereus pringlei, also known as Mexican giant cardon or elephant cactus, is a species of cactus native to northwestern Mexico in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora.
Pachycereus schottii, the senita cactus, is a species of cactus from southern Arizona and north-western Mexico, particularly Baja California and Sonora.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
Palisade cells are plant cells located in leaves, right below the epidermis and cuticle.
Pan de Azúcar National Park is a national park of Chile.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Pelecyphora strobiliformis is a species of cactus from Mexico.
Peniocereus is a genus of vining cacti, comprising about 18 species, found from the southwestern United States and Mexico.
Pereskia, as traditionally circumscribed, is a genus of 17 tropical species and varieties of cacti that do not look much like other types of cacti, having substantial leaves and thin stems.
Pereskia aculeata is a scrambling shrub in the family Cactaceae.
Pereskia grandifolia (rose cactus; syn. Cactus grandifolius Link, Rhodocactus grandifolius (Haw.) F.M.Knuth, Cactus rosa Vell.) is a cactus native to the Northeastern Brazil restingas.
Pereskiopsis (from Greek -opsis, "looking", because of its resemblance with the genus Pereskia) is a genus of cacti (family Cactaceae).
Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content, typically formed by the hydration of obsidian.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Pilosocereus (from Latin, "hairy cereus") is a genus of cactus.
A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several cactus species indigenous to the Americas.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rebutia is a genus in the family Cactaceae, native to Bolivia and Argentina.
Rebutia minuscula is a species of cactus from northern Argentina.
In botany, the receptacle or torus (an older term is thalamus, as in Thalamiflorae) is the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow.
Repotting is the action of placing an already potted plant into a larger or smaller pot.
The Rhipsalideae are a small tribe of cacti, comprising four genera (and around 60 species).
Rhipsalis is a genus of epiphytic cacti.
Rhipsalis baccifera, commonly known as the mistletoe cactus, is an epiphytic cactus which originates from Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Florida.
Rhipsalis paradoxa is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family.
A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced.
The saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is an arborescent (tree-like) cactus species in the monotypic genus Carnegiea, which can grow to be over tall.
Saguaro National Park is a United States national park in Pima County in southeastern Arizona.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
Schlumbergera is a small genus of cacti with 6-9 species found in the coastal mountains of south-eastern Brazil.
Schlumbergera truncata, the false Christmas cactus, is a species of plant in the Cactaceae family.
The Sciaridae are a family of flies, commonly known as dark-winged fungus gnats.
Sclerocactus papyracanthus is a species of cactus known by the common names paperspine fishhook cactus, grama grass cactus, paper-spined cactus, and toumeya.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora.
Serra da Capivara National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara,, locally) is a national park in the Northeastern region of Brazil.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Singapore Botanic Gardens is a 158-year-old tropical garden located at the fringe of Singapore's Orchard Road shopping district.
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
Stem succulents are fleshy succulent columnar shaped plants which conduct photosynthesis mainly through stems not leaves.
Stenocereus eruca, commonly known as creeping devil, is a member of the family Cactaceae.
Stenocereus queretaroensis is a species of cactus from Mexico, including the state of Querétaro.
Stenocereus thurberi, the organ pipe cactus or pitahaya, is a species of cactus native to Mexico and the United States.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.
In 1984, the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study set up a working party, now called the International Cactaceae Systematics Group, to produce a consensus classification of the cactus family, down to the level of genus.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower (collectively the perianth) when these parts cannot easily be divided into two kinds, sepals and petals.
Tetranychus urticae (common names include red spider mite and two-spotted spider mite) is a species of plant-feeding mite generally considered to be a pest.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists.
In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
Upiga is a monotypic moth genus described by Hahn William Capps in 1964.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
Weeds of National Significance (WoNS) is a list of the most problematic plant species in Australia as determined by the federal government.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Whiteflies are small Hemipterans that typically feed on the undersides of plant leaves.
Xeriscaping is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation.
A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
Zimapán (Otomi: Mabo̱za) is a town and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
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