119 relations: Adai people, American Civil War, Andrew Jackson, Arkansas, Arkansas River, Bayou, Binger, Oklahoma, Blood quantum laws, Bureau of Indian Affairs Police, Caddo, Caddo Gap, Arkansas, Caddo Lake, Caddo language, Caddo River, Caddoan languages, Caddoan Mississippian culture, Cahinnio, Canadian River, Christianity, Cordia boissieri, Creation myth, Cucurbita, Dawes Act, Deciduous, Dhegihan languages, East Texas, Elysian Fields, Texas, Endemic (epidemiology), English language, Epidemic, Eyeish, Flora, Fourche Maline culture, France, Fur trade, George Amos Dorsey, Ghost Dance, Gulf Coast of the United States, Hainai, Hasinai, Helianthus, Immunity (medical), Indian Removal Act, Indian Reorganization Act, Indian reservation, Indian Territory, Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Infection, Influenza, Iroquois, ..., Jeri Redcorn, John Wilson (Caddo), Kadohadacho, Kansas, Kaw people, Kentucky, Kichai people, LaRue Parker, Lenape, List of federally recognized tribes, List of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition, Louisiana, Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Maize, Malaria, Measles, Missionary, Mississippi River, Mississippian culture, Missouri, Nabedache, Nabiti, Nacogdoche, Nacogdoches, Texas, Nadaco, Nanatsoho, Nasoni, Natchitoches people, Natchitoches, Louisiana, Native American Church, Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, Nechaui, Neche people, Nicotiana rustica, Ohio River, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, Omaha people, Oral history, Osage Nation, Ouachita people, Ozarks, Pawnee people, Peyote, Piney Woods, Pinophyta, Platform mound, Plaza, Ponca, Pumpkin, Red River of the South, Republic of Texas, Smallpox, Spain, Spiro Mounds, T. C. Cannon, Texas, Tula people, War of 1812, Washita River, Wetland, Wichita people, Wild turkey, William Clark, William Henry Harrison, Woodland period, Yatasi, Yowani Choctaws. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is the name of a Native American people of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas with a Southeastern culture.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
In usage in the United States, a bayou (or, from Cajun French) is a body of water typically found in a flat, low-lying area, and can be either an extremely slow-moving stream or river (often with a poorly defined shoreline), or a marshy lake or wetland.
Binger is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are those enacted in the United States and the former colonies to define qualification by ancestry as Native American, sometimes in relation to tribal membership.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs Police, usually known as the BIA Police, is the law enforcement arm of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs which polices Indian tribes and reservations that do not have their own police force, and oversees other tribal police organizations.
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes.
Caddo Gap is an unincorporated community in Montgomery County, Arkansas, United States.
Caddo Lake (Lac Caddo) is a lake and bayou (wetland) on the border between Texas and Louisiana, in northern Harrison County and southern Marion County in Texas and western Caddo Parish in Louisiana.
Caddo is a Native American language, the traditional language of the Caddo Nation.
The Caddo River is a tributary of the Ouachita River in the U.S. state of Arkansas.
The Caddoan languages are a family of languages native to the Great Plains.
The Caddoan Mississippian culture was a prehistoric Native American culture considered by archaeologists as a variant of the Mississippian culture.
The Cahinnio were a Native American tribe that lived in Arkansas.
The Canadian River is the longest tributary of the Arkansas River in the United States.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cordia boissieri is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The Dhegihan languages are a group of Siouan languages that include Kansa–Osage, Omaha–Ponca, and Quapaw.
East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic and ecological area in the U.S. state of Texas.
Elysian Fields is a rural unincorporated community in Harrison County, Texas, United States.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
The Eyeish were a Native American tribe from present-day eastern Texas.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
The Fourche Maline culture (pronounced foosh-ma-lean) was a Woodland Period Native American culture that existed from 300 BCE to 800 CE, November 15, 2016.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
George Amos Dorsey (February 6, 1868 – March 29, 1931) was a U.S. ethnographer of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a special focus on Caddoan and Siouan tribes.
The Ghost Dance (Caddo: Nanissáanah, also called the Ghost Dance of 1890) was a new religious movement incorporated into numerous American Indian belief systems.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
Hainai (Caddo: Háynay) is the name of a Native American tribe that lived in what is now east Texas.
The Hasinai Confederacy (Caddo: Hasíinay) was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans located between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U.S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians).
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic classification for Native Americans who have traditionally inhabited the Southeastern United States and the northeastern border of Mexico, that share common cultural traits.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Jereldine "Jeri" Redcorn (born November 23, 1939) is an Oklahoman artist who single-handedly revived traditional Caddo pottery.
"John Wilson the Revealer of Peyote" (c.1845–1901) was a Caddo-Delaware-French medicine man who introduced the Peyote plant into a religion, became a major leader in the Ghost Dance,and introduced a new peyote ceremony with teachings of Christ.
The Kadohadacho (Caddo: Kadawdáachuh) are a Native American tribe within the Caddo Confederacy.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
The Kaw Nation (or Kanza, or Kansa) are a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma and parts of Kansas.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Kichai tribe (also Keechi or Kitsai) was a Native American Southern Plains tribe that lived in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
Sundra LaRue Martin Parker (1935–2011) was the former Chairperson of the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
This is a list of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition in the years 1539–1543.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Nabedache were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Nabiti are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Nacogdoche (Caddo: Nakúʔkidáawtsiʔ) are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
Nacogdoches is a small city situated in East Texas and the county seat of Nacogdoches County, Texas, United States.
The Nadaco, also commonly known as the Anadarko, are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Nanatsoho were a Native American tribe that lived at the border of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
The Nasoni are a Native American tribe from eastern Texas and southwestern Arkansas.
The Natchitoches (Caddo: Náshit'ush) are a Native American tribe from Louisiana.
Natchitoches (Les Natchitoches) is a small city and the parish seat of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, United States.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), Pub.
The Nechaui were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
The Neche were a Native American tribe from eastern Texas.
Nicotiana rustica, Aztec tobacco or wild tobacco, called ucuch in southern Mexico (specifically Campeche and Yucatán) due to its Mayan roots, mapacho in South America, and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) in Vietnam, is a rainforest plant in the Solanaceae family.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936 (also known as the Thomas-Rogers Act) is a United States federal law that extended the 1934 Wheeler-Howard or Indian Reorganization Act to include those tribes within the boundaries of the state of Oklahoma.
The Omaha are a federally recognized Midwestern Native American tribe who reside on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
The Osage Nation (Osage: Ni-u-kon-ska, "People of the Middle Waters") is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who historically dominated much of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
The Ouachita are a Native American tribe who lived in northeastern Louisiana along the Ouachita River.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A platform mound is any earthwork or mound intended to support a structure or activity.
A plaza, pedestrian plaza, or Place is an open urban public space, such as a city square.
The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced) are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan language group.
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spiro Mounds (34 LF 40) is a major Northern Caddoan Mississippian archaeological site located in present-day Eastern Oklahoma.
Tommy Wayne Cannon (September 27, 1946 – May 8, 1978) was an important Native American artist of the 20th century.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Tula were a Native American group that lived in what is now western Arkansas.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The Washita River is a river in the states of Texas and Oklahoma in the United States.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The Wichita people are a confederation of Midwestern Native Americans.
The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an upland ground bird native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes.
William Clark (August 1, 1770 – September 1, 1838) was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period.
The Yatasi (Caddo: Yáttasih) are Native American peoples from northwestern Louisiana that are part of the Natchitoches Confederacy of the Caddo Nation.
The Yowani (probably from the word for caterpillar) ('Jawanie/Yguanes/Yugani/Iguanes-Spanish') are a band of the Choctaw tribe ". The Yowani were named for their village along the Chickasawhay River in Mississippi.